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Intestinal Integrity and the Impact of Losing It Elanco Poultry Health Conference International Poultry Exposition Atlanta 17 January 2001.

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Presentation on theme: "Intestinal Integrity and the Impact of Losing It Elanco Poultry Health Conference International Poultry Exposition Atlanta 17 January 2001."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intestinal Integrity and the Impact of Losing It Elanco Poultry Health Conference International Poultry Exposition Atlanta 17 January 2001

2 Digestive Tract Structure Gut is a tube Completely lined by epithelial cells (enterocytes) Continuous with epithelial cells of skin at mouth and cloaca Contents of gut are “outside” of the body Selective absorption of nutrients Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

3 Digestive Tract Structure Villi Absorptive surface increased by finger- like folds in the lining Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

4 Epithelium Epithelial cells Continuously line villi Physical barrier to foreign agents, materials Surface further increased by microvilli Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

5 Intestinal Integrity Biological barrier Epithelial cells that line the intestine Protective secretory products of epithelial cells Tissues and processes that support integrity of the epithelial lining Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

6 2 Grams fluid secretion for each 1 Gram digesta Nutrient solution Pathogen dilution and flushing Secreted from crypts and sides of villi Absorption from tip and from large intestine Intestinal Fluid Dynamics Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

7 Unbalanced Fluid Dynamics Net secretion > absorption = diarrhea Decreased absorption Damaged absorptive cells Increased osmolality of digesta Increased secretion Bacterial enterotoxins Viruses Inflammatory mediators Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

8 Mucus Secretion Goblet cells Water and glycoprotein Lubricates flow of digesta Protects from autodigestion by gastric acid, pepsin, and digestive enzymes Increased secretion by noxious stimuli Barrier to bacteria and fungi Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

9 Agents that Degrade Mucus Candida albicans Mucinolytic enzyme Adherence and penetration Helicobacter pylori Secretes urease Destroys protective gastric mucus Under- heated soy meal Urease Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

10 The Lamina Propria Connective tissue to support villus Blood and lymph vessels GALT: Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue B and T lymphocytes Plasma cells Macrophages Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

11 The Lamina Propria Gut continuously exposed to foreign agents Lamina propria and GALT responds with normal reactivity Normal vs. Disease Biological Economic Gut Histopathology of 88 Broiler Flocks Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

12 Injury to the Lamina Propria and GALT Bursal Disease Chicken Infectious Anemia Marek’s Disease Hemorrhagic Enteritis (turkeys) Immunosuppressive mycotoxins Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

13 Virus Injury to Intestine From: Moon, 1997 Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

14 Bacterial Enteritis Poultry litter Exposure to opportunistic bacterial pathogens Potential primary pathogens Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

15 Bacteria: Enterotoxins Clostridium perfringens Escherichia coli Campylobacter Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

16 Bacteria: Attach and Efface Clostridium perfringens Escherichia coli Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

17 Bacteria: Invasion Salmonella spp. Liver Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

18 Protozoa Coccidia Histomonas Liver Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

19 Absorption Digestion Secretion Immature Digestion Renewal Intestinal Toxicity Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

20 Bağırsak Sağlığının Kaybı Sindirilmemiş yem ve ishal Büyüme geriliği Bağırsak hastalığı Sistemik hastalık Mortalite Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

21 Sindirilmemiş Yem ve İshal Dışkıda sindirilmemiş yem parçaları Yemin emiliminde aksama Malabsorption/maldigestion Şunlarla ilişkilidir: FCR ve canlı ağırlık artışında bozulma Karkas veriminde azalma Üretim maliyetinde artış Management sorunları Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

22 Sindirilmemiş Yem Sendromunun Mekanizması Secretory ishal Ozmotik ishal Malabsorpsiyon Exudative hastalık Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

23 Secretory İshal Bağırsak mukozasından aşırı sıvı sızması Virüsler Bakteriyel enterotoksinler Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

24 Ozmotik İshal Ozmotik güçlerin artışı Yüksek tuz oranına sahip rasyonlar Ozmotik ve fiziksel faktörlerin bileşkesi Rasyon kaynaklı faktörler (non-starch polysaccharides) in barley, rye, wheat, and other grains Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

25 Beta-glucans in Barley Gelling effect blocks digestive enzymes, bile acids, and absorption of nutrients undigested sugars cecum overload opportunistic bacteria need for antibiotics size GI tract Supplemental enzymes partially alleviate Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

26 Malabsorption Output of voluminous, bulky feces with increased osmolarity owing to unabsorbed nutrients Defective intraluminal digestion Antinutritional factors Damaged mucosa with immature enterocytes Decreased digestive secretions (lipase, amylase) Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

27 Exudative Disease Diarrhea with presence of hemorrhage and detritus from necrotic tissue and inflammation Loss of enterocytes, fluid, electrolytes, and plasma Escape of pathogen to other tissues Diversion of nutrients for inflammation and repair Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

28 Exudative Disease Necrotic enteritis Coccidiosis Salmonellosis Histomoniasis Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

29 Intestinal Integrity Maintained Host defenses: intestinal lining cells, secretory products, and support tissues Challenged Exposure to opportunistic and virulent pathogens Dietary and management factors that increase exposure Destroyed Virulent, primary pathogens Additive, synergistic injury by variable exposure to opportunistic pathogens Courtesy of Dr. Fred Hoerr, AVDL

30

31 Dose of Pathogens Emerging Issues Host Resistance Virulence of Pathogens

32 Dose of Pathogens Goal: Decreased exposure Feed ingredient production and poultry rearing are biological systems Diminishing list of pharmacological products to suppress bacteria Actions to reduce exposure must meet biological, economic, and regulatory justification

33 Virulence of Pathogen Ability to colonize, establish and maintain infection Least practical control point Under genetic control of pathogen Antibiotics may influence bacterial virulence Inhibit protein metabolism

34 Improved Host Resistance Genetic selection in presence of limited pharmacological and biological products Understanding and preventing immunosuppression Diet selection and enzyme efficacy Improved oral vaccines to protect mucosal surfaces

35 Thank you


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