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Lande, N., Asheim, L.J. & Eik, L.O. Production systems and tree planting in Njombe, Tanzania – A study area description SUA/Noragric/NILF.

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Presentation on theme: "Lande, N., Asheim, L.J. & Eik, L.O. Production systems and tree planting in Njombe, Tanzania – A study area description SUA/Noragric/NILF."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lande, N., Asheim, L.J. & Eik, L.O. Production systems and tree planting in Njombe, Tanzania – A study area description SUA/Noragric/NILF

2 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES 2  Introduction  Production systems in Njombe  Challenges and opportunities  Objective  Method and model parameters  Findings  Discussion and summary  Future work Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF) Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) SYNOPSIS

3 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES 3  High altitude farming area ( m asl)  Flat terrain, suitable for mechanized agriculture  Main industry in the area: wattle, tea and agriculture  Tanganyika Wattle Company (TANWAT) have been planting forest since 1949  One rainy season: December-April Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF) Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Introduction to Njombe

4 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES 4  Manual field work  Crop-livestock dominant agricultural system  Mostly dairy cows (Friesian, Ayshire, Jersey) and indigenous cows  Some goats and poultry Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF) Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Production systems in Njombe

5 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES 5 Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF) Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Challenges and opportunities  Climate change awareness  Introduction of fast growing tree species  Rain-fed agriculture (seasonal)  Degraded soil  Malnutrition and food insecurity  Southern agricultural growth corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT)

6 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES 6  Modelling production systems in Njombe  Examine economic and environmental constraints in agriculture, identify and study farm level development paths Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF) Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Objective

7 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES  Structured household interviews  Pre-determined villages to cover different areas in Njombe (Magoda, Kichiwa and Ibumila N=60)  Farmer meetings were held to identify a variety of production systems  Farmers selected on a voluntarily basis  GPS used to quality check size of a few farm plots 7 Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF) Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Method

8 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 8

9 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Method: What we inquired about  Time spent walking to each plot from house  Crops; yields, seeds, manure, DAP, Urea etc per ha  Work h – from land preparation to harvest/market  Livestock management; feeds, grazing, work h  Veterinary expenses, shed maintenance, other costs  Use of crop residues for animal feeding  Forest products e.g. firewood, charcoal  Other NWFP e.g. honey, medicine herbs, fruits etc. DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 9

10 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Farming activities 1) Growing fruits and vegetables for sale and self-sufficiency 2) Managing pasture crops and/or multipurpose trees (MPPT) for feeding 3) Livestock keeping 4) Planting trees for timber and fuelwood DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 10

11 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES  Average plot size cultivated area: 1.1 ha  Average plot size farm forest area: 4.6 ha  Plots per HH: 2.7  Average total size : 8.8 ha  Walking time from farmhouse: 5.5 min (nearest) 37.7 min to more distant field 11 Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF) Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Findings

12 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Findings: Crops Crop typePlot average, ha Beans (6 plots)2.6 Chinese cabbage (1 plots)0.2 Fodder trees (11 plots)0.6 Fruits (28 plots)0.6 Irish potatoes (39 plots)1.1 Maize (98 plots)1.0 Pasture (18 plots)0.9 Sunflower (2 plots)1.0 Sweet potatoes (1 plot)0.8 Tomatoes (1 plot)0.6 Wheat (1 plot)2.4 DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 12

13 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Findings: Farm forest Other findings:  Most crop residues left in the field  9 of 60 HH fed crop residues to animals  Total crop residue fed to animals: 304 kg  50% of crop residues from maize  Average fuelwood collection/y: kg DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 13 Tree typePlot average, ha Pine (47 plots)6.2 Eucalyptus (18 plots)1.9 Black wattle (10 plots)1.8

14 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Example: 1 ha of maize Yield: kg Inputs: Seeds: 14.3 kg Manure: kg Diammonium phosphate (DAP): 65.8 kg Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN): 25 kg Urea: 62.6 kg Fungicide: 0.3 kg Pesticide: ml DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 14

15 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES  Most common livestock: Dairy cattle: 2.9/hh Local cattle: 2.4/hh Poultry: 23/hh Meat goats: 0.25/hh, Pigs: 0.7/hh  Milk per cow: 8 L /day for 8 months= (1 920 L/y)  Calves per cow/y: 1  Eggs produced/day: 5.9 (=0,26/hen/day) 15 Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF) Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Findings: Livestock production

16 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Findings: Livestock production cont.  Dairy cows mainly kept and fed in sheds  Concrete or wooden sheds  Indigenous cattle and goats grazing (4-6 h) and kept in kraals (night)  Poultry roaming at the farm  Pigs kept in kraals and fed maize bran DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 16

17 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Findings: Labour requirement  Vegetable crops are labour intensive: Tomatoes, 632 h/ha Irish potatoes, 317 h/ha Maize, 311 h/ha  Pasture and fodder trees is labour intense Pasture 290 h/ha, mostly harvesting Fodder trees 213 h/ha, mostly harvesting DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 17

18 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Labour requirement cont.  Trees (15 years rotation) needs less labour: Pine: 13 h/ha and year, Eucalyptus: 9 h/ha Black wattle: 15 h/ha DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 18

19 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Summary and discussion  Vegetables and dairy cows are the main sources of livelihood for smallholders in Njombe  Some fruits, pork and poultry in addition  Intensification of cow milk production possible  More concentrate feedstuff needed in that case  More pasture and MPPT for soil C-sequestration?  Planting of forests for C-sequestration and as a source of supplementary income?  What is the best option economically and environmentally in the area ? DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 19

20 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Further work  A detailed study report will be published as a discussion paper on the web page of NILF  A Linear programming (LP) model will be built with parameters assessed based on the questionnaire DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 20

21 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Nashukuru sana! DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN 21


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