Presentation on theme: "Business Research BUS020N532Y"— Presentation transcript:
1Business Research BUS020N532Y Literature ReviewBusiness ResearchBUS020N532Y
2Literature ReviewHow to searchHow to readHow to write
3Goals of a literature review To generate and refine your research ideasTo demonstrate familiarity with a body of knowledgeTo show the development of previous research and how the current project is linked to it—‘positioning’ your researchTo integrate and summarise what is known in a given area- areas of agreement/disagreement- key questions
4Types of Literature Popular literature addressed to a general audience almost always secondary source of informatione.g. Financial Times, Guardian, Wall Street Journal, EconomistScholarly Literatureaddressed to a specialized audience (experts in the field)usually primary source of informatione.g. American Economic Review, Journal of Economic Literature, Journal of Econometrics, Journal of Labor Economics, etc.
5How to search: effective search strategy How to search scholarly literatureBrowsingJournal of Economic PerspectivesJournal of Economic LiteratureKeyword searchingOnline databases: Academic Search Premier, Business Source Premier, Emerald, JSTOR, ScienceDirect.Use Boolean operators and wildcard character:AND is used to narrow a search;OR is used to widen a search;NOT means exclude;wildcard character (*)
6A Basic Search Strategy Begin by stating your research topic or question;Identify important concepts relevant to your topic;Brainstorm to create a list of keywords that describe these concepts;Determine any synonyms to these keywords;Choose a subject approach; that is, determine which discipline or disciplines are likely to have literature on your topic;Determine which search features may apply (e.g. Boolean operators, wildcards);Choose an appropriate database to search the given subject; for example, JSTOR;Read the search instructions for the database;Create a search expression using the appropriate syntax;View the results;Modify the search if necessary (return to Step 2);Try the same search with another database (return to Step 6)
7How to Read Critically Scholarly work should be read differently You need to have a conversation with the paperWhat arguments is the paper making? Why are they important? Do you agree? Why or why not?Critical DistinctionsWho is speaking vs. the idea they addressMatters of taste vs. matters of judgmentFact vs. InterpretationLiteral statements vs. ironic statementsThe validity of an idea vs. the expression of that idea.
8Getting through a Journal Article It is very easy to get discouraged by the technical jargon, mathematics, and/or econometrics in an academic paperDon’t! You can usually understand the key points of a paper even without any background.Helpful tips:Write down unfamiliar terminology and look it up (www.econterms.com)Read the introduction and conclusion firstOnly highlight/take notes until you have completed reading a section.Trust in the peer-review process: the math is usually right.Keep reading, eventually the author will explain the key points in nice plain language.Write an abstract of the paper in your own words.
9Identifying an Author’s Argument The following are questions you should ask yourself whilst reading a journal article:What question is the author asking?What answer does the author propose?In what ways does the study improve upon previous research?How does the proposed answer compare with that provided by previous research?What are the major logical or theoretical reasons for the author’s argument?What empirical evidence does the author provide?What assumptions is the author making in his or her reasoning?
10Evaluating the Author’s Argument Asking the following questions help you to guide critical reading:Does the theoretical analysis make sense?Are the data used adequate to the task?Does the empirical methodology adequately test the hypothesis?Are the assumptions reasonable?Is the analysis (theoretical and empirical) clearly explained?Do the conclusions follow from the evidence presented?On balance, is the author’s argument convincing to you?
11How to write a literature review Remember that literature reviews are organised around ideas, and not the sources.To help you with this:Identify shared themes, ideas, or issues that the literature sources?Is there an idea that seems to be missing?Do you like the theoretical approach in the literature?What are the trends in the literature or current debates or developments?Develop an overall thesis statement that includes your perspective on the material you have reviewed
12How to write a literature review Literature reviews containIntroduction: This should present the core idea – the thesis statement around which the argument will develop. This suggests the organisational pattern.Body: This presents your summarisation, synthesis and argument with the existing literature.Conclusion: This concludes your argument that you have developed from the literature, and identifies the implications for your own study.
13ReadingGreenlaw S. (2006) Doing Economics: a guide to understanding and carrying out economic research. Houghton Mifflin Company. Ch. 3, 6, and 12.Saunders, M, Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009) Research Methods for Business Students, 5th edition, Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Ch. 3