Presentation on theme: "CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE OR EXTREME WEATHER IMPACTS AND PREDICTIBILITY"— Presentation transcript:
1CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE OR EXTREME WEATHER IMPACTS AND PREDICTIBILITY CLIMATE CHANGE OR EXTREME WEATHER IMPACT ON HUMAN SETTLEMENT AND LAND USEbyMohamed Jamil Bin AhmadSuraya Dato BadaruddinResearch and Development Division
2OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE CHANGE - (IPCC) Regional and global changes in temperaturePrecipitation and other climate variables resulting in global changes in soil moistureAn increase in global mean sea level and prospects for more severe extreme high –temperature events, floods and droughts in some place.
3OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE CHANGE - (IPCC) Mean annual global surface temperature will increase by C by 2100Global mean sea level will rise by cmChanges in the spatial and temporal patterns .Average rate of warming probably would be greater than any in the past 10,000 years
4FOUR SECTORS WHICH ARE VULNERABLE TO CLIMATE CHANGE Hydrology and Water ResourcesFood and Fiber ProductionCoastal SystemsHuman Health
5GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS ON ASIA REGION INCLUDING MALAYSIA Negative impact on the viability of freshwater , wetlandsincreases in sea-surface temperatureCoral reefs suffer bleachingAdditional stress on water resources.Vulnerability of agricultural areas to episodic environmental hazards, including floods, droughts and cyclones.
6IMPACT ON HUMAN SETTLEMENT AND LAND USE The report concluded that potential direct effects of climate change include changes in:-water availability,crop yieldsinundation of coastal areasindirect effects on food security and human health.
7DISASTER PROFILE OF MALAYSIA Climate change has contributed to natural disasters such as epidemic, flood., wave/surge, wild fires and wind storm.49 cases of natural disaster events were reported from December 1965 to January 2007.Total number of 1062 people were killed in the event while total people affected was 1, people .Total damage loss was estimated US155,000.
8Type Of Natural Disaster No. of EventsKilledTotal AffectedDamage US $(000s)Epidemic1040610,363Flood302821,161,650140,400Wave/surge1805,06314,600Wild Fires23,000Wind Storm629455,831
9IMPACTS ON HUMAN SETTLEMENT AND LAND USE IN MALAYSIA Impacts on the environment among others include loss of important species and cleaning up of the environmentImpacts on social occurs when disasters affect the social well being of the people through loss of human lives, property and source of incomeImpact on the economy include cost of rehabilitation, cost for displacement of people to new shelter homes, reconstruction cost for new bridges, roads, houses other and utilities
10Estimated Damage and Losses from tsunami impact in Kota Kuala Muda and Penang Island in 2004 Damage itemsKota Kuala MudaPulau PinangQtyValue (RM)Fishermen (affected)≈1000-2733Houses *Destroyed/lossDamage11339830,000-40,00010,000-15,00065320,00010,000TransportCar/van/lorryMotorcycleBicycle1985073154.14m1.52mPaddy field52.3 ha160,000Fishing Vessel**BigSmall344042.72 m10.1m10210598.16m26.5mJetty140,000411.56mFishing equipments4.33AquacultureMarine cageBrackishwater pondFreshwater pondRaft platforms (Cockles/oyster)112Na674713.8m*value for house losses is in RM/house (survey)*include South Pulau Pinang, Seberang Perai and Teluk Bahang** Losses for small and big boat was expected top reach about RM25,000 and RM8000 per unit respectively (based on survey).
11Population growth and climate change Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change viewed that population demands increase pressures to :-a) Change of land from its natural state will increase pressures on less intensively managed habitats, biodiversity and ecosystems and increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide as forests are converted to other land usesIntensive land uses could increase soil erosion and farther degrade water quality and farther degrade water quality,Convert agricultural and other lands
12Potential Impacts Of Climate Change Impacts In Malaysia Predictions on climate change impacts in Malaysia by international organization outlines the following:Sea levels will rise to cm in a hundred years.Crop yields will drop with marginalisation of drought-prone areas and flooding out of >100,000 haGreater diseases among forest species and biodiversity loss.Overall water availability will decrease and intensity of floods will increase.
13Potential Impacts Of Climate Change Impacts In Malaysia Predictions on climate change impacts in Malaysia by international organization outlines the following:Coastal areas will suffer tidal inundation, shoreline erosion, increased wave action and saline intrusion.Adverse health impacts more heat stress, respiratory diseases, food and water borne diseases as well as those vector-borne.Operational and maintenance costs of electricity generation will increase especially in coastal areas. Oil and gas platforms will be also liable13
14WATER SUPPLY DEMAND (Mld) Prediction on water availability issues marked some pertinent points which need to be addressed by policy makers and plannerswater availability assessment projected National Water Resources Study (NWRS, 2000)Water Demand By SectorWATER SUPPLY DEMAND (Mld)DEMAND1998200020102020203020402050DomesticMld5,0225,5588,18410,58212,62214,38816,176Industrial3,4533,9857,1019,75611,86313,74315,452Domestic and industrial8,4759,54315,28520,33824,48528,13131,628Irrigation20,13917,87517,85716,802Total Demand28.61429,68233,14239,19541,28744,93348,430Mld : megalitres per day Source : National Water Resources Study, 2000
15WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN EACH STATE (Mld) 19951997200020102020203020402050PERLIS788590123153187226265KEDAH70574779110841397174621292517PENANG60464175010041260148316961884PERAK9771038114215671880229227003068SELANGOR19252421303954907528830786148791NEGRI SEMBILAN358384493665826100311691341MALACCA23027233657277794610971219JOHOR11071224139820792780342940624687PAHANG42961573511881640226129183584TERENGGANU29032754110821353167719832269KELANTAN171182228431744115415372003PENINSULAR MALAYSIA6,8747,9359,54315,28520,33824,48528,14131,628ANNUAL % INCREASE7.76.86.03.32.01.51.2Mld : mega litres per daySource : National Water Resources Study, 2000
16Population and water availability per kapita (m3 per year) Projected Water Availability for the CountryNegeriPopulation and water availability per kapita (m3 per year)Tahun20102020203020402050PerlisPopulation273,496317,598358,897395,356424,235Water Availability Per kapita1,4991,2911,1421,037966Kedah1,915,9542,256,7212,585,6802,8909063,153,2653,9933,3902,9592,6462,426Pulau Pinang1,296,9971,5278991,635,6771,722,1611,782,7651,3391,2241,1431,0861,049Perak2,408,8212,712,8473,002,3223,251,0763,442,3208,4657,5166,7916,2725,923Selangor (termasuk W.P)6,082,5767,3468538,413,5699,275,9759,903,6832,2411,8551,6201,4691,376Negeri Sembilan1,023,4551,178,0001,322,1921,446,0331,540,814938815726664623Melaka696,508796,034885,050957,8181,009,0241,2631,105994919872Johor3,495,1294,237,7744,968,3745,685,7116,335,9965,9854,9394,2113,6793,302Pahang1,731,6482,14,98092,601,2483,076,5983,553,19922,64918,24315,07712,74811,038Terengganu1,340,9341,664,9152,021,1522,390,0802,753,04417,98714,48711,93410,0928,761Kelantan1,2,466,3183,000,5833,551,8544,092,24211,2519,0347,4256,2735,444Peninsular Malaysia22,345,71126,65276530,7948343,464,056837,990,5826,8175,7154,9474,3974,010Source : National Water Resources Study, 2000
17Hyogo Framework For Action 2005 Land-use planning and other technical measures Incorporate disaster risk assessments into the urban planning and managementIncorporate disaster risk assessments into the urban planning and managementMainstreaming disaster risk considerations into planning procedures for major infrastructure projectsDevelop, upgrade and encourage the use of guidelines and monitoring toolsIncorporate disaster risk assessment into rural developmentEncourage the revision of existing or the development of new building codes, standards, rehabilitation and reconstruction practices at the national or local levels
18Adaptation Measures on Climate Change Impact Through Land Use Planning by IPCC governments need to consider more intensive efforts to achieve economically efficient and sustainable land useoptimize socioeconomic welfare and growth subject to environmental constraints and operate in concert with any strategies that may be employ to limit the growth of greenhouse gasesemphasis should be given to responses that remove barriers to rapid and efficient adaptation, identify decisions with long term consequences,maintain flexibility in resource use and management where possiblelimit costs and administrative burdenpromote public input and acceptance.
19Malaysia’s ResponeIntegrated Planning and Resource Management System has been incorporated into planning system in MalaysiaTown and Country Planning (Act 1976)Three basic elements of the Act include planning administrative system, development plan system and development control system. The interpretation of Kyoto Protocol through initiatives in reduction of climate change impacts through adapt ation measure mentioned in development policies and implementation of existing planning documents (NPP, NUP and development plans). Under the Act, environmental aspects are promoted through several provisions related to siting and zoning of human settlements.
20Malaysia’s ResponeIntegrated Planning and Resource Management System has been incorporated into planning system in MalaysiaNational Urbanisation PolicyThe National Urbanisation Policy is centred on main thrusts as mentioned below:An efficient and sustainable urban developmentAn integrated and efficient urban transportation systemNUP promotes green building concept towards energy saving and efficiency and promotes the Hyogo declaration initiatives through NUP 23.20
21National Physical Plan (Npp) It applies the Integrated Resource Planning and Management System and Management System (IRPMS) where physical planning and natural resources utilization will be integrated within a management process towards achieving sustainable developmentSalient points made under National Physical Plan towards achieving sustainable human development include the following:To optimise utilisationTo promoteTo secure spatial
22NPP 4 - Land and natural resources of less development regions shall be used in a sustainable manner to increase the productivity of these regions and reduce imbalancesNPP21 - Land development in the highlands shall be strictly controlled to safeguard human safety and environmental qualityNPP 18 -Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESA) shall be integrated in the planning
23Reduction of carbon emission through NPP policies NPP 23 : In recognition of the inter relationship between land use and transport and integrated national transportation network shall be establishedNPP 27 : Transit Orientated Development (TOD) concept shall be promoted as the basis of urban land use planning and ensure viability of public transportNPP 28 : In major urban centres, an integrated public transportation system shall be established
24State Structure Plan(Section 8 (1). Act 172 also specifies that Structure Plan shall be a written statement formulating the state planning authority’spolicies and general proposals in respect of the developmentMeasures for the improvement of the physical environment and the management of traffic.
25Local PlanRequired under Section 12 (1) of Act 172, the District Local Plan consist of a map and a written statement which formulate in detail the development and use of land of the whole district areaProtection and improvement of the physical environment, preservation of the natural topography, improvement of the landscape and preservation and planting of trees.
26Sustainability Assessment for Local Plan Preparation Initiative to implement Sustainability assessment (SA) in plan making process (local plans).Taking into consideration of physical, economy, environment, and social aspects in plan making process.
27Planning Permission and Development Plan Report Section 19 (1) of Act 172 is relevant towards achieving sustainability objectives at local level.Allocation of land space, provision and distribution of infrastructure and community facilities as well as their contributions towards environmental improvement and protectionAct 172 allows the Local Planning Authority to impose certain planning conditions to further regulate the nature, type and location development. Under section 21A, development proposal report is required to obtain planning permissionSection 22 (Act A1129) ensure policies outlined at national level are translated accordingly at local level. Under Sector 22 (2A) stated that any development which falls under the following activities will need to be brought to the National Physical Planning Council (NPPC)
28The prescribed activities include: - 1. The development of a new township for a population exceeding ten thousand, or covering an area of more that one hundred hectares, or both;2. A development for the construction of any major infrastructure or utility, or;3. A development affecting hill tops or hill slopes in an area designated as environmentally sensitive in a development plan4. Development for the construction of major infrastructure or utility which includeNational infrastructureNational utility
29Planning GuidelinesThe FDTCP has currently produced more than 40 planning guidelines to assist local authorities in development approval processPlanning guidelines for green building has been incorporated in housing planning guideline towards reduction of energy use and promote building with energy saving (optimum housing GP)
30MURNI-net Programme Promoting Good Urban Governance Provides sustainable indicators to monitor the achievement of cities towards sustainable development objectives.Developed 56 indicators (urbanization rate, public health, environmental condition).
31Land Use Planning Appraisal In Risk Areas To achieve safety and sustainability in land use planning with effective disaster mitigation strategies.To provide general guidelines for development control in hazard prone areas and to provide mitigation measures for the areas.
32Land Use Planning Appraisal In Risk Areas Create awareness among planners and decision makersIncorporate Hyogo Framework Of Actions measures in landuse planningIntegrated approach for DRR in landuse planning
33Issues And Challenges NPP has been formulated reduce the gap The success of NPP, NUP and the existing planning mechanism depend on the state agencies and local authorities.Local authorities must ensure that local plans conforms with development policies
34Further Improvement On Existing Mechanism Review existing documentsGive priority on prevention of disasterExpedite the preparation of risk and hazard mapsIncorporate Hyogo Framework into programme and documentsReview existing legislation to incorporate climate change issuesReview existing building codes (eg. set back requirements)Review planningEnhance the provision for emergency shelters at local levelImprove coordination between agencies towards comprehensive land use planningPromote data sharing among technical agenciesImprove public awareness on climate change issuesPropose insurance policy for development in risk areas
35ConclusionsEffective implementation shall depend on commitment of state and local government and various agencies thus the present mechanism and policy to be understood and adhered to by all including the public and NGOs.Continuous improvement of development plan making process is crucial to address climate change issues