We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byCamille Yeo
Modified about 1 year ago
The Literature Review Appraisal, matrix & synthesis Aalto University: Workshop 2 Sophia Butt
Workshop 2: Aim & Overview By the end of this workshop, you will be able to… Identify the pitfalls to be avoided in academic writing Recognise how to assess source types Conduct an initial appraisal of three texts Create a literature matrix with parameters for analysis Extract relevant excerpts from three academic texts to populate the literature matrix created Conduct critical synthesis © Sophia Butt 2
Common Pitfalls in Academic Writing Daft (1985) specifies the top ten reasons why 111 articles were rejected from the Academy of Management Journal and Administrative Sciences Quarterly… Daft, R.L. (1985) ‘Why I Recommended that Your Manuscript be Rejected and What You Can Do about It.’ In: Publishing in the Organizational Sciences. Cummings, L.L. & Frost, P.J. (eds.) Homewood, IL: Irwin, pp No theory 2. Insufficient definition of theory 3. Concepts not aligned 4. Inadequate research design 5. Insufficient rationale for design 6. Weak macro-structure (text & flow) 7. Amateur style and tone 8. Not relevant to field 9. Over-engineering of work 10. Conclusions not in alignment 3 © Sophia Butt
Critical Appraisal of Texts Before writing the Literature Review, each text must be appraised (or assessed) at two levels : The Initial Appraisal Author Date of Publication Edition/Revision Publisher The Content Appraisal Reasoning Coverage Writing Style Evaluative Reviews (where relevant) Let’s explore each in more detail… © Sophia Butt 4
5 Critical Appraisal of Information Sources Adapted from: 1. INITIAL APPRAISAL A. Author Author’s credentials? Educational background, past publications or experience? Topic on author's area of expertise? Institutional affiliation? What are basic values or goals of the organisation or institution? Author recommended by professors? Name cited in other sources or bibliographies? © Sophia Butt
6 B. Date of Publication When was the source published? Is the source current or out-of-date for the topic? C. Edition or Revision First edition of this publication? [Newer editions indicate revisions and updates to reflect changes in knowledge; they may also include omissions] Use most recent edition, where possible… D. Publisher/Title of Journal ‘Scholarly’ or popular? 1. INITIAL APPRAISAL (cont’d…) © Sophia Butt
7 2. CONTENT ANALYSIS A. Objective Reasoning Is source information fact, opinion, or propaganda? (scrutinise the text, as skilled writers can make their interpretations/personal opinions seem like facts…) Does data provided appear to be valid and well- researched, or, questionable and unsupported? Note any errors or omissions… B. Coverage Does the source update other works, substantiate other materials read, or add new information? Is the material primary or secondary in nature? (when choosing materials for assignments, use primary sources wherever possible) © Sophia Butt
8 2. CONTENT ANALYSIS (cont’d…) C. Writing Style Is the macro-structure of the source logical? Is the author's argument repetitive? Is it readable, or stilted or incoherent? D. Evaluative Reviews Locate critical reviews of the literature, if possible… Text considered to be a valuable contribution to field? Does reviewer mention other – better sources? Do the various reviewers agree on the value or attributes of the literature, or has it aroused controversy among critics? © Sophia Butt
Exercise 1: Appraisal of Sources Reflect on the three texts read for homework, and comment on your overall impression of each article by focusing on the following on your handout: 1.Any relevant information known about the author 2.The publisher/source 3.Whether the material/text is primary or secondary 4.Objectivity of reasoning 5.Coverage by way of reference to other similar studies 6.Overall quality of the paper © Sophia Butt 9
Organising the Literature [Reproduced with permission from the University of Washington, Bothell] Organise your literature by detecting a pattern that helps you explain why one group of sources produces one answer and a different group, another. Using a matrix is a very effective way of doing this. Summarise the contents of these groups in terms of how they address the question: which methodology, evidence or critical concepts do they employ? Analyse the content of these sources in terms of the answer they provide to your central question(s) or in terms of the questions they raise. Are important insights offered? Are particular areas neglected? © Sophia Butt 10
The Literature Matrix DisciplineTopic Hypothesis MethodsResultsTheory/Tool Conclusion Source # 1 Source # 2 Source # 3 Source # 4 Source # 5 © Sophia Butt 11 Note: Your matrix may look different to this: The number and type of sources you are working with, and your research questions, will influence the items listed across the top.
Exercise 2: Creating a Matrix Form small groups and work together to… 1.Identify the common topic in each of the three texts read for homework & complete the bibliographical details for each text 2.Decide on the categories suitable for the each column Now… 3.Populate the matrix for your text (remember to use keywords/note-form only) Compare your answers with your team before class feedback You have 30 minutes for this exercise…see next slide for an example… © Sophia Butt 12
Exercise 2: Creating a Matrix - Example © Sophia Butt 13 SourcesTopicHypothesis… Text 1: Levasseur, R.E. (2011) ‘People Skills: Optimizing Team Development & Performance.’ Interfaces 41 (2): Team-work v group- work Minimising the ‘storming’ phase (conflict) in team-work Text 2: Gueldenzoph Snyder, L. (2009) ‘Teaching Teams about Teamwork: Preparation, Practice & Performance Review.’ Business Communication Quarterly (March): Teaching students how to do team-work Text 3: Scarfino, D. & Roever, C. (2009) ‘Team-Building Success: It’s in the Cards.’ Business Communication Quarterly (March): Managing diverse strengths &/or styles for successful team- work
Examining Studies for Synthesis Lie, K. (n.d.) Writing the Literature Review. Available from: [Accessed on 18 November 2012] To synthesise, review each text for the following: Research aims(s) or hypotheses Research design and sampling, where relevant Author’s philosophy/line of argument Epistemology (i.e. knowledge, foundations, scope, validity) Methodology employed Theories/tools/models used or proposed How data was recorded, analysed and interpreted The results or findings Evaluate the currency and coverage of the sources © Sophia Butt 14
Synthesis in the Writing Adapted from Mongan-Rallis, H. (2006) Guidelines for Writing a Literature Review. Available from: In preparation for synthesis in your writing… Create a thesis statement Build a foundation for your arguments Decide how you will reorganise/reassemble your notes Identify the framework & structural approach you will use Ensure each paragraph topic summarises the main idea Consider points so as to analyse, compare and contrast Present a timeline of developments, where relevant Discuss the key arguments/claims made in the literature © Sophia Butt 15
Exercise 3: Synthesis Practice Using the three texts on Teamwork, and the data inserted into the Literature Matrix created in exercise 2, work with a partner to complete exercise 3 on your handout: 1.Detect any similarities and differences in each of the three texts. 2.Produce a short synthesised summary of the articles, with references. Compare your answers with another group before feedback. © Sophia Butt 16
Homework Conduct a literature search of materials for your Research Plan Record a working bibliography Prepare a draft Research Plan for your consultation © Sophia Butt 17
Sources Consulted Bell, J. (2005) Doing Your Research Project (4th edn.). Maidenhead: Open University Press. Bruce, C.S. (1994) ’Research Students’ Early Experiences of the Dissertation Literature Review’. Studies in Higher Education. 19 (2): Hart, C. (2001) Doing a Literature Review. London: Sage. Jesson, J.K., Matheson, L. & Lacey, F.M. (2011: 32) Doing your Literature Review: Traditional & Systematic Techniques. London: Sage Machi, L.A. & McEvoy, B.T. (2009) Literature Review: Six Steps to Success. USA: Corwin Press. McKercher, B., Law, R., Weber, K., Song, H. & Hsu, C. (2007) ‘Why Referees Reject Manuscripts.’ Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 31 (4): Nunan, D. (1992) Research Methods in Language Learning. Cambridge: CUP. Philips, P.M. & Pugh, D.S. (2005) How to Get a PhD (4th edn.). Buckingham: Open University Press. Ridley, D. (2008) The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students. London: Sage Publications. © Sophia Butt 18
APA Style and Scholarly Writing Jim Messina, Ph.D., Troy University Tampa Bay Site.
Writing the Literature Review Lourdes Villarreal, Ph.D. Writing Center Claremont Graduate University.
Systematic reviewing for Nursing, Therapy & Allied health- Qualitative Evidence Synthesis (SyNTAQuES) Andrew Booth, Chris Carroll & Janet Harris, School.
Research Communication Skills Training Day Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences 5 March 2014 Barbara Gastel, MD, MPH INASP Associate, AuthorAID.
Academic Writing Liv Jonassen Elizabeth Tomchak. Outcomes Understand what is expected at Masters level at University. Know how to use an appropriate academic.
Using Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria Peter Noakes Department of Electronic Systems Engineering University of Essex.
How To Write a Scientific Paper – A General Guide.
INSIGHTS INTO STUDY SKILLS Colin Rees & Alan Glasper Chapter 1.
Dr. John Cuthell, Research and Implementation Director, MirandaNet Academy Inspirational Multimodal.
S5 Extended Project. Aims Develops employability skills, including project management. Specifically designed to aid transition to higher education and.
Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia Chapter 1 Effective reading for academic.
Critical Reading Strategies: Overview of Research Process Week 3/4 Week 3/4.
1 Developing Literature Review Training Module for Institute of Research Promotion (IRP)
Publishing in Academic Journals Tips to help you succeed Jinn P. Chu ( 朱瑾 ) National Taiwan University of Science and Technology Vice Dean, College of.
The Robert Gordon University School of Engineering Poster & Project Presentations Dr. Mohamed Amish.
Developing Study Skills and Research Methods Unit Leader: Dr James Betts Unit Code: HL20107
1 Module 2 Sessions 10 & 11 Report Writing. 2 Design survey Design questionnaire Enumerators collect data in the field Data entered onto computer Manual.
Action Research Not traditional educational research often research tests theory not practical Teacher research in classrooms and/or schools/districts.
Slide 3.1 Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009.
2008 August 22Overview Session Welcome Welcome to the professional development sessions that focus on the 9-12 Mathematics Standards for Washington. 1.
Making An English Biomedical Paper: Why, What, and How Ruiwen Zhang, MD, PhD, DABT Professor, Pharmacology and Toxicology Director, Cancer Pharmacology.
Writing & Reviewing a Research Paper Kurt C. Stange, MD, PhD Editor, Annals of Family Medicine Professor of Family Medicine, Epidemiology & Biostatistics,
TAIWO ODUGUWA MBBS, FWACP Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Yaba Lagos.
CBR 302 A Hands-On Approach to Qualitative Methods and Analysis.
Henry Khachaturian, Ph.D. Extramural Program Policy Officer Office of Extramural Research National Institutes of Health June 2013.
HDR Forum: August 2012 School of Education and Professional Studies From Good Idea to Great Proposal: Tips for Success at Confirmation of Candidature Dr.
Essay writing Sara Steinke STAY AHEAD AUTUMN PROGRAMME 2011.
IADSR International Conference 2012 Post Conference Workshop Lahore, Pakistan 1 May 2012.
2012 SQA Central Training (New Centers) Venue – BISU, Beijing 9, Sept am– 5:00 pm Mary Gao.
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.