4/1/2015Columbus State University The Purpose of APA. Consistent format for the social sciences. Prevents plagiarism. Includes summations and direct quotation. Allows the inclusion of dates as part of the in-text citation for cross-referencing.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Dates are imperative in the social sciences since contemporary research is desired in building foundations for theory.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Finding Good Sources for Research Papers
4/1/2015Columbus State University Internet Sources
4/1/2015Columbus State University Why should you evaluate internet sources? ANYONE can put ANYTHING on the internet No Quality Control Not kept up-to-date Search engines only give recommended sites in order of the prominence of placement or the frequency of your search criteria- NOT order of most reputable or useful
4/1/2015Columbus State University Sources to be wary of: Google Wikipedia Anything.org or.com. Are they trying to serve a specific agenda? Are they trying to serve a specific agenda? Are they trying to sell me something? Are they trying to sell me something? Online encyclopedias (too broad)
4/1/2015Columbus State University How to get to GALILEO Library Home Page http://library.colstate.edu/ GALILEO or www.galileo.usg.edu www.galileo.usg.edu “Science and Technology” tab In dropdown menu: Science and Technology, A to Z Science and Technology, A to Z
4/1/2015Columbus State University Once you are in the “Science and Technology” section #57: Health Source: Nursing / Academic Edition #74: MEDLINE (at EBSCOhost) See #73 for full index (not just full-text) You will have to use the library to find hard copy documents #5 CINAHL: similar interface to #57, but different results #19 OVID: good sources, a little more cumbersome
4/1/2015Columbus State University Sources Peer-Reviewed Journal Scholarly in nature Scholarly in nature a journal in which articles have been evaluated by an independent expert or experts in the field of research before acceptance for publication a journal in which articles have been evaluated by an independent expert or experts in the field of research before acceptance for publication Examples New England Journal of Medicine New England Journal of Medicine American Journal of Nursing American Journal of Nursing International Nursing Review International Nursing Review
4/1/2015Columbus State University More Sources Books Newspaper articles Websites (remember– watch out for undocumented, biased information!!) Government Documents Brochures
4/1/2015Columbus State University Contact Information Linda Schotz Science Librarian firstname.lastname@example.org 706.565.3683
4/1/2015Columbus State University APA Manuscript Format
4/1/2015Columbus State University APA Always requires a thesis. Encourages headings. Requires that all references be cited both in-text and included in a list of references page.
4/1/2015Columbus State University According to Concise Rules of APA Style, “where departmental requirements differ from APA style, the departmental requirements take precedence.”
4/1/2015Columbus State University Citing Correctly Find a good resource for citing mechanics. The Writing Center or the library has books for correct citation. http://langlit.colstate.edu/writingcenter/resources.htm http://langlit.colstate.edu/writingcenter/resources.htm http://langlit.colstate.edu/writingcenter/resources.htm http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/ http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/
4/1/2015Columbus State University Citation Machine New resource for the CSU Writing Center. Allows automatic citation formatting in a variety of different styles – including APA. Access will be opened to all CSU students, and the rest of the web community, during Fall Semester 2006.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Avoiding Plagiarism You can be charged with plagiarism even if you don’t know the rules of APA. It is ANY unacknowledged (not cited) use of another person’s words or IDEAS. Plagiarism can result in a failing grade on an assignment or in a class, academic sanctions, or expulsion from the University. Quotation marks do not make you safe, you HAVE to provide source information.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Plagiarism, contd. No need to document when: 1. It is your own idea, experience, insight, observation, thoughts, conclusions. 2. You are compiling generally accepted facts. 3. When writing up your own experimental results. 4. You are using “common knowledge.”
4/1/2015Columbus State University Common Knowledge If the information is undocumented in five or more other published sources. It is information that the reader of your paper already knows. The information could be found in general reference materials. Just because your Professor mandates that information be included does NOT mean it does not have to be cited.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Typeface Always follow guidelines provided by the Professor or Instructor. Generally a 12 point font in a standard typeface (Times New Roman or Arial).
4/1/2015Columbus State University The Cover Page APA does not provide guidelines for a cover page, although many Instructors will require that one be included. Always follow their guidelines for your cover page. Example of a Cover Page: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource /560/01/ http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource /560/01/ http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource /560/01/
4/1/2015Columbus State University Page Numbers and Running Headers In the upper right-hand corner of each page should be a short version of your title, five spaces and the page number. ALL pages should be numbered, even the title page if present.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Margins and Line Spacing All sides should have a one (1) inch margin. Align, not justify, the right margin. All pages should be double-spaced.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Long Quotations A long quotation is any directly quoted text forty (40) words or more. “Set off” these quotations by indenting ½ inch (five spaces) from the left margin. This quotation IS double spaced. Quotation marks are NOT necessary.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Abstract Included in the paper after the title page IF your professor requests this be included. It is a quick, succinct overview of your essay in 75 to 100 words. It should discuss main ideas, key points, and possible applications or implications of your research.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Headings Encouraged, but not always necessary. One level of headings is typically sufficient for undergraduate papers. Major headings are centered; the first word, and all other words in the heading except articles, short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions, are capitalized.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Visuals Charts, drawings, photographs, tables, figures. Should be as simple as possible, labeled (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, etc.), and have a title on a separate line, flush left. A note under the visual with the source information is also required.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Visuals, contd. For figures included in the paper, include a label and a caption below the figure, flush left. These do not have to be on separate lines. Always be sure to discuss the most significant features of each visual in the text of your paper, placing the visuals as close to the applicable sentences as possible.
4/1/2015Columbus State University APA List of References
4/1/2015Columbus State University Organization and Formatting Often helpful to complete the List of References first. “List of References” should be centered, not underlined, at the top of the page. The list of references should include all works referenced, not just the ones cited in-text. Organize the list of works alphabetically by the author’s last name.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Organization and Formatting, contd. Use the title of the work if there is no author. Always indent the second and subsequent lines for each individual reference using the toolbar at the top of your document. List of references is doubled spaced and should be in the same size and type font as the paper.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Refer to the Sample APA List of References.
4/1/2015Columbus State University APA In-Text Citation
4/1/2015Columbus State University Signal Phrases Used in APA format to introduce borrowed material. Can include the author’s last name. If the author’s last name is not in the signal phrase, it comes at the end of the sentence within the parenthesis.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Borrowed Language Directly borrowed words must be in quotation marks. Paraphrased material must be restated in your own words.
4/1/2015Columbus State University The Author, (date) is always included in the in-text citation, and followed by the (page number). The date and the page number are in parenthesis and the page number comes at the end of the sentence.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Alternatively, the author can also be included in the parenthetical at the end of the sentence if not in the signal phrase. But never both.
4/1/2015Columbus State University In-Text Citation Example Rumbaugh (1995) reported that “Kanzi’s comprehension of over 600 novel sentences of request was very comparable to Alia’s; both complied with requests without assistance on approximately 70% of the sentences” (p. 722). Or It is reported that “Kanzi’s […] (Rumbaugh, 1995, p. 722). - dianahacker.com
4/1/2015Columbus State University The date is included in APA in-text citation because the social sciences operate on a chronological basis of development. The designation for page is “p.”. Putting the author and date in the signal phrase or at the end of the sentence is a stylistic preference.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Multiple Authors For two authors, both last names are listed, joined by “and,” if included in the signal phrase. If included in the end of sentence citation, both last names are included, joined by an ampersand (the & symbol).
4/1/2015Columbus State University Multiple Authors, contd. For a work with three to five authors, use all authors last name’s. Separate the names with commas, joining the last name with “and” in text, and the “&” symbol if in parenthetical. In any further citations, use the first last name, referring to the rest as “et al.”
4/1/2015Columbus State University Multiple Authors, contd. Example: The chimpanzee Nim was raised by researchers who trained him in American Sign Language by molding and guiding his hands (Terrace, Petitto, Sanders, & Beaver, 1979, p. 234). (Terrace et al., 1979, p. 245).
4/1/2015Columbus State University Multiple Authors, contd. For a work with six or more authors, use only the last name of the first author listed, referring to the other authors as “et al.” Use this format in the signal phrase or if included in the parenthetical.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Unknown Author For works where the author is unknown, include the entire title, if it is short, or the first two words, if the title is long, in either the signal phrase or the parenthetical.
4/1/2015Columbus State University Other Common Citations Organization as an author: use the full name of the organization, the first time and the abbreviation in subsequent citations. For authors with the same last name, use the first initial and the last name, e.g. J. Smith (2001). For personal communication include (Name, personal communication, September 27, 2006).
4/1/2015Columbus State University Other Common Citations, contd. In an indirect citation, include the original author’s name in the signal phrase, and in the parenthetical and list of references, the format should include the indirect source’s author. Example: Linguist Noam Chomsky has dismissed studies on Kanzi with a flippant analogy: “To maintain that Kanzi has language ability is like saying that man can fly because he can jump in the air” (as cited in Booth, 1990, p. A3).
4/1/2015Columbus State University Electronic citations often can be complicated since frequently there is missing information. Always consult an APA handbook for the citation of electronic resources. Again, make sure that electronic sources are “good” sources.