3 LEQ 1 what do I need to know about the context of the literature to comprehend it? You need to know about…Literary genreThe Historical ContextThe Cultural ContextThe Unique Verbiage used
4 Literary GenreA type of literature that is determined by common themesFor instance:Romance Novels: Danielle SteelHorror Novels: Stephen KingLove Stories: Twilight
5 Historical ContextThis tell us what was happening in the world (or area) at the time the book was written.For instance,Government corruption during writing of Wizard of Oz
6 Cultural ContextThis tells us how to interpret what we read based on the novel’s cultural aspectsFor instance:We need to know that farsi is one of the languages spoken by Afghans
7 Unique VerbiageThese are words that are used by the author that give us a sense of the significance of the literature. Often, the author’s vocabulary is different from our own.For instance“Newspeak” – 1984“Obi” – Things Fall Apart“
8 LEQ 2 what do I need to know about the author to comprehend the literature? You need to know about…The author’s backgroundThe author’s style
9 Author’s BackgroundThis helps us to determine why the author may have written about specific themes and events – is it connected with their own personal experiences?
10 Author’s StyleWe need to become as familiar as possible with the author’s style so that we can more easily comprehend what we read.For instanceKnowing that Khaled Hosseini has a tendency to use flashbacks is important for us to know so that we can anticipate that when we are reading.
12 LEQ 1 what are the components and characteristics of exposition? The components are characteristics are…SettingToneMoodForeshadowingFlashbackPoint of ViewNarrator/SpeakerImagery
13 Setting Where and when the story takes place For instance: “Shooting an Elephant” takes place in Lower Burma, 1939.
14 Tone The writer’s attitude toward the subject he/she is writing about For instance:The author’s tone toward the white colonizers in Things Fall Apart might be considered malevolent
15 MoodUnlike tone, mood is the feeling the reader gets from reading the piece.For instance:Although the narrator has a malevolent tone toward the white colonizers, the reader may be getting an impression of novelty by their presence.
16 ForeshadowingForeshadowing is a hint or reference to something that is going to happen later in the story (by the author). An author who foreshadows events, etc is helping the reader to predict events and outcomes of the literature.Although allusions are also “hints” and “references,” they DO NOT help the reader predict!
17 FlashbackThis is where the author moves the narration back in time to explain how a character or situation became as it is. Flashbacks can be almost the entire piece or just a small piece of it.For instance:Amir’s childhood story is a flashback
18 Point of ViewThis explains from whose point of view the reader is seeing. Points of view can shift in stories, so it is not always from the narrator’s POVFor instanceIn The Kite Runner, although the narrator is 3rd person, we are seeing everything from the limited point of view of AmirWe know this because the narrator does not tell us some events, thoughts, emotions of other characters
19 Narrator/SpeakerThis is who is telling the story. There are two types:1st person – “I,” “me,” “my,” “our”Personal anecdote/storyCan be omniscient (all knowing) or limited3rd person – “his,” “her,” “their”From the outside looking in
20 ImageryWhere the writer paints a picture with words so the reader can better imagine what is happeningImportant to exposition because imagery is often used to explain the setting, tone, mood, etc.
21 LEQ 2 How is the exposition unique? It introduces us to context and situation of the literatureCharactersSettingSets the tone, moodForeshadows the conflictEngages the reader
23 LEQ 1 How does the characters’ conflicts set the tone for a piece of lit? You will need to know what these words mean:Characterization (direct and indirect)ArchetypeDynamic/static charactersRound/flat charactersMotivationProtagonistAntagonistFoilInternal ConflictExternal Conflict
24 Direct Characterization Where the author directly tells the reader information about the character – often physical or historical attributes
25 Indirect Characterization Character is described indirectly through:His or her actionsWhat he/she saysWhat he/she thinks, feels, or remembersWhat other characters say about him/her
26 ArchetypeAn original model or type after which other similar things are patterned; a prototypeCharacterThe outcastThe heroThe villainSituation/SymbolThe taskThe quest
27 Dynamic/Static characters Grows or makes progress throughout the story (usually in an emotional or mental way)StaticDoes not grow or change – stays the same. Usually is also flat
28 Round/Flat Characters Well-described, a lot of emotional and mental depth given to the characterWe know what Amir would think of ______We know what Winston would think of _______FlatNot well-described. Personality is difficult to see. Usually, this indicates a simple “function” character – they are in the story to fulfill a specific function or act but are not important enough to be rounded by the author.
36 LEQ 1: How do we successfully extract themes from literature? You need to know these words:ThemeUniversal ThemeAmbiguous ThemeMotifRepetitionSituational IronyDramatic IronyDenouementResolution
37 Theme A topic that is explored within the literature For instance: BrotherhoodTotalitarianismLoyaltyFriendshipLoveAmerican PatriotismPride
38 Universal ThemeA theme that can be applied to all peoples, regardless of culture, race, creed, etc.Which of these is not universal?BrotherhoodTotalitarianismLoyaltyFriendshipLoveAmerican PatriotismPride
39 Ambiguous ThemeThis is a theme that is implied but not clearly stated.
40 Motifare recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the piece’s major themes.
41 RepetitionRepetition is when the author repeats an image, event, or language – it is meant to draw attention to it by the reader and underline its importance to the themes of the literature.
42 Situational Ironyan outcome that turns out to be very different from what was expected, the difference between what is expected to happen and what actually does
43 Dramatic Ironyirony that is inherent in speeches or a situation of a drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play.
44 Verbal Ironya figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meant
45 DenouementThe point after the climax where the events of the story lead to a resolution (often very short before resolution)
46 ResolutionThe end of the story where the conflicts are resolved (often shortly after the climax of the conflicts)