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FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE OR EXTREME WEATHER IMPACTS.

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Presentation on theme: "FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE OR EXTREME WEATHER IMPACTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE OR EXTREME WEATHER IMPACTS AND PREDICTIBILITY CLIMATE CHANGE OR EXTREME WEATHER IMPACT ON HUMAN SETTLEMENT AND LAND USE by Mohamed Jamil Bin Ahmad Suraya Dato Badaruddin Research and Development Division

2 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE CHANGE - (IPCC) Regional and global changes in temperature Precipitation and other climate variables resulting in global changes in soil moisture An increase in global mean sea level and prospects for more severe extreme high – temperature events, floods and droughts in some place.

3 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Mean annual global surface temperature will increase by C by 2100 Global mean sea level will rise by cm Changes in the spatial and temporal patterns. Average rate of warming probably would be greater than any in the past 10,000 years OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE CHANGE - (IPCC)

4 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT FOUR SECTORS WHICH ARE VULNERABLE TO CLIMATE CHANGE Hydrology and Water Resources Food and Fiber Production Coastal Systems Human Health

5 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS ON ASIA REGION INCLUDING MALAYSIA Negative impact on the viability of freshwater, wetlands increases in sea-surface temperature Coral reefs suffer bleaching Additional stress on water resources. Vulnerability of agricultural areas to episodic environmental hazards, including floods, droughts and cyclones.

6 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IMPACT ON HUMAN SETTLEMENT AND LAND USE The report concluded that potential direct effects of climate change include changes in:- water availability, crop yields inundation of coastal areas indirect effects on food security and human health.

7 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Climate change has contributed to natural disasters such as epidemic, flood., wave/surge, wild fires and wind storm. 49 cases of natural disaster events were reported from December 1965 to January Total number of 1062 people were killed in the event while total people affected was 1, people. Total damage loss was estimated US155,000. DISASTER PROFILE OF MALAYSIA

8 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Type Of Natural Disaster No. of Events KilledTotal AffectedDamage US $(000s) Epidemic ,3630 Flood302821,161,650140,400 Wave/surge1805,06314,600 Wild Fires203,0000 Wind Storm629455,8310

9 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IMPACTS ON HUMAN SETTLEMENT AND LAND USE IN MALAYSIA Impacts on the environment among others include loss of important species and cleaning up of the environment Impacts on social occurs when disasters affect the social well being of the people through loss of human lives, property and source of income Impact on the economy include cost of rehabilitation, cost for displacement of people to new shelter homes, reconstruction cost for new bridges, roads, houses other and utilities

10 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Estimated Damage and Losses from tsunami impact in Kota Kuala Muda and Penang Island in 2004 Damage items Kota Kuala MudaPulau Pinang QtyValue (RM)QtyValue (RM) Fishermen (affected)≈ Houses * Destroyed/loss Damage ,000-40,000 10,000-15, ,000 10,000 Transport Car/van/lorry Motorcycle Bicycle m 1.52m 10,000 Paddy field52.3 ha160,000 Fishing Vessel** Big Small m 10.1m m 26.5m Jetty140, m Fishing equipments4.33 Aquaculture Marine cage Brackishwater pond Freshwater pond Raft platforms (Cockles/oyster) 11 2 Na m *value for house losses is in RM/house (survey) *include South Pulau Pinang, Seberang Perai and Teluk Bahang ** Losses for small and big boat was expected top reach about RM25,000 and RM8000 per unit respectively (based on survey).

11 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Population growth and climate change Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change viewed that population demands increase pressures to :- a)Change of land from its natural state will increase pressures on less intensively managed habitats, biodiversity and ecosystems and increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide as forests are converted to other land uses b)Intensive land uses could increase soil erosion and farther degrade water quality and farther degrade water quality, c)Convert agricultural and other lands

12 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Potential Impacts Of Climate Change Impacts In Malaysia Predictions on climate change impacts in Malaysia by international organization outlines the following:  Sea levels will rise to cm in a hundred years.  Crop yields will drop with marginalisation of drought-prone areas and flooding out of >100,000 ha  Greater diseases among forest species and biodiversity loss.  Overall water availability will decrease and intensity of floods will increase.

13 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Potential Impacts Of Climate Change Impacts In Malaysia Predictions on climate change impacts in Malaysia by international organization outlines the following:  Coastal areas will suffer tidal inundation, shoreline erosion, increased wave action and saline intrusion.  Adverse health impacts more heat stress, respiratory diseases, food and water borne diseases as well as those vector-borne.  Operational and maintenance costs of electricity generation will increase especially in coastal areas. Oil and gas platforms will be also liable

14 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Prediction on water availabilityPrediction on water availability issues marked some pertinent points which need to be addressed by policy makers and planners water availability assessment projected National Water Resources Studywater availability assessment projected National Water Resources Study (NWRS, 2000) Water Demand By Sector WATER SUPPLY DEMAND (Mld) DEMAND DomesticMld5,0225,5588,18410,58212,62214,38816,176 IndustrialMld3,4533,9857,1019,75611,86313,74315,452 Domestic and industrial Mld8,4759,54315,28520,33824,48528,13131,628 IrrigationMld20,139 17,87517,85716,802 Total Demand Mld ,68233,14239,19541,28744,93348,430 Mld : megalitres per day Source : National Water Resources Study, 2000

15 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN EACH STATE (Mld) STATE PERLIS KEDAH PENANG PERAK SELANGOR NEGRI SEMBILAN MALACCA JOHOR PAHANG TERENGGANU KELANTAN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA 6,87 4 7,9359,54315,28520,33824,48528,14131,628 ANNUAL % INCREASE Mld : mega litres per day Source : National Water Resources Study, 2000 Water Supply and Demand

16 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT NegeriPopulation and water availability per kapita (m 3 per year) Tahun PerlisPopulation273,496317,598358,897395,356424,235 Water Availability Per kapita1,4991,2911,1421, KedahPopulation1,915,9542,256,7212,585,6802, ,153,265 Water Availability Per kapita3,9933,3902,9592,6462,426 Pulau PinangPopulation1,296,9971, ,635,6771,722,1611,782,765 Water Availability Per kapita1,3391,2241,1431,0861,049 PerakPopulation2,408,8212,712,8473,002,3223,251,0763,442,320 Water Availability Per kapita8,4657,5166,7916,2725,923 Selangor (termasuk W.P) Population6,082,5767, ,413,5699,275,9759,903,683 Water Availability Per kapita2,2411,8551,6201,4691,376 Negeri SembilanPopulation1,023,4551,178,0001,322,1921,446,0331,540,814 Water Availability Per kapita MelakaPopulation696,508796,034885,050957,8181,009,024 Water Availability Per kapita1,2631, JohorPopulation3,495,1294,237,7744,968,3745,685,7116,335,996 Water Availability Per kapita5,9854,9394,2113,6793,302 PahangPopulation1,731,6482,14,98092,601,2483,076,5983,553,199 Water Availability Per kapita22,64918,24315,07712,74811,038 TerengganuPopulation1,340,9341,664,9152,021,1522,390,0802,753,044 Water Availability Per kapita17,98714,48711,93410,0928,761 KelantanPopulation1, ,466,3183,000,5833,551,8544,092,242 Water Availability Per kapita11,2519,0347,4256,2735,444 Peninsular Malaysia Population 22,345,71126, , ,464,056837,990,582 Water Availability Per kapita 6,8175,7154,9474,3974,010 Source : National Water Resources Study, 2000 Projected Water Availability for the Country

17 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Hyogo Framework For Action 2005 Land-use planning and other technical measures Incorporate disaster risk assessments into the urban planning and management Incorporate disaster risk assessments into the urban planning and management Mainstreaming disaster risk considerations into planning procedures for major infrastructure projects Develop, upgrade and encourage the use of guidelines and monitoring tools Incorporate disaster risk assessment into rural development Encourage the revision of existing or the development of new building codes, standards, rehabilitation and reconstruction practices at the national or local levels

18 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Adaptation Measures on Climate Change Impact Through Land Use Planning by IPCC governments need to consider more intensive efforts to achieve economically efficient and sustainable land use optimize socioeconomic welfare and growth subject to environmental constraints and operate in concert with any strategies that may be employ to limit the growth of greenhouse gases emphasis should be given to responses that remove barriers to rapid and efficient adaptation, identify decisions with long term consequences, maintain flexibility in resource use and management where possible limit costs and administrative burden promote public input and acceptance.

19 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Malaysia’s Respone Integrated Planning and Resource Management System has been incorporated into planning system in Malaysia Town and Country Planning (Act 1976) Three basic elements of the Act include planning administrative system, development plan system and development control system. The interpretation of Kyoto Protocol through initiatives in reduction of climate change impacts through adapt ation measure mentioned in development policies and implementation of existing planning documents (NPP, NUP and development plans). Under the Act, environmental aspects are promoted through several provisions related to siting and zoning of human settlements.

20 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Malaysia’s Respone Integrated Planning and Resource Management System has been incorporated into planning system in Malaysia National Urbanisation Policy The National Urbanisation Policy is centred on main thrusts as mentioned below: An efficient and sustainable urban development An integrated and efficient urban transportation system NUP promotes green building concept towards energy saving and efficiency and promotes the Hyogo declaration initiatives through NUP 23.

21 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT National Physical Plan (Npp) It applies the Integrated Resource Planning and Management System and Management System (IRPMS) where physical planning and natural resources utilization will be integrated within a management process towards achieving sustainable development Salient points made under National Physical Plan towards achieving sustainable human development include the following:  To optimise utilisation  To promote  To secure spatial

22 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT  NPP 4 -  NPP 4 - Land and natural resources of less development regions shall be used in a sustainable manner to increase the productivity of these regions and reduce imbalances  NPP21 - Land development in the highlands shall be strictly controlled to safeguard human safety and environmental quality  NPP 18 -Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESA) shall be integrated in the planning

23 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Reduction of carbon emission through NPP policies  NPP 23 : In recognition of the inter relationship between land use and transport and integrated national transportation network shall be established  NPP 27 : Transit Orientated Development (TOD) concept shall be promoted as the basis of urban land use planning and ensure viability of public transport  NPP 28 : In major urban centres, an integrated public transportation system shall be established

24 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT State Structure Plan (Section 8 (1). Act 172 also specifies that Structure Plan shall be a written statement formulating the state planning authority’s Measures for the improvement of the physical environment and the management of traffic. policies and general proposals in respect of the development

25 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Local Plan Required under Section 12 (1) of Act 172, the District Local Plan consist of a map and a written statement which formulate in detail the development and use of land of the whole district area Protection and improvement of the physical environment, preservation of the natural topography, improvement of the landscape and preservation and planting of trees.

26 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Sustainability Assessment for Local Plan Preparation Initiative to implement Sustainability assessment (SA) in plan making process (local plans). Taking into consideration of physical, economy, environment, and social aspects in plan making process.

27 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Planning Permission and Development Plan Report Section 19 (1) of Act 172 is relevant towards achieving sustainability objectives at local level. Allocation of land space, provision and distribution of infrastructure and community facilities as well as their contributions towards environmental improvement and protection Act 172 allows the Local Planning Authority to impose certain planning conditions to further regulate the nature, type and location development. Under section 21A, development proposal report is required to obtain planning permission Section 22 (Act A1129) ensure policies outlined at national level are translated accordingly at local level. Under Sector 22 (2A) stated that any development which falls under the following activities will need to be brought to the National Physical Planning Council (NPPC)

28 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT The prescribed activities include: - 1. The development of a new township for a population exceeding ten thousand, or covering an area of more that one hundred hectares, or both; 2. A development for the construction of any major infrastructure or utility, or; 3. A development affecting hill tops or hill slopes in an area designated as environmentally sensitive in a development plan 4. Development for the construction of major infrastructure or utility which include  National infrastructure  National utility

29 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Planning Guidelines The FDTCP has currently produced more than 40 planning guidelines to assist local authorities in development approval process Planning guidelines for green building has been incorporated in housing planning guideline towards reduction of energy use and promote building with energy saving (optimum housing GP)

30 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT MURNI-net Programme Promoting Good Urban Governance  Provides sustainable indicators to monitor the achievement of cities towards sustainable development objectives.  Developed 56 indicators (urbanization rate, public health, environmental condition).

31 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Land Use Planning Appraisal In Risk Areas To achieve safety and sustainability in land use planning with effective disaster mitigation strategies. To provide general guidelines for development control in hazard prone areas and to provide mitigation measures for the areas.

32 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Land Use Planning Appraisal In Risk Areas Create awareness among planners and decision makers Incorporate Hyogo Framework Of Actions measures in landuse planning Integrated approach for DRR in landuse planning

33 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Issues And Challenges Issues And Challenges NPP has been formulated reduce the gapNPP has been formulated reduce the gap The success of NPP, NUP and the existing planning mechanism depend on the state agencies and local authorities.The success of NPP, NUP and the existing planning mechanism depend on the state agencies and local authorities. Local authorities must ensure that local plans conforms with development policiesLocal authorities must ensure that local plans conforms with development policies

34 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Further Improvement On Existing Mechanism Review existing documentsReview existing documents Give priority on prevention of disasterGive priority on prevention of disaster Expedite the preparation of risk and hazard mapsExpedite the preparation of risk and hazard maps Incorporate Hyogo Framework into programme and documentsIncorporate Hyogo Framework into programme and documents Review existing legislation to incorporate climate change issuesReview existing legislation to incorporate climate change issues Review existing building codes (eg. set back requirements)Review existing building codes (eg. set back requirements) Review planningReview planning Enhance the provision for emergency shelters at local levelEnhance the provision for emergency shelters at local level Improve coordination between agencies towards comprehensive land use planningImprove coordination between agencies towards comprehensive land use planning Promote data sharing among technical agenciesPromote data sharing among technical agencies Improve public awareness on climate change issuesImprove public awareness on climate change issues Propose insurance policy for development in risk areasPropose insurance policy for development in risk areas

35 FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Conclusions Effective implementation shall depend on commitment of state and local government and various agencies thus the present mechanism and policy to be understood and adhered to by all including the public and NGOs. Continuous improvement of development plan making process is crucial to address climate change issues


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