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The Birth of the Author Cally Ingram Tim Mollotte Alex Plattner Laurel Stewart.

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Presentation on theme: "The Birth of the Author Cally Ingram Tim Mollotte Alex Plattner Laurel Stewart."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Birth of the Author Cally Ingram Tim Mollotte Alex Plattner Laurel Stewart

2 It all starts with 2 people…

3 Then… the magic happens


5 9 months later…


7 …and out pops our little author…


9 Saint Bonaventura said… A man might write works of others, adding and changing nothing, in which case he is simply called a “scribe” (scriptor). Another writes the work of others with additions which are not his own; and he is called a “compiler” (compilator). Another writes both others’ work and his own, but with others’ work in principal place, adding his own for purposes of explanation; and he is called a “commentator” (commentator)… Another writes both his own works and others’ but his own work in principle place adding others’ for the purpose of confirmation; and such a man should be called an “author” (auctor).

10 Fixation of Text Recognition of individual innovation Claiming invention, discoveries, creations Writers/publishers gain immortality Maps of New World discoveries Rights of inventor/author legally fixed

11 Personal Celebrity Drive to fame - immortality No easy change or loss (in contrast to pen/manuscript)

12 The Raise of Piracy Competition over right to publish text “Possessive Individualism” of author to their works “Plagiarism and copyright did not exist for the minstrel. It was only after printing that they began to hold significance for the author.” (Kline)

13 Unforeseen Side Effect Quest for discovery and knowledge Immortality vs. monetary Author’s audience sometimes authors

14 Author Mindset With printing press, author gains abilities Plan and outline Revise and proofread Author’s audience is not listening somewhere He is alone in his own world

15 Important Printing Dates 1535: Coverdale prints 1st complete English Bible 1536: Paracelsus publishes The Great Surgery Book 1537: John “Thomas Matthew” Rogers prints 2nd complete English Bible 1539: first bible published for public use 1555: Nostradamus pulishes Centuries, book of predictions 1573: Saxton publishes first atlas (37 countries) 1596: Kepler publishes Mysterium Cosmographicum

16 A Few Important Authors Richard Carew (1555-1620) Thomas Kyd (1558-1595) Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) William Shakespeare (1564-1616)

17 Thomas Kyd William Shakespeare Christopher Marlowe

18 Francis Bacon Richard Carew

19 Christopher Marlowe First great poet of theatre’s second age Attended King’s School, Canterbury, and Corpus Christi College Known to be impulsive and wear elaborate, bejeweled clothes Wrote Tambuliane, 1st noteable English play in blank verse Paved way for Shakespeare

20 William Shakespeare English poet/playwright Educated at local grammar school (?) Most special presentations of his plays to Queen Elizabeth I and King James I Four main periods of work, each with theme

21 Tracking the Author Pre-Birth through Death

22 Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom Information Facts provided or learned about something or someone Knowledge What is known in particular field or in total; facts and information Wisdom The quality of having experience, knowledge, and good judgment

23 Orality and Manuscripts “There was a time when the texts that we today call “literary” (narratives, stories, epics, tragedies, comedies) were accepted, put into circulation, and valorized without any question of their author; their anonymity caused no difficulties since their ancientness, whether real or imagined, was regarded as a sufficient guarantee of their status” (Foucault, 109)

24 Orality and Manuscripts Manuscripts Oral compositions Anonymity of composer Proportionate knowledge, wisdom Weight of productions Vetted, guaranteed Information Knowledge Wisdom

25 Printing Revolution: Mass Production of Text “A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books have been printed, more perhaps than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in AD 330” (Clapham) “The coming into being of the notion of “author” constitutes the priviliged moment of individualization in the history of ideas, knowledge, literatute, philosophy and the sciences” (Foucault)

26 Printing Revolution: Mass Production of Text, Birth of the “Author” Information Knowledge Wisdom Birth of “Author” Books 400 times cheaper than manuscripts Information inevitably outpaces knowledge, wisdom

27 Internet Age: Return to Anonymity Revolution of information Updates, news, forums Raw information “Author” inaccurate What authority? Anonymity Information Knowledge Wisdom

28 Full Circle: Death of the Author Ouroboros Irony What’s next? Anonymity “Birth of ‘Author’” “Birth of ‘Author’”

29 Death of the Author Roland Barthes’ theory Why death of author is necessary

30 Where does voice come from? Actual character Author as person Author as writer “universal wisdom”

31 When does author die? As soon as reality expands in your brain Process can happen for you Mediators Shamans Other “relators”

32 Idea of Author-God BAD (according to Barthes) Words produce single meaning given by author Culture & Criticsm look to author Life, tastes, passions Visual art, music, writing…

33 Then how do we look at text? Meaning based purely on text Blending and clashing of ideas No background content Writing not recording, notation, representation, or depiction “Every text is externally written here and now” Scriptor simply has tons of words

34 So… no “deciphering” Giving text an author imposes limit on text i.e. literary criticism Text cannot be “explained” Only way to “analyze” is to look at text on same plane Called “disentangling”

35 Disentanglement = reader’s job Reader cannot look to author to disentangle text Therefore…

36 When the death of the author occurs, it brings… the birth of the reader

37 Or…

38 … the end.

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