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APA Format: Demystifying Referencing. What not to reference: Anything that is “general knowledge” If you can find the information in three readily available.

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Presentation on theme: "APA Format: Demystifying Referencing. What not to reference: Anything that is “general knowledge” If you can find the information in three readily available."— Presentation transcript:

1 APA Format: Demystifying Referencing

2 What not to reference: Anything that is “general knowledge” If you can find the information in three readily available sources, it’s considered “general” or “common” knowledge, and needs no referencing.

3 What to reference: Everything Else!

4 In Text Citation Requirements

5 Last Name(s) of Author(s) use an ampersand (&) to connect two or more names This can be in the text of the document, or in the parentheses after the quotation

6 Copyright Date First mention only (per paragraph), unless you use 2 or more works by the same author 2 or more works by the same author? Identify each with the publication date. Same publication date? Use “a,b,c” Think nasty thoughts about workaholic overachievers

7 Page or Paragraph Number Use only if they are available; otherwise use n.p. (no pagination) Use only if you use a direct quotation Use p. for one page; pp. for multiple pages, nothing for paragraphs (use par. numbers only if provided)

8 For more information... Quick Access pp. 246 ff.

9 Basic format: One Author (Smith, 2001, p. 2)

10 Basic Format: Two Authors (Smith & Jones, 2002, p.3)

11 Basic Format: 3 or more First reference: (Smith, Jones, & Brown, 2003, p.4) Subsequent references: (Smith et al., 2003, p.6)

12 Gov’t. or Corp. Author: First reference: (Canadian Nursing Association [CNA], 2005, p.6) Subsequent references: (CNA, p.9)

13 Weird Stuff: Article from a website: (author, date) No author? Look for one of these: Corporation Association Government Ministry Sponsoring Body Still no author? Use a short form of the title, then the date. No date? Use “Access date,” clearly noted as such

14 More Weird Stuff: Info. from an entire website: For a brief reference, just use (URL) Info from an email: As with personal communications: (personal communication, Oct. 25, 2005)

15 More Weird Stuff: Info from a Government Website (ie. Statistics Canada): As with a corporate website: First reference: (Statistics Canada [Stats.Can.], {date of collection}) Subsequent references: (Stats.Can., {date of collection}).

16 Statistics Do not reference stats in common use Do reference stats that are in journals, but not textbooks Do reference stats used in a controversial way (APA suggests “to justify a test of significance when the data do not meet the assumptions of the test) Do reference stats when they are the focus of the article

17 Formatting Quotations

18 Less than 40 words: Incorporate into your own text and enclose in quotation marks Put the parenthetical reference after the quotation marks and before the end stop

19 More than 40 words: Use block format

20 Block format Indent one tab-space from the left- hand margin Don’t indent the right-hand margin Don’t use quotation marks Place the parenthetical notation after the end of the quotation and after the end-stop.

21 It looks like this:

22 The References List... AAAAAAAAAAAaaaaaaaaaaarg!

23 A Few Tips: Get all the information you need for each item you use as soon as you get the item. TIP: make a list of things you need (template?), and fill it out as you go along. List this stuff on a sticky note or index card, and attach it to the item. If you’re really organized, create a file or rolodex If you’re really organized and want to save yourself some time, create a “working bibliography” page on your computer

24 What information? (books) Author(s) (use “&” to join authors) Date of publication Title (first letter of title capitalized) Of article/essay Of book Place of publication Publisher Pages your article/essay is found on

25 What information? (Print journals) Author(s) (use “&” to join names) Date of publication Title Of article/essay Of journal Pages your article/essay is found on

26 Weird Stuff (again) The same strategies will work—but here’s a tip: In QA, more time is given to the MLA reference system BUT APA uses the same information in a slightly different order SO Cheat and use the MLA lists of information needed...

27 Where to find the lists: Portable Electronic Sources (CD ROM): p. 209 Online sources (with a URL): p. 212-213 Online periodicals (not through EBSCO or ProQuest): p. 214-215

28 Magic Buttons! Less magic: EBSCO HOST

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30 More Magic: ProQuest

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32

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34 Using Templates: Once you have your information, it’s just a matter of putting it in the right order, with the right punctuation. Tip: Use a template Make your own, especially of kinds of materials you use frequently Use a binder insert for quick reference

35 Finding the templates: Use Quick Access In-text Citations Directory: p. 270 ff. References List Directory: p. 260

36 Work from the examples: Book by one author: Trudeau, P. E. (1968). Federalism and the French Canadians. Toronto: Macmillian Canada. Authorlast, Init. (#year#). Title. Place: Publisher.

37 Work from the examples: Book by two or more authors (p. 262): Leghorn, L., & Parker, K. (1981). Woman’s worth. Boston: Routledge& Kegan Paul. Lastone, F., & Lastone, S. (#year#). Title. Place: Publisher.

38 Two books by the same author? List chronologically Earlier works are listed first

39 Corporate Author? P. 262 American Psychological Association. (1994). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (4 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Corporate Author. (#date#). Title (# ed.). Place: Publisher. Note Note: if the publisher is also the author, just use the word “author” as the publisher.

40 Internet Sources (YIKES!!) In general, give the same information as for print sources, whenever this is available: Author Title Publication Information In addition, give a “retrieval statement” (URL, or some indication of how you found this source)

41 Website (p. 269): Hunter-Kilmer, M. (1996, February). Whatever the title was. Retrieved December 4, 1999, from http://www.idsonline.com/userweb/pha ntom/index.htm http://www.idsonline.com/userweb/pha ntom/index.htm Author, Firstname. (#date#). Title. Retrieved #date#, from

42 Real Life Example:

43 Organization’s Web Page National Hospice and Palliative Care Association. Home page. Retrieved 15 November 2005, from http://www.nhpco.org/templates/1/ho mepage.cfm

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46 Article on a Website: National Hospice and Palliative Care Institute. “An Explanation of Palliative Care.” Retrieved 15 November, 2005 from http://www.nhpco.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=4646

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49 Weird One! Sutton Group, for The Center to Advance Palliative Care in partnership with NHPCO and the Hospice Association of America. Date? Uhoh!

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51 Weird one solved: Sutton Group, for The Center to Advance Palliative Care in partnership with NHPCO and the Hospice Association of America. (2002). Study of Hospice- Hospital Collaborations. Retrieved 15 November 2005, from http://www.nhpco.org/files/public/CAPC_- _Survey_Survey_-_Sutton_Final_Report_4.pdf

52 Most important points: Get the bibliographic info when you get the resource Create a sticky note, index card, or working bibliography Use a template Create your own, particularly of kinds of resources you use often In Quick Access, use the lists in the MLA section when you’re in doubt. Check with the APA bible if you must. Still not sure? Make sure: Ask a prof (preferably the one that gave you the assignment) Come in to the Writing Centre and ask us

53 The Writing Centre Mon-Thurs9:00-4:30 Friday 10:090-3:00 Express Lane Mon9:00-11:00 Tues11:00-1:00 Wed9:00-11:00 Thurs2:30-4:30

54 This Presentation: Go to the Writing Centre’s Website: http://mala.ca/writingcentre/index.asp

55

56 Good Luck!!


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