2 AUTHOR’S WORD CHOICE Denotation and Connotation (5.1) Formal vs. Informal Language -Slang and Idioms (5.2)Effect of Word Choice- Diction (5.3)Purpose of Word Choice- Author’s Purpose (5.4)
3 Denotation and Connotation Denotation is the literal or dictionary meaning of a word.Connotation is the idea or feeling implied by a word in addition to its literal meaning.An author chooses his words very carefully to achieve a desired purpose.
4 Childish vs. Childlike~ Denotation they both mean of or like a child or childhood ~ Connotation childlike: having innocent, trusting characteristics of a child (positive connotation) childish: being immature (negative connotation) TIP~ think of the negative and positive connotation of some words
5 Practice Consider the following sentences. I heard my brother talking on the phone with his girlfriend.I heard my brother chatting on the phone with his girlfriend.How does the connotation of the word chatting in the second sentence convey the author’s purpose?HINT: What does the author what you to feel about the conversation?* Practice 134 & 135
6 Formal vs. Informal Language Formal Language - language usually used in speeches, reports, essays, and most other nonfiction writing.Informal Language - everyday language that may include slang or idioms.
7 Examples Formal greeting Informal greeting Neutral or slightly informalHello, Mr. Smith. How are you today?Dude. Sup?Hey! How’s it going?
8 Slang and Idioms (informal) Slang - very informal words or expressions, such as yakking, bad meaning good, ain’t, and you rock!Idioms - informal expressions or phrases that can’t be taken literally, such as “head over heels in love.”This is also a type of figurative language.*Practice 136 & 137
9 DictionIs an author’s choice of words and the author’s use of those words.An author’s diction could beFormal or informalTechnical or non-technicalDescriptive or generalHumorous or seriousPositive or negativeOptimistic or pessimistic
10 Impact of replacing words TediousHateWaitingDisregardForgetAggravatingExcitingLoveAnticipatingAppreciateRealizeRelaxingPRACTICE MAKES PERFECT **
11 Author’s purposeA writer’s reason for writing; can include reasons for using words and phrases.An author always has a general reason for writing, such as to explain, to entertain, to inform, etc., but an author also has a reason for using specific words, phrases, or even titles.Ask yourself, “What does the author want me to understand by including a specific word, phrase or title?”Practice
12 Possible test questions By including the phrase “intensity and excitement,” what does the author want to express to the reader?Does the author use the phrase sent on a mission support the purpose of the paragraph?What does the author emphasize by selecting the title, “Tennessee Williams, Mississippi’s Playwright”?
13 Possible test questions What effect does replacing the italicized words with the word concerns have on this paragraph?What effect did replacing the italicized words have on the revised paragraph?How does the diction in the revised excerpt affect the author’s purpose?How does the diction in the revised paragraph support the author’s purpose?