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CONCEPT 1 - BACKGROUND LEQ 1 what do I need to know about the context of the literature to comprehend it? You need to know about… – Literary genre –

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Presentation on theme: "CONCEPT 1 - BACKGROUND LEQ 1 what do I need to know about the context of the literature to comprehend it? You need to know about… – Literary genre –"— Presentation transcript:

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2 CONCEPT 1 - BACKGROUND

3 LEQ 1 what do I need to know about the context of the literature to comprehend it? You need to know about… – Literary genre – The Historical Context – The Cultural Context – The Unique Verbiage used

4 Literary Genre A type of literature that is determined by common themes – For instance: Romance Novels: Danielle Steel Horror Novels: Stephen King Love Stories: Twilight

5 Historical Context This tell us what was happening in the world (or area) at the time the book was written. – For instance, Government corruption during writing of Wizard of Oz

6 Cultural Context This tells us how to interpret what we read based on the novel’s cultural aspects – For instance: We need to know that farsi is one of the languages spoken by Afghans

7 Unique Verbiage These are words that are used by the author that give us a sense of the significance of the literature. Often, the author’s vocabulary is different from our own. – For instance “Newspeak” – 1984 “Obi” – Things Fall Apart “

8 LEQ 2 what do I need to know about the author to comprehend the literature? You need to know about… – The author’s background – The author’s style

9 Author’s Background This helps us to determine why the author may have written about specific themes and events – is it connected with their own personal experiences?

10 Author’s Style We need to become as familiar as possible with the author’s style so that we can more easily comprehend what we read. – For instance Knowing that Khaled Hosseini has a tendency to use flashbacks is important for us to know so that we can anticipate that when we are reading.

11 CONCEPT 2 – EXPOSITION

12 LEQ 1 what are the components and characteristics of exposition? The components are characteristics are… – Setting – Tone – Mood – Foreshadowing – Flashback – Point of View – Narrator/Speaker – Imagery

13 Setting Where and when the story takes place – For instance: “Shooting an Elephant” takes place in Lower Burma, 1939.

14 Tone The writer’s attitude toward the subject he/she is writing about – For instance: The author’s tone toward the white colonizers in Things Fall Apart might be considered malevolent

15 Mood Unlike tone, mood is the feeling the reader gets from reading the piece. – For instance: Although the narrator has a malevolent tone toward the white colonizers, the reader may be getting an impression of novelty by their presence.

16 Foreshadowing Foreshadowing is a hint or reference to something that is going to happen later in the story (by the author). An author who foreshadows events, etc is helping the reader to predict events and outcomes of the literature. – Although allusions are also “hints” and “references,” they DO NOT help the reader predict!

17 Flashback This is where the author moves the narration back in time to explain how a character or situation became as it is. Flashbacks can be almost the entire piece or just a small piece of it. – For instance: Amir’s childhood story is a flashback

18 Point of View This explains from whose point of view the reader is seeing. Points of view can shift in stories, so it is not always from the narrator’s POV – For instance In The Kite Runner, although the narrator is 3 rd person, we are seeing everything from the limited point of view of Amir – We know this because the narrator does not tell us some events, thoughts, emotions of other characters

19 Narrator/Speaker This is who is telling the story. There are two types: – 1 st person – “I,” “me,” “my,” “our” Personal anecdote/story – Can be omniscient (all knowing) or limited – 3 rd person – “his,” “her,” “their” From the outside looking in – Can be omniscient (all knowing) or limited

20 Imagery Where the writer paints a picture with words so the reader can better imagine what is happening – Important to exposition because imagery is often used to explain the setting, tone, mood, etc.

21 LEQ 2 How is the exposition unique? It introduces us to context and situation of the literature – Characters – Setting – Sets the tone, mood – Foreshadows the conflict – Engages the reader

22 CONCEPT 3 – CHARACTER and CONFLICT

23 LEQ 1 How does the characters’ conflicts set the tone for a piece of lit? You will need to know what these words mean: – Characterization (direct and indirect) – Archetype – Dynamic/static characters – Round/flat characters – Motivation – Protagonist – Antagonist – Foil – Internal Conflict – External Conflict

24 Direct Characterization Where the author directly tells the reader information about the character – often physical or historical attributes

25 Indirect Characterization Character is described indirectly through: – His or her actions – What he/she says – What he/she thinks, feels, or remembers – What other characters say about him/her

26 Archetype An original model or type after which other similar things are patterned; a prototype – Character The outcast The hero The villain – Situation/Symbol The task The quest

27 Dynamic/Static characters Dynamic – Grows or makes progress throughout the story (usually in an emotional or mental way) Static – Does not grow or change – stays the same. Usually is also flat

28 Round/Flat Characters Round – Well-described, a lot of emotional and mental depth given to the character We know what Amir would think of ______ We know what Winston would think of _______ Flat – Not well-described. Personality is difficult to see. Usually, this indicates a simple “function” character – they are in the story to fulfill a specific function or act but are not important enough to be rounded by the author.

29 Motivation This is what drives the character(s)

30 Protagonist/antagonist Protagonist – The “hero” of the story – the guy the reader is rooting for Antagonist – The character who is opposed to the protagonist (bad guy who tries to foil protagonist’s plot)

31 Foil Character, object, or event that acts as the spoiler of the protagonist’s plot

32 Internal/external conflict Internal – Conflict within oneself Man vs. Self External – Conflict outside of oneself Man vs. Man Man vs. Nature

33 LEQ 2 How is conflict a driving force for plot?

34 Conflict and Climax Every conflict must climax! The whole point of conflict is to drive the characters to RESOLVE their conflicts and the CLIMAX is where the pimple pops!

35 CONCEPT 4: THEME AND RESOLUTION

36 LEQ 1: How do we successfully extract themes from literature? You need to know these words: – Theme – Universal Theme – Ambiguous Theme – Motif – Repetition – Situational Irony – Dramatic Irony – Denouement – Resolution

37 Theme A topic that is explored within the literature – For instance: Brotherhood Totalitarianism Loyalty Friendship Love American Patriotism Pride

38 Universal Theme A theme that can be applied to all peoples, regardless of culture, race, creed, etc. – Which of these is not universal? Brotherhood Totalitarianism Loyalty Friendship Love American Patriotism Pride

39 Ambiguous Theme This is a theme that is implied but not clearly stated.

40 Motif are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the piece’s major themes.

41 Repetition Repetition is when the author repeats an image, event, or language – it is meant to draw attention to it by the reader and underline its importance to the themes of the literature.

42 Situational Irony an outcome that turns out to be very different from what was expected, the difference between what is expected to happen and what actually does

43 Dramatic Irony irony that is inherent in speeches or a situation of a drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play.

44 Verbal Irony a figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meant

45 Denouement The point after the climax where the events of the story lead to a resolution (often very short before resolution)

46 Resolution The end of the story where the conflicts are resolved (often shortly after the climax of the conflicts)


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