Presentation on theme: "Authorship David Knauft UGA Graduate School & Horticulture Department."— Presentation transcript:
Authorship David Knauft UGA Graduate School & Horticulture Department
For background on authorship and peer review I particularly like this site from Columbia University: http://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/projects/r cr/rcr_authorship/foundation/index.h tml
Authorship is key to research for several reasons: Scientists have responsibility to publish their findings – unethical NOT to publish. Publication in scientific journals is seen, because of peer review process, to be place where “truth” exists. Publication is the “currency” of science for scientists. Recognition, tenure, promotion, grants, etc. all come from authorship.
What’s the issue? What’s the issue? Early research publications had one or two authors. However, as research has become more collaborative, the number of authors has increased. Problems arise when an undeserving person is an author, or when a deserving person is omitted. Criteria vary, but in general an author should: ◦ Have made a significant intellectual contribution to the paper ◦ Be prepared to defend and explain the paper ◦ Have read and reviewed the paper
People can contribute to research in a number of ways People can contribute to research in a number of ways Define problem Propose hypotheses Summarize background literature Design experiment Develop methodology Collect and record data Provide data Manage data Analyze data Interpret results Assist in technical aspects of research Assist in logistical aspects of research Apply for grant/ obtain funding Draft and edit manuscript
Some unethical issues: Gift authorship Honorary authorship Prestige authorship Ghost authorship Plagiarism (including self- plagiarism) Citation amnesia
The role of an author should include: Good writing Accuracy Context and citations Publish negative results Disclose possible conflicts of interest Be aware of duplicate publication Indicate sponsorship Be aware of copyright issues Be aware of fragmentary publication (when is there enough data to publish?) Be aware of intellectual property issues
Bottom line is accountability for the paper and the research within it. Authorship without accountability can lead to irresponsible practices If there is a problem with a paper, it is important to hold people accountable. When there has been misconduct, often an author of paper didn’t know enough about the research and said it was someone else’s fault Authorship with accountability leads to justice and fairness. Unfair to deny someone authorship to someone who is accountable, and also unfair to give authorship to someone who isn’t accountable.
Order of authors Order of authors One other issue that arises is authorship order. Varies from discipline to discipline. All articles should have an accountable author, one that bears the largest amount of accountability (usually first or last). Also is a corresponding author that had major role in writing. One of the best ways to resolve issues of authorship and issues of order is to discuss up-front and early in the research.