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Detecting and Avoiding Plagiarism. Academic Integrity Policy The Academic Integrity Policy of Ashford University States: “Students of Ashford University.

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Presentation on theme: "Detecting and Avoiding Plagiarism. Academic Integrity Policy The Academic Integrity Policy of Ashford University States: “Students of Ashford University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Detecting and Avoiding Plagiarism

2 Academic Integrity Policy The Academic Integrity Policy of Ashford University States: “Students of Ashford University will follow expected levels of academic integrity. Ashford University defines academic misconduct as dishonest and/or deceptive attempts to fulfill academic requirements. Cheating, furnishing fabricated or false information to Ashford University officials and adjuncts (such as lying to affect a grade change), and plagiarism constitute acts of academic misconduct, and will be met with censure.” This tutorial will assist you in detecting and avoiding plagiarism. Footer here

3 What is Plagiarism? According to the Academic Integrity Policy of Ashford University: “Plagiarism occurs when a student deliberately uses the ideas, language, or another writer’s original material (that is not common knowledge) without acknowledging the source. Plagiarized materials include texts (print or on- line), as well as the work of other students. Plagiarizing denies the student the powerful opportunity to develop as an ethical and conscientious human being. Herein rests the greatest reason not to plagiarize.” Plagiarism most often occurs when a student fails to properly cite his or her source of information. Next, various errors in citation will be explored.

4 What is Common Knowledge? Some students have the mistaken notion that they must give credit to a source only when they use a direct quotation. Paraphrasing (putting ideas into your own words) or changing a word or two in a source does not relieve the student of responsibility to credit the source. If an idea is not your own, you must cite the source in the text of the paper and at the end of the paper as a reference. The only exception to this rule is if the idea the student uses is common knowledge. Facts that are common knowledge will generally be known by many people and can easily be found or referenced. Common knowledge facts (for example, that Robert Kennedy was assassinated in 1968) do not need to be documented. However, students must reference lesser known ideas and interpretations of the common knowledge (for example, a press release defense attorney Lawrence Teeter made regarding the possible innocence of Sirhan Sirhan, the accused assassin). Footer here

5 Common Knowledge? Read the two statements below. Click on the choice that is common knowledge: 1.Albert Camus was born in Mondovi, Algeria in 1913 and died in 1960 in an automobile crash.Albert Camus was born in Mondovi, Algeria in 1913 and died in 1960 in an automobile crash. 2.I was saddened when the great guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan died. I’ll always remember when he said that love was the only cure for all the pain in the world. He said that love is the only thing we can take with us out of this life, and he’ll be missed.I was saddened when the great guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan died. I’ll always remember when he said that love was the only cure for all the pain in the world. He said that love is the only thing we can take with us out of this life, and he’ll be missed. Next Footer here

6 Detecting Plagiarism We will now explore different examples of a mock student’s writing. You will first see the original text from the article, followed by the student’s use of the material. You will then determine if the student is committing plagiarism or not. Next Footer here

7 Example 1 “A piece of literature has a social meaning, which means that the author produced the work within a certain historical and social context. The language the author uses, the social conventions he or she mentions, and descriptions of time and place all form the social meaning of the author’s work. We may be part of a very different social context than the author; but by investigating the social context of the author, we can arrive at a clearer understanding of the author’s message.” From Davis, S. (2005). Engaging the Text. Retrieved May 31, 2006, from LIB326: Historical Contexts and Literature from Ashford University Web site: (taken from page 1)http://blackboard.ashford.com Student wrote: “’A piece of literature has a social meaning, which means that the author produced the work within a certain historical and social context.’ Thus, by studying the context of an author, we can better understand his or her message (Davis, 2005, p. 1).” AcceptablePlagiarism Next Footer here

8 Example 2 “While we might not actually know with certainty what the author meant to portray in a particular work, by understanding such factors as his or her social class, ethnicity, gender, belief systems, and historical milieu we can arrive at an educated and consistent understanding.” From Davis, S. (2005). Engaging the Text. Retrieved May 31, 2006, from LIB326: Historical Contexts and Literature from Ashford University Web site: (taken from page 2)http://blackboard.ashford.com Student wrote: “As Davis (2005) indicates, although ‘we might not actually know’ what an author meant to portray, a careful exploration of the author’s background and his or her historical context can help the reader ‘arrive at an educated and consistent understanding (p.2).’” AcceptablePlagiarism Next Footer here

9 Example 3 “ Most authors have consistent themes that carry through their works. For example, a single story by Camus might seem hopelessly confusing until we have read more Camus. We might then realize that the author concerned himself with themes such as man’s need to find meaning in the world.” From Davis, S. (2005). Engaging the Text. Retrieved May 31, 2006, from LIB326: Historical Contexts and Literature from Ashford University Web site: (taken from page 2)http://blackboard.ashford.com Student wrote: “I agree with the importance of reading multiple works, because, as Davis (2005) relates, I was ‘hopelessly confused’ upon reading my first story by Albert Camus (p.2). I found, however, that as I read more about the author, I did find ‘consistent themes’ throughout his work (p.2).” AcceptablePlagiarism Next Footer here

10 Example 4 “Literature has the power to allow us to ‘see’ into another time and place: it allows us to share in the pain and joy of our shared humanity. In studying literature, we often get frustrated when we try to decipher what a piece of writing ‘means.’ Rather than becoming frustrated, once we engage with the text—once we share in the experience of ourselves and the author—we become part of the text itself.” From Davis, S. (2005). Engaging the Text. Retrieved May 31, 2006, from LIB326: Historical Contexts and Literature from Ashford University Web site: (taken from page 1)http://blackboard.ashford.com Student wrote: “A piece of writing can bring the reader back to another time in history. Instead of getting frustrated by literature, we can really share our experiences with the author (Davis, 2005, p. 1).” AcceptablePlagiarism Next Footer here

11 Example 5 “At times, when confronted with a text that seems difficult to read, we can learn more about the manner in which an author wrote by doing some research. For example, the poet T.S. Eliot ( ) belonged to a group of poets called the ‘imagists,’ and they styled their work in opposition to the sentimental works of poets such as Wordsworth.” From Davis, S. (2005). Engaging the Text. Retrieved May 31, 2006, from LIB326: Historical Contexts and Literature from Ashford University Web site: (taken from page 1)http://blackboard.ashford.com Student wrote: “Davis (2005) believes that research can help us learn more about the manner in which an author wrote. For example, through research we would find that the poet T.S. Eliot wrote in a very different way than the sentimental poet Wordsworth.” AcceptablePlagiarism Next Footer here

12 Recap: What is Plagiarism I To summarize, Ashford University defines the following acts as acts of plagiarism: Copying text from printed materials, which include books, magazines, encyclopedias, and newspapers, et al. –The modification of a) with the intent of changing verbiage, changing words, or interspacing the student’s work into the plagiarized work. “Copy and Paste” plagiarism, which involves copying and pasting materials from Internet sources and presenting them as one’s original work. –The modification of b) with the intent of changing verbiage, changing words, or interspacing the student’s work into the plagiarized work. Next Footer here

13 Recap: What is Plagiarism II The use of another student’s work. Even if the student has the permission of the other student, the use of another’s work constitutes an act of collusion, which constitutes an act of plagiarism. The use of materials purchased from Internet sources. “Recycling” of old papers for a current course. Students may only use previous work to support current work (and the previous work must be cited properly). Paraphrasing or summarizing another’s work without giving appropriate credit. Return to Start Footer here

14 Key: Common Knowledge Correct “Albert Camus was born in Mondovi, Algeria in 1913 and died in 1960 in an automobile crash.” This information is readily accessible and considered common knowledge. Click Here to Return to Tutorial Footer here

15 Key: Common Knowledge Incorrect The author of this statement is paraphrasing the text of an interview Stevie Ray Vaughan gave at the Mann Music Center in Philadelphia, Pa. on 6/30/87. By not stating the source, the author is committing an act of plagiarism. Click here to return to tutorial Footer here

16 Key: Example 1 Incorrect. The student commits plagiarism because the first sentence is a direct quote without a proper citation. While the student cites the second sentence, since the sentence so closely reflects Davis’s original work, the student should first write, “Further, Davis believes that…” Return to Example 1 Footer here

17 Key: Example 1 Correct. The student commits plagiarism because the first sentence is a direct quote without a proper citation. While the student cites the second sentence, since the sentence so closely reflects Davis’s original work, the student should first write, “Further, Davis believes that…” Return to Example 1 Footer here

18 Key: Example 2 Correct. This sentence beautifully incorporates Davis’s work and expresses a powerful thought. Davis’s name begins the sentence, and the student uses direct quotations set off with quotation marks, and he or she is sure to cite the source of the original material. Return to Example 2 Footer here

19 Key: Example 2 Incorrect. The student’s work is not plagiarized. This sentence beautifully incorporates Davis’s work and expresses a powerful thought. Davis’s name begins the sentence, and the student uses direct quotations set off with quotation marks, and he or she is sure to cite the source of the original material. Return to Example 2 Footer here

20 Key: Example 3 Correct. The student has properly cited the original material with quotation marks and cited the source material properly. Notice how the student has used Davis’s words to support his or her own. Thus, the student is careful to show the reader both his or her opinion and the relation of that opinion to Davis’s original material. Return to Example 3 Footer here

21 Key: Example 3 Incorrect. The student has not committed plagiarism. The student has properly cited the original material with quotation marks and cited the source material properly. Notice how the student has used Davis’s words to support his or her own. Thus, the student is careful to show the reader both his or her opinion and the relation of that opinion to Davis’s original material. Return to Example 3 Footer here

22 Key: Example 4 Incorrect. This student has committed plagiarism. The student paraphrases Davis’s material in the first sentence, but he or she does not directly quote or properly cite Davis’s work. While the student cites the second sentence, the student is too closely mimicking the author’s original work. As with Example 1, the student must use either his or her own language and cite the source, or be more careful in showing the reader that he or she is paraphrasing the author. Return to Example 4 Footer here

23 Key: Example 4 Correct. This student has committed plagiarism. The student paraphrases Davis’s material in the first sentence, but he or she does not directly quote or properly cite Davis’s work. While the student cites the second sentence, the student is too closely mimicking the author’s original work. As with Example 1, the student must use either his or her own language and cite the source, or be more careful in showing the reader that he or she is paraphrasing the author. Return to Example 4 Footer here

24 Key: Example 5 Incorrect. The student has committed plagiarism. While the student gives credit to Davis, he or she does not let the reader know the source he or she used. Regarding the second sentence, the student commits plagiarism because his or her paraphrasing of Davis is much too similar to the original work and is not cited. Return to Example 5 Footer here

25 Key: Example 5 Correct. The student has committed plagiarism. While the student gives credit to Davis, he or she does not let the reader know the source he or she used. Regarding the second sentence, the student commits plagiarism because his or her paraphrasing of Davis is much too similar to the original work and is not cited. Return to Example 5 Footer here


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