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MLA Documentation Citing and documenting sources
About MLA MLA style… This cross-referencing system (in-text citations and a works cited page) allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. The proper use of MLA style also shows the credibility of writers; such writers show accountability to their source material. MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism--the purposeful or accidental use of source material by other writers without giving appropriate credit. --Perdue Online Writing Lab
In Other Words… It allows readers to easily and accurately cross-reference your sources. It provides a consistent style of documentation for research papers in the humanities and English. It gives you credibility as a writer and researcher. It protects you against plagiarism and academic dishonesty.
2 Parts of MLA Documentation In-Text Citations Works Cited Page
In-Text Citations Use in-text citations… When you are quoting a source word for word When you are summarizing the main points of a source When you are paraphrasing a source by putting another writer’s ideas into your own words Whenever you use information or ideas from another text in your paper, you must indicate what work you used and where in the text you found it. Parenthetical documentation must have a reference listed in the Works Cited Page.
A typical reference consists of the author’s last name and page number. The point has been argued that men and women communicate in distinctly different ways; these differences in communication can cause problems in social interactions (Tannen 178-85). ** End punctuation placed after parentheses No punctuation in citation A Work with One Author The author’s last name and the page number are enclosed in parentheses at the end of the sentence and are followed by a period. This is why this method of sourcing information is called parenthetical documentation.
A Work by a Single Author Cont. If your source is electronic (i.e. website, online database)… A paragraph or section number, instead of a page number, may be used. Lee’s direction “stands out especially because he takes the Berkowitz story and lets it act as a backdrop to the characters' story” (Taylor par. 4). If the author’s name is included in the sentence, only use the page number in your citation. It may be true, as Robertson maintains, that “in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance…” (136)
A Work by Multiple Authors A work by two or three authors When citing a work by two or three authors, give the names in the same order as they are listed on the source. Authors’ names in text… Jacobsen and Waugh 210 Jacobsen and Waugh note that the death penalty is not warranted because of all the innocent people who have been found on death row ( 210 ). Authors’ names in citation… Jacobsen and Waugh 210 The death penalty is not warranted because of all the innocent people who have been found on death row ( Jacobsen and Waugh 210 ). A work by more than three authors Only list the first author, followed by et al. et al. The European powers believed they could change the fundamentals of Moslem existence (Bull et al. 395).
A Group or Corporate Author “I’d rather go naked than wear fur” (PETA 22). If a corporation or other organization is named as the author of a work, use the group’s name the same way you would use a person’s name.
A Work Without an Author Use a shortened version of the title that will correspond to the full title of the work in your works cited page. If a source doesn’t list an author, use an abbreviated form of the title in the citation. If you refer to the work in the sentence, you must write out the full title. “Death is bad for the dead man but good for the grave digger” (Dissoi Logoi 2).
Two or More Authors with the same last name If you have more than one author with the same last name, differentiate them by including their first initial along with their last name in your citations. Crime is on the rise (Wishoff, R. 115). Yet some believe “it’s not” (Wishoff, C. 76).
More Than One Work by the Same Author When citing two or more sources by the same author, include an abbreviated title in each citation. Separate the author’s name and the title with a comma. Emma Woodhouse’s statement, “Only poverty makes celibacy contemptible” (Austen, Emma 99) echoes Elizabeth Bennett’s refusal to marry for financial security (Austen, Pride 22).
Preserving Punctuation !. “There is no enjoyment like reading ! ” (Austen 40). When a quotation ends with punctuation other than a period (i.e. a question mark or an exclamation point), include it inside the quotation mark, then insert the parenthetical reference and add a period.
Citing an Indirect Source When you use an indirect quotation, be sure to first give the name of the author of the indirect quote and then the abbreviation “qtd. in” and the author of the source from which you took the quotation. Use the abbreviation qtd. in. It is important to take material from the original source not a secondhand one, if possible. But, if only an indirect source is available, you must follow the following steps: Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an “extraordinary man” (qtd. in Boswell 450)
Citing Plays and Poems Hamlet’s existential angst is expressed in his famous soliloquy, “To be, or not to be: that is the question” (Shakespeare 3.1.56). Milton’s epic poem, Paradise Lost, opens with the line, “Of man’s first disobedience and the fruit” (1.1). When citing material from plays and poems, include the act, scene, book, canto, stanza, verse, or line numbers instead of the page number. Use Arabic numbers in your citations, even if the source uses Roman numerals (6 instead of VI).
Citing a Website “The Q&A” page of The Etiquette Grrls website states that it is inappropriate to wear white after Labor Day (Carlin and McDonough). “Frogs are members of the zoological class called Amphibia”(Frogland). If the website lists an author, use the author’s name in your citation. If there is no author given, use an abbreviated form of the title. If a website has page numbers, use them as you would a print source.
A direct quote which runs more than four lines John K. Mahon adds further insight to our understanding of the War of 1812: Financing the war was very difficult at the time. Baring Brothers, a banking firm of the enemy country, handled routine accounts for the United States overseas, but the firm would take on no loans. The loans were in the end absorbed by wealthy Americans at great hazard—also, as it turned out, at great profit to them. (385) Indent entire quote 2 tabs (1 inch), double- spaced, with no quotation marks. Note that the punctuation comes before the reference in this case.
Citing in MLA Format A Works Cited List… Is a complete list of all sources cited in your research paper Provides the information necessary for your reader to be able to locate any of the sources you reference in your paper
Citing Books A book with one author… Title of Book Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation Most book citations will include some, if not all, of the following information: 1.Author's name (last name, first name). 2.Title of Book (underlined or italicized) 3.Name of editor, translator, or compiler. 4.Edition used. 5. Number of volume(s) used. 6. Name of series. 7. Place of publication: name of publisher, year of publication. 8. Page numbers.
Rabkin, Eric S., Martin Greenberg, and Joseph Olander, eds. No Place Else. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1983.Or et al. Rabkin, Eric S. et al. No Place Else. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1983. Hanging Indent: Indent every line after the first one full tab (1/2”) Book by two or more authors
Two or More Works by the Same Author Gilbert, Sandra M. Emily's Bread. New York: Norton, 1984. ---. Ghost Volcano. New York: Norton, 1995. The sources are listed alphabetically by title. Three dashes and a period substitute for the author’s name in all subsequent citations.
Anthology or Compilation “” Swift, Jonathan. “ A Modest Proposal. ” The Bedford Reader. Ed. X.J. Kennedy, Dorothy M. Kennedy, and Jane E. Aaron. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000. 621-629. Notice that the short work (i.e. essay, short story, poem) is placed in quotation marks… Lopate, Phillip, ed. The Art of the Personal Essay. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 1994. One work in an anthology…
Citing Interviews Anderson, Paul T. Personal Interview. 20 Dec. 1999. Name of person interviewed, kind of interview (personal, telephone) and date.
Periodical Articles Citing Periodicals: 1.Author's name. 2."Title of Article" 3.Name of Periodical 4.Series number or name 5.Volume number 6.Issue number 7.Date of publication 8.Page numbers 9.Supplementary information
Article in a Newspaper, Scholarly Journal or Magazine Newspaper Boyar, Jay. "The Art of Bad Film Criticism." Orlando Sentinel 7 Jan. 2000: C4. Put quotation marks around article title. Underline title of publication. Magazine Amelar, Sarah. "Restoration on 42nd Street." Architecture Mar. 1998: 146-150. Journal Most, Andrea. "We Know We Belong." PLMA 113 (1998): 77-89.
Citing Films Title, director, distributor, year of release. Other information optional. Pulp Fiction. Dir. Quentin Tarantino. Screenplay by Quentin Tarantino and Roger Avery. Perf. John Travolta, Samuel L. Jackson, and Uma Thurman. Miramax: 1994.
Citing Online Sources Always include the most specific web address possible at the end of the citation. Also, only include a line break before a period or after a slash in the web address. The web address should appear between “bent brackets” so that there is no confusion about where the web address begins and ends. When possible, it is a good idea to include two dates in your citation. The first will always be the date that the cited information appeared on to the website, while the second will always be the date that you accessed the website. This is done in case the website is updated and the information you cited is changed.
Internet Citations Should Include: The author, if available The title of the article, in quotation marks The title of the website, underlined Publication information for a print version, if applicable The date of publication, if applicable Pagination information, if applicable The name of a sponsoring organization, if applicable The date you accessed the site The entire URL enclosed in angle brackets
The minimum you should cite: The title of the article The title of the website The date you accessed it The entire URL “BBQ Kisses and Pork Rind Dreams.” Daily Candy. 19 Sept. 2003.
Professional Sites and Home Pages Title of Webpage. Institution sponsoring web page. Date you accessed the web page. Professional Page Portuguese Language Page. U of Chicago. 1 May 1997. Home Page Ambler, Jay C. Home Page. 15 Feb. 2003. 18 Aug. 2003.
Reference Databases Many, if not all, of your sources will come from the references databases available through the Library. These databases contain full-text articles, work overviews, and literary criticism pertaining to your subject. Each database has it’s own format. The following examples come from Lexis Nexis and Academic Search Premier. Article in a Reference Database Author (Last, First). “Title of Article.” Periodical Title. Date of Publication. Pagination. Reference Database. Database Publisher. Date you accessed the site. For help with a specific database check out this link: Winter Park Campus Library Website
Periodical Articles Article in a Magazine Author’s last name, first name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine and date of publication. Date that you accessed the website. Landsburg, Steven E. "Who Shall Inherit the Earth?" Slate 1 May 1997. 2 May 1997. Article in an Online Periodical Author’s last name, first name. “Title of Article” if any. Title of Publication and date posted. Date you accessed the information. Chass, Murray. “Players Talk About Strike.” The New York Times On the Web 15 May 2002. 15 May 2002
Works Cited Page Format The Works Cited page follows the last page of your paper and is numbered sequentially. The title of your Works Cited page goes 1” from the top margin and is not bold, italicized, underlined or in quotes Your first entry, alphabetized by author’s last name or first major word of the title, begins at the left margin, two lines below the title. The first line of each citation is at the left margin. Each additional line takes a ½ inch hanging indention from the left margin. The ENTIRE Works Cited page is double-spaced with 1” margins
Sample Works Cited Page Smith 13 Works Cited Great Lives of Mexico. Philadelphia: McGraw - Hill, 1971. Jones, William. The Life of Sandra Cisneros. New York: Random House, 1995. Kim, Joseph. "Sandra Cisneros." 6 June 1997.. Ramsey, Harold W. "Sandra Cisneros and the Mexican-American Dream.“ Newsweek. 16 June 1997: 74-80.
Where Can I Get Help with MLA? The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6 th ed. The Penguin Handbook Troyka Quick Access Basics: A Handbook Winter Park Campus Library Website By selecting the “Online Databases and Articles” link from “Research Tools”, you gain access to detailed, color coded examples for each of the databases you use for this paper (these examples are found under “documentation”) www.citationmachine.net Don’t feel like building your own citations? Visit citationmachine.net, plug in information about your source and then copy and paste the program’s example. The CSSC Come in and pick up a tip sheet on MLA documentation, format, and more. Also, take a look at the various writing handbooks available, such as the Penguin Handbook, Basics: A Handbook, and the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.