Presentation on theme: "Document Analysis: SOAPSTONE S = Speaker, author – What do you know or what can you tell about him/her? O = Occasion –Time, place or context of the piece?"— Presentation transcript:
Document Analysis: SOAPSTONE S = Speaker, author – What do you know or what can you tell about him/her? O = Occasion –Time, place or context of the piece? A = Audience – For whom is the writing intended? P = Purpose - Why is the author writing this? S = Subject – Main idea? TONE = Feeling – What feelings or attitudes are expressed in the writing? POV: Point of View According to Kaplan (22): "Ask these questions in order to earn the core point for POV: 1. Does the occupation of the author give the document more reliability? (why?) 2. Does the class, religion, national background or gender of the author influence what is mentioned in the document? (why?) 3. Does the type of document influence the content of what is said? (why?) 4. Does the timing of the document influence the message? (why?) 5. Does the intended audience influence the message of a source? (why?) 6. Describing the tone of the document can also count for POV. The issue can be more subtle and is best used with other descriptions of POV." The Rig Veda pg 98 Upanishads pg 102 While I check your homework…….
Harappan society and its neighbors, ca BCE Chapter 4: Early Societies in South Asia
Mohenjo-Daro BCE Oldest known public water tank/ bath
Public well Mohenjo-Daro BCE (Rebuilt 6 times) Bathing platform: most homes had a bathing area and latrine Latrine: connected to elaborate public sewer system
Harappa BCE (Rebuilt 5 times) Granary Harappan Societies: Indus River Valley Societies First to domesticate cotton for cloth (before 5000 BCE) Domesticated animals: chickens, elephants Standardized weights Writing has not been deciphered No evidence of political structure or temple structures/public worship Cities abandoned by 1700 BCE Completely abandoned by 1500 BCE (Aryan invasions, climate change?) Implications?
The Aryans Beginning 1000 BCE: Aryans “noble people”, (pastoral nomads, no written language, chiefdoms) arrived from the North Harappan culture was collapsing: this contact was most likely, initially, passive Later Aryan chiefdoms (raja) fought amongst themselves, iron tools, agriculture Eventually established regional kingdoms Discontent led to need to establish ORDER The Upanishads: Brahma Indra The Vedic Age: BCE
The Vedas: collection of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals honoring the Aryan gods (4 Vedas: Rig Veda is the oldest: BCE) orally transmitted; written down (Sanskrit) by 600 BCE The Vedas provided the “wisdom” and “knowledge” that priests needed Vedas established social order in absence of political BCE-600BCE Brahmins (priests) Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats) Vashiyas (farmers, artisans, merchants) Shudras (landless peasants, serfs) After 600 BCE (end of Vedic Age): Untouchables added at bottom Varna? Jati? How did the Vedas and the culture that subsequently developed in South Asia, contribute to the development of a strict patriarchal society there? The Lawbook of Manu: The Practice of Sati Aryan descent: power thru male line, women?
The Upanishads: BCE A synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian belief The word "Upanishad" is derived from "upa" - near, "ni" - down, "sad" - to sit. Groups of pupils sat near the teacher to learn from him the truth by which ignorance is destroyed. The Upanishads speak of the way in which the individual self gets at the ultimate reality by an inward journey, an inner ascent. This inner ascent requires adequate preparation, "The Self is not to be attained by one without fortitude, not through slackness nor without distinctive marks of discipline." To see the Self one must become "calm, controlled, quiet, patiently enduring, and contented." Brahman Samsara Karma Moksha “A man of good acts will become good, a man of bad acts will become bad.” Asceticism, Meditation Yoga
Outlawed by the British in 1829: Illegal and punishable by the criminal courts Recent examples persist (2006) The Practice of Sati How does Sati reinforce social order?
LAWS OF MANU 6. Considering that the highest duty of all castes, even weak husbands (must) strive to guard their wives. 7. He who carefully guards his wife, preserves (the purity of) his offspring, virtuous conduct, his family, himself, and his (means of acquiring) merit. 55. Women must be honored and adorned by their fathers, brothers, husbands, and brothers-in-law, who desire (their own) welfare. 56. Where women are honored, there the gods are pleased; but where they are not honored, no sacred rite yields rewards. 57. Where the female relations live in grief, the family soon wholly perishes; but that family where they are not unhappy ever prospers. 58. The houses on which female relations, not being duly honored, pronounce a curse, perish completely, as if destroyed by magic. 59. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always honor women on holidays and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments, clothes, and food. 60. In that family, where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wife with her husband, happiness will assuredly be lasting.