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Department of Psychiatry Career Development and Research Office Manuscript Writing – A Primer March 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Department of Psychiatry Career Development and Research Office Manuscript Writing – A Primer March 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Department of Psychiatry Career Development and Research Office Manuscript Writing – A Primer March 2011

2 Why do we want to write and publish? -Types of manuscripts -How to choose where to publish -What is peer-review? -What do journal editors do, anyway? -How to start a manuscript

3 Why do we publish? -Get our ideas out there -Help colleagues, etc -Get grants -Get promoted -Because it’s fun? -What else?

4 Who is interested in what types of writing? How would you like to proceed? Smaller groups? Face-to-face meetings? Email exchange?

5 Types of Academic Manuscripts -Primary data -Metadata Analysis -Review Articles -Case Studies -Book chapters -Issue Briefs -Educational materials -What else?

6 How to pick a journal There are two ways to find a journal to submit to (that is, if you don’t already have one in mind): Peruse lists of journals by subject, and (much better), see where people you are citing have published. Once you’ve identified a potential journal to submit to, do some research. Go and read some articles they publish if you’re not familiar with the journal, to make sure it’s right for your approach (ask a colleague / mentor if you’re not sure).

7 Here are some lists of journals to peruse: Directory of Open Access JournalsDirectory of Open Access Journals: Springer journalsSpringer journals (2000+): 0-0 Elsevier journalsElsevier journals (2000+): Taylor and Francis / RoutledgeTaylor and Francis / Routledge: Wiley BlackwellWiley Blackwell (1900+): bin/home?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 Lamar Soutter Library:

8 Journal Impact Factors Thompson ISI: http://admin- =4A5bBo1h2OIm@d8nDcg Impact factor = # of citations per year/# of papers published in a year The higher, the “better”



11 How to submit to a journal Find their submission guidelines – usually online, but may also be found in the print version of journal. Then follow those guidelines scrupulously, especially formatting and bibliographical style. And PROOFREAD!! Nothing makes an editor put your submission in the recycle folder faster than a submission full of misspelled words and grammatical errors. Make sure the abstract and introduction are incredibly clear and compelling so that they keep reading, and write a short cover letter that SELLS your article: in it, you should make clear what is new and significant about your approach.

12 Peer-review Peer review is the evaluation of creative work or performance by other people in the same field in order to maintain or enhance the quality of the work or performance in that field. It is based on the concept that a larger and more diverse group of people will usually find more weaknesses and errors in a work or performance and will be able to make a more impartial evaluation of it than will just the person or group responsible for creating the work or performance. Reviewers are usually anonymous, while the authors’ names are known to reviewers. Why is this important?

13 OK, so you’ve submitted your scholarly article to a peer-reviewed journal. What now???? 1)It’s assigned to an editor, who reviews it and decide if it goes out to review -Is this new work? -Is it important? -Does it add to the field? 2)If not, the manuscript (ms) is “rejected”. The author may rewrite and resubmit, or submit the exact same ms to another journal. Note: Never submit the same manuscript to different journals at the same time! 3)If it goes out to review—2-4 experts in the subject matter will be chosen to review it. -Rejected -Back to review after major revisions -Back to review after minor revisions -Minor revisions, no back to review -Accepted

14 How to start writing *** No one way to start --choose your journal, and pay attention to their format. Some journals call for a combined results and discussion, for example, or include materials and methods after the body of the paper. Abstract Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion

15 From Archives of General Psychiatry Manuscript Preparation and Submission Requirements Manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the AMA Manual of Style 1 and/or the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. 7 Double-space the manuscript and leave right margins unjustified (ragged). Each manuscript component should begin on a new page, in the following sequence: title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, figure legends, tables, and figures. Pages should be sequentially numbered in the upper right-hand corner, beginning with the title page. Do not use line numbering. The text of the manuscript must not exceed 4500 words, exclusive of references, tables, and figure legends. The total number of text words should be displayed on the title page of the manuscript. 1Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals 7 Cover Letter. Include a cover letter and complete contact information for the corresponding author (postal/mail address, e-mail address, and telephone and fax numbers) and whether the authors have published or submitted any related papers from the same study. (See Duplicate/Previous Publication or Submission.)Duplicate/Previous Publication or Submission Title Page. The title page should list full names, degrees, academic affiliations and locations of each author, and the name and address to whom reprint requests should be sent. If the paper was presented at a meeting, include the organization, place, and date of presentation. Acknowledgment of all funding support for the work should also be made on this page. Titles should be short, specific, and descriptive, emphasizing the main point of the article. Avoid a 2-part title, if at all possible. Do not number the title, eg, I or Part I. Do not make a declarative statement in the title. Title length, including punctuation and spaces, ideally should be under 100 characters and must not exceed 150 characters. Abstract. Include a structured abstract of no more than 300 words for reports of original data, reviews, and meta-analyses. (See Preparing Structured Abstracts.) For other major manuscripts, include an unstructured abstract of no more than 200 words that summarizes the objective, main points, and conclusions of the article. Abstracts are not required for editorials, commentaries, and special features.Preparing Structured Abstracts Abbreviations. Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract. Limit their use in the text. Units of Measure. Laboratory values are expressed using conventional units of measure, with relevant Système International (SI) conversion factors expressed secondarily (in parentheses) only at first mention. Articles that contain numerous conversion factors may list them together in a paragraph at the end of the “Methods” section. In tables and figures, a conversion factor to SI units should be provided in a footnote or legend. The metric system is preferred for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. A Conversion Table is available on the Web site for the AMA Manual of Style.Conversion Table

16 Duplicate/Previous Publication or Submission. Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they have the approval of each author, are not under simultaneous consideration by another publication, and have not been published previously in whole or substantial part. This policy applies to the essential contents, tables, or figures, but does not apply to abstracts. Authors must disclose in their cover letters if the submitted manuscript contains any data, patient information, or other material or results that have already been published or are in press, submitted, or nearly submitted. Copies of closely related manuscripts should be submitted to the Editor for examination. Accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of the Archives. They may not be republished without permission from the publisher (AMA).

17 Authorship Criteria and Contributions. With the cover letter include (1) the statement on and checklist for authorship responsibility, criteria, and contributions, (2) the statement on financial disclosure, and either the statement on copyright or the statement on federal employment. Each of these 3 statements must be read and signed by all authors. 1(pp127-132) (3) The corresponding author must sign the acknowledgment statement. (See Authorship Form.) 1(pp127-132)Authorship Form

18 1. Authorship Responsibility, Criteria, and Contributions. Each author should meet all criteria below (A, B, C, and D) and should indicate general and specific contributions by reading criteria A, B, C, and D and checking the appropriate boxes. A. I certify that the manuscript represents original and valid work and that neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in an attachment; and if requested by the editors, I will provide the data or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data on which the manuscript are based for examination by the editors or their assignees; and for papers with more than 1 author, I agree to allow the corresponding author to serve as the primary correspondent with the editorial office, to review the edited typescript and proof, and to make decisions regarding release of information in the manuscript to the media, federal agencies, or both; or, if I am the only author, I will be the corresponding author and agree to serve in the roles described above. B. I have given final approval of the submitted manuscript. C. I have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for (check 1 of 2 below) ____ part of the content. ____ the whole content. D. To qualify for authorship, you must check at least 1 box for each of the 3 categories of contributions listed below. I have made substantial contributions to the intellectual content of the paper as described below. 1. (check at least 1 of the 3 below) _____ conception and design _____ acquisition of data _____ analysis and interpretation of data 2. (check at least 1 of 2 below) _____ drafting of the manuscript _____ critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content 3. (check at least 1 below) _____ statistical expertise _____ obtaining funding _____ administrative, technical, or material support _____ supervision _____ no additional contributions _____ other (specify)

19 Conflicts of Interest and Financial Disclosure. A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author’s institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships or affiliations that could inappropriately influence (or bias) the author’s decisions, work, or manuscript. All authors are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed on the title page of the manuscript) relevant to the subject of their manuscript. Authors should err on the side of full disclosure and should contact the editorial office if they have questions or concerns. Authors are expected to provide detailed information about all relevant financial interests and relationships or financial conflicts within the past 5 years and for the foreseeable future (eg, employment/affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria, speakers bureau, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, patents filed, received, or pending, or donation of medical equipment), particularly those present at the time the research was conducted and through publication, as well as other financial interests (such as patent applications in preparation) that represent potential future financial gain.

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