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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

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Presentation on theme: "GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY"— Presentation transcript:

1 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
Utilization of GIS Technology for Agrometeorological Applications Robert Stefanski and Ray Motha World Meteorological Organization U.S. Dept. of Agriculture World Agricultural Outlook Board

2 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
Introduction Several analytical techniques are used to monitor crop weather worldwide time series analyses Historical analog comparisons static maps Depiction of ET, soil moisture Until recently, many maps were static and depicted just one variable, making it difficult to: overlay data sets visualize and evaluate relationships easily assess crop weather conditions Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have helped overcome these hurdles World Agricultural Outlook Board

3 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
GIS Described Simple GIS GIS defined: method for organizing, displaying, and analyzing spatial data and their relationships using computers and compatible technologies GIS incorporates quantitative data directly into the system, helping users: overlay multiple data sets create precise maps perform spatial analyses Numerous organizations use GIS to study, monitor, and model processes Robust GIS World Agricultural Outlook Board

4 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
GIS Users USDA Forest Service GIS used to map wildfire burn severity and to focus efforts to minimize flooding and erosion World Agricultural Outlook Board

5 GIS used to map crop areas
annually for selected states

6 GIS used to delineate field boundaries,
map land use, and calculate acreages

7 GIS used to map various climatic parameters

8 Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model
PRISM Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model Generates gridded estimates of climatic parameters Moving-window regression of climate vs. elevation for each grid cell Uses nearby station observations Spatial climate knowledge base weights stations in the regression function by their climatological similarity to the target grid cell

9 W = f {Wd, Wz, Wc, Wf, Wp, Wl, Wt, We}
Station Weighting Combined weight of a station is: W = f {Wd, Wz, Wc, Wf, Wp, Wl, Wt, We} Distance Elevation Clustering Topographic Facet (orientation) Coastal Proximity Vertical Layer (inversion) Topographic Index (cold air pooling) Effective Terrain Height (orographic profile)

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GIS used to track tropical cyclones

12 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
GIS used to map flooding associated with a landfalling hurricane

13 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
WAOB GIS Software ArcView 3.x ArcGIS 9.x Hardware 7 Pentium IV desktop computers Processing speed 2.4 to 2.8 GHz 512 MB RAM Windows 2000/XP operating system PCs connected via local area network Oracle 9i database

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Data U.S. National Weather Service synoptic/cooperative observer data WMO data important NWS/WMO data archived in DBMS Data describing extreme weather tropical cyclone wind/coordinate data mesonetwork temp./precip. data USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) crop production, yield, and area data NASS weekly crop progress/condition data

15 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
USDA Agrometeorological GIS Applications WAOB GIS regularly used to create a variety of agricultural weather analyses Products grouped into three categories: Manual, single-parameter applications Automated, single-parameter applications Manual, multiple-parameter applications

16 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
Manual, Single-Parameter Applications Refer to those WAOB products that map one agricultural or meteorological parameter and are generally labor-intensive to create Created by manually converting raw data into GIS-compatible formats and then using a GUI to import and display these data in the GIS GUI also used to add text and legends to the crop and weather maps, and thus create the finished products

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18 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
Crop Production Data – Internet U.S. Corn

19 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
Crop Production Data – Excel U.S. Corn

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Crop Production Data – ArcView U.S. Corn

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22 Weather Analyses – Text File
Text file, comma-delimited WMO data Note latitude/longitude data in addition to weather data

23 Weather Analyses – GIS Table

24 Weather Analyses – Data Plotted

25 Weather Analyses – Data Contoured

26 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
Automated, Single-Parameter Applications Similar to manual, single-parameter applications in that one agricultural or meteorological parameter is displayed and analyzed on each map, however, the process for creating these products has been automated Product creation process can be time consuming and tedious if a large number of products are desired and these products are created manually Automation significantly reduces the time and labor required to produce these products

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28 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
Avenue Scripts Object-oriented programming language, enables users to automate various tasks associated with mapping Examples of automation: loading data spatial analysis (e.g., contouring) defining map scale/extent annotation creating a map legend exporting/printing a map World Agricultural Outlook Board

29 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
Daily Plot Maps Green number = precipitation Red number = maximum temperature Blue number = minimum temperature Empty, partially filled, and completely filled green circles symbolize precipitation amounts World Agricultural Outlook Board

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31 Color Contour Maps

32 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
Manual, Multiple-Parameter Applications Refer to those WAOB products that map two or more agrometeorological parameters and are generally labor-intensive to create Demonstrate the significant overlay capabilities of GIS, specifically the ability to visualize – and quantify – the percent of agriculture affected by various types of weather Often typify the special crop weather assessments prepared by WAOB meteorologists in response to extreme or severe weather World Agricultural Outlook Board

33 Crop Weather Analyses – Hurricane Frances

34 Crop Weather Analyses – Hurricane Ivan

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38 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
U.S. Drought Monitor – Background In 1999, government and university scientists began working together to produce the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), a weekly product designed to provide a single snapshot of the spatial extent and intensity of drought in U.S. Drought experts from four agencies are responsible for coordinating USDM production each week On a rotating basis, an individual from one of these agencies serves as product author for the week, and typically authors the product for 2 weeks. World Agricultural Outlook Board

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U.S. Drought Monitor - Methodology Each Monday, author consults data from numerous sources quantitative observational networks model output satellite and radar imagery subjective reports Author uses these data to prepare a first draft of the USDM for that week Draft distributed via list-server to approximately 150 people, including fellow authors and climate and water experts from around the country. 1st draft 2nd draft 3rd draft FINAL 1st draft 2nd draft 3rd draft FINAL 1st draft 2nd draft 3rd draft FINAL 1st draft 2nd draft 3rd draft FINAL World Agricultural Outlook Board

40 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
U.S. Drought Monitor - Methodology Members of drought list provide author feedback, used to refine USDM Through iterative process, author prepares and distributes 2-3 drafts of the USDM during Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of each week to obtain the best product possible. Final product and an accompanying text summary posted every Thursday at 0830 LT on the USDM web site: (http://www.drought.unl.edu/dm/monitor.html) World Agricultural Outlook Board

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42 GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY
U.S. Drought Monitor - Software Originally prepared using CorelDraw unable to overlay indices quantitative analysis not possible USDM authors switched to ArcGIS Authors obtained professional training draw drought areas annotate map print/export product Initial difficulties using GIS blamed on author inexperience deadlines limiting troubleshooting time World Agricultural Outlook Board

43 Thank You !


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