Presentation on theme: "Promoting Integrity in the Next Generation of Researchers A Curriculum for Responsible Conduct of Research in Occupational Therapy (2005) Funded by the."— Presentation transcript:
Promoting Integrity in the Next Generation of Researchers A Curriculum for Responsible Conduct of Research in Occupational Therapy (2005) Funded by the Office of Research Integrity through the American Association of Medical Colleges
Objectives Discuss how the history of a work, responsibility for the work, and accurate credit for the work determine assigned authorship, acknowledgment, and author order. Apply authorship principles and rules to case examples. Discuss how professional cultures differ regarding authorship and author order. Feel empowered to discuss authorship issues with involved parties.
Dissemination is an Obligation Researchers are obliged to share their study methods and findings Participants, funders, and colleagues rely on this commitment
Ways to Disseminate Dissemination may be through: Publication in journals, texts, monographs, pamphlets, Internet postings, etc… Oral presentations, workshops, or poster sessions at professional meetings Media such as videos, commercialize devices, or lecture audiovisuals Decide on type and forum of dissemination based on the target audience for findings
Authorship Authors are listed to provide a public record of responsibility and credit for the work Only those who can take both responsibility and credit for a work should be authors
Authorship Policies Try to Ensure that all those who deserve authorship are listed as authors Ensure that those who do not deserve authorship are not listed as authors
Authorship (continued) To be eligible for authorship, most policies require that a person: Make a major contribution to concept, design, analysis and/or interpretation of the work Participate in drafting the article or revising it critically for important content Have a voice in the final version submitted for publication (continued next slide)
Authorship (continued) Accept responsibility as well as credit for the work Be able to present, discuss, interpret, and defend the work, analysis, and conclusions
Authorship Policy of the American Psychological Association “Authorship is reserved for persons who make a primary contribution to and hold primary responsibility for the data, concepts, and interpretation of results for a published work” (Huth, 1987). Authorship encompasses not only those who do the actual writing but also those who have made substantial scientific contributions to a study.” (American Psychological Association, 2001, pg. 6)
Authorship Policy of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) “ Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3.” (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 2004)
Authorship Policy of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (continued) “Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone, does not justify authorship. All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed.” (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 2004)
Authorship Policy of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) “The statement of authorship responsibility is certification that each author has made substantial contributions to (a) the conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (b) drafting and revising the article; and (c) approval of the final version. Further, each author takes public responsibility for the work.” ( American Journal of Occupational Therapy, n.d.)
Your School’s Authorship Policy Here Many universities/colleges have an authorship policy in the institution’s Code of Conduct. Insert with proper citation
Your OT Departmental or Program Authorship Policy here If your Department or Program has an authorship policy Insert with proper citation If it does not have one – you may want to ask faculty or students to develop one
Author Order Professions differ in their conventions for author order Most professions agree that: First author is principal contributor Subsequent authors listed in order of decreasing contribution
Author Order (continued) Some Common Exceptions: Alphabetical listing, with designation of a contributing author (i.e., the author to be contacted). A common convention in mathematics. Biomedical researchers often attach special credit to final author (i.e., anchor author).
Authorship Issues in Faculty/Student Collaborations Faculty-student collaborations are unequal Two common ethical problems: Faculty taking unearned authorship or inappropriate author order Faculty granting students unearned authorship or inappropriate author order (Fine and Kurdek, 1993)
Preventing Authorship Problems Identify and assign study tasks that are key for authorship, and those warranting only acknowledgement. Link authorship to quality and completion of work not to an individual’s role or title. Renegotiate authorship and author order when new tasks emerge, responsibilities alter, or people enter or leave the collaborative group
Acknowledgements Acknowledge People or institutions with minor but respected role in project People who cannot or do not want to be author Acknowledgements should specify contribution, not offer vague thanks for help Many journals now require permission if specific person or institution is named as this could imply endorsement of study
Examples of Contributions Appropriate for Acknowledgement Advice on study design Editing grant proposal, manuscript Data collection, subject recruitment, providing animals, contributing samples Statistical or technical advice Assistance with data entry or analysis Photography Financial support or donation of materials Clerical assistance Editorial assistance Participants Fabrication of a device Recruitment or referral of participants
Acknowledgement Order American Psychological Association: List funding sources first, then colleagues who gave editorial or other assistance. (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 5th Ed., 2001) American Medical Association No order given for acknowledgements Others: People first (participants, colleagues), money last
Resources American Journal of Occupational Therapy. (n.d.). Author’s guide. Retrieved September 8, 2005, from American Medical Association. (1998). American Medical Association manual of style (9th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Eastern Michigan University. (n.d.). Publication practices and responsible authorship. Retrieved September 8, 2005, from
Resources (continued) Fine, M. A, & Kurdek, L. A. (1993). Reflections on determining authorship credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations. American Psychologist, 48, 1141–1147. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. (2004). Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication. Retrieved September 8, 2005, from Magnus, P. D., & Kalichman, M. (2002, September). Authorship. Retrieved September 8, 2005, from RCR Education Resources, Online Resource for RCR Instructors: isplay&meid=35&ceid=19.
This completes the presentation on Authorship THANK YOU!