Presentation on theme: "While I check your homework……."— Presentation transcript:
1While I check your homework……. Document Analysis: SOAPSTONES = Speaker, author – What do you know or what can you tell about him/her?O = Occasion –Time, place or context of the piece?A = Audience – For whom is the writing intended?P = Purpose - Why is the author writing this?S = Subject – Main idea?TONE = Feeling – What feelings or attitudes are expressed in the writing?While I check your homework…….The Rig Veda pg 98Upanishads pg 102POV: Point of ViewAccording to Kaplan (22):"Ask these questions in order to earn the core point for POV:1. Does the occupation of the author give the document more reliability? (why?)2. Does the class, religion, national background or gender of the authorinfluence what is mentioned in the document? (why?)3. Does the type of document influence the content of what is said? (why?)4. Does the timing of the document influence the message? (why?)5. Does the intended audience influence the message of a source? (why?)6. Describing the tone of the document can also count for POV.The issue can be more subtle and is best used with other descriptions of POV."
2Harappan society and its neighbors, ca. 2000 BCE Chapter 4: Early Societies in South AsiaHarappan society and its neighbors, ca BCE
3Mohenjo-DaroBCEOldest known public water tank/ bath
4Bathing platform: most homes had a bathing area and latrine Mohenjo-DaroBCE(Rebuilt 6 times)Bathing platform: most homes had abathing area and latrineLatrine: connected to elaborate public sewer systemPublic well
5Indus River Valley Societies First to domesticate cotton for cloth HarappaBCE(Rebuilt 5 times)GranaryHarappan Societies:Indus River Valley SocietiesFirst to domesticate cotton for cloth(before 5000 BCE)Domesticated animals:chickens, elephantsStandardized weightsWriting has not been decipheredNo evidence of political structureor temple structures/public worshipCities abandoned by 1700 BCECompletely abandoned by 1500 BCE(Aryan invasions, climate change?)Implications?
6The AryansBeginning 1000 BCE: Aryans “noble people”, (pastoral nomads, no writtenlanguage, chiefdoms) arrived from the NorthHarappan culture was collapsing: this contact was most likely, initially, passiveLater Aryan chiefdoms (raja) fought amongst themselves, iron tools, agricultureEventually established regional kingdomsDiscontent led to need to establish ORDERThe Vedic Age: BCEIndraThe Upanishads: Brahma
7Vedas established social order in absence of political order: The Vedas: collection of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals honoring theAryan gods (4 Vedas: Rig Veda is the oldest: BCE)orally transmitted; written down (Sanskrit) by 600 BCEThe Vedas provided the “wisdom” and “knowledge” that priests neededVedas established social order inabsence of political order:@1000 BCE-600BCEBrahmins (priests)Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats)Vashiyas (farmers, artisans, merchants)Shudras (landless peasants, serfs)After 600 BCE (end of Vedic Age):Untouchables added at bottomAryan descent: power thru male line, women?Varna? Jati?How did the Vedas and the culture that subsequently developed in South Asia,contribute to the development of a strict patriarchal society there?The Lawbook of Manu: The Practice of Sati
8Asceticism, Meditation The Upanishads: BCEA synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian beliefThe word "Upanishad" is derived from"upa" - near, "ni" - down, "sad" - to sit.Groups of pupils sat near the teacher to learn fromhim the truth by which ignorance is destroyed.The Upanishads speak of the way in which the individual self gets at theultimate reality by an inward journey, an inner ascent. This inner ascentrequires adequate preparation, "The Self is not to be attained by one withoutfortitude, not through slackness nor without distinctive marks of discipline."To see the Self one must become "calm, controlled, quiet, patiently enduring,and contented."BrahmanSamsaraKarmaMoksha“A man of good actswill become good, aman of bad acts willbecome bad.”Asceticism, MeditationYoga
9The Practice of SatiHow does Satireinforce social order?Outlawed by the British in 1829:Illegal and punishable by thecriminal courtsRecent examples persist (2006)
10LAWS OF MANU6. Considering that the highest duty of all castes, even weak husbands (must)strive to guard their wives.7. He who carefully guards his wife, preserves (the purity of) his offspring,virtuous conduct, his family, himself, and his (means of acquiring) merit.55. Women must be honored and adorned by their fathers, brothers,husbands, and brothers-in-law, who desire (their own) welfare.56. Where women are honored, there the gods are pleased; but where they arenot honored, no sacred rite yields rewards.57. Where the female relations live in grief, the family soon wholly perishes;but that family where they are not unhappy ever prospers.58. The houses on which female relations, not being duly honored, pronounce acurse, perish completely, as if destroyed by magic.59. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always honor women onholidays and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments, clothes, and food.60. In that family, where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wifewith her husband, happiness will assuredly be lasting.