Nature of emotions ßMultidimensional, adaptive response system ßPhysiological ßConscious (subjective feelings) ßBehavioral ßCognitive (appraisals) ßSynchronized emotional system responds to event ßAnger/sadness
Physiological Response ßBrain structure activity (RAS, thalamus, amygdala) ßRight prefrontal cortex: NA ßLeft prefrontal cortext: PA ßANS, facial expression ßHeart rate, blood pressure, countenance ßBlood flow to hands greater w/ anger than sadness ßEndocrine system/hormonal activity ßAdrenaline, cortisol
Conscious Response ß2 components ßValence ßArousal Positive valence Negative valence High arousal Low arousal pleasant relaxation joy sadness fear anger
Cognitive Response ßEvaluate potential consequences of event & your ability to cope ßAppraisal ßDo I care about what is happening here? ßMight this prevent (help) me from reaching my goals? ßInterpret physiological changes ßHow upset/excited am I?
Behavioral Response ßAdaptive behaviors ßReduce negative & increase positive valence ßExpress emotion ßFacial features/body language/tone of voice ßInforms others about current emotional state ßCan we determine emotions via faces? ßGrab a partner & make a face!
Suppressing Emotion ßControl Question ßUp to age 18, did you ever physically harm anyone? ßRelevant Question ßDid the deceased threaten to harm you in any way? ßRelevant > Control = Lie
Suppressing Emotion Control question Relevant question Control question Relevant question (a) (b) Respiration Perspiration Heart rate
Reaction Paper VIII: Emotion ßWhat do you think causes emotions? Provide a novel example of this cause for one specific emotion (e.g., anger, happiness, fear). ßPLEASE TURN THIS IN AFTER CLASS!
Causes of Emotions ßMANY perspectives ßCommonly debated paradigms: ßBiological vs Cognitive ßEmphasize body vs mind ßChicken & egg (what comes first cog or bio?) Paradigm
Biological Paradigm - Zajonc ßEmphasize evolution/adaptive nature of emotion ßChanges in physiology, facial expressions, cortical activity produce emotions ßGenetically inherited neural circuits ßBiology primary ßNo cognition needed
Biological Paradigm - Zajonc ßStimulate amygdala ßEmotional R ßManipulate facial muscles ßEmotional R ßEmotions are often fast/automatic ßSomeone jumps out and scares you --> fear ßNo time for thought ßEmotions precede cognition in development ßInfants emotional?, cognitive?
Biological Paradigm - Theories ßJames-Lange Theory ßEmotion = awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli ß‘We are sad because we cry, afraid because we tremble.’ Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)
ßCriticisms of James/Lange ßBody changes unneeded for emotion ßSpinal cord injury ßChristopher Reeve ßSame arousal w/ many emotions Biological Paradigm - Theories
ßCannon-Bard Theory ßEmotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger: ßPhysiological responses ßSubjective experience of emotion Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion) Biological Paradigm - Theories
Biological Paradigm - Data ßNew data is supporting differential arousal for different emotions ßBrain ßAnger & blood to hands ßSupports James/Lange
ßFacial Feedback Theory ßFacial muscles influence emotion ßStrong - CAUSE emotions ßWeak - enhances reduces emotions ßMaking faces impacts emotional R Biological Paradigm - Theories
ßFacial Feedback Theory ßHow? ßVascular Theory ßChanges brain temperature
U sound EE/Ah Hot Brain Neg Affect Cool Brain Pos Affect Biological Paradigm - Theories
Cognitive Paradigm - Lazarus ßEmotion = person-event relationship ßCognitive interpretations establishes nature of that relationship ßDepends on whether event potentially impacts one’s goals ßAppraisals key ßW/o cognitions, no emotions ßFail a geometry test & major is music? ßFail a geometry test & major is math?
Cognitive Paradigm - Theories ßSchachter’s Two Factor Theory ßEmotion requires: ß1) Physical arousal ß2 ) Cognitively label arousal ßMust not have prior explanation of arousal
Cognitive Paradigm - Theories Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Fear (emotion) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal)
Cognitive Paradigm - Data ßSchachter - injected participants with adrenaline ßInformed/misinformed ßEmotional confederate
Cognitive Paradigm - Data ßMisinformed experienced the emotion acted out by confederate ßHappy condition
Biological or Cognitive paradigm? ßWho is right? ßIs cognition primary or is biology primary in emotions? ßBOTH! ßEvolutionarily devised quick response system ßSlower cognitive processing system ßThese probably interact in complex ways
Two-Systems view ßSystem 1 ßInnate automatic system reacts w/o higher processing to emotional S ßThalamus-> Amygdala ßSystem 2 ßExperience based system dependent on new learning & cognitive processing ßCortex ßCulture/life experience plays a role in emotions ßDisplay rules ßFeel like crying OK to do at Sears?/funeral?
Function of Emotions ßDirect Adaptive Behs ßEvolutionary Theory ßMax’d survival how? ßMotivated fundamental life tasks ßFight/flight, infant caretaking, protection, reproduce, obtain food ßPrimary emotions - universal emotion systems ßFear, anger, disgust, surprise, joy, anticipation ßDue to shared adaptational challenges during evolution ßFacial expressions similar across cultures
Function of Emotions ßPrimary emotions evolved for life tasks ßProtection ßFear motivates escape ßAnger motivates attack ßExploration ßAnticipation/interest motivates investigation ßIndirect Adaptive Behs ßCommunicate internal states via facial expressions & body ßKey for primates/early humans w/o language abilities ßInfants cry/scream/facial expressions ßFear face adaptive?
Experiencing Emotion ßSubjective Well-Being ßSelf-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life ßUsed along with measures of objective well-being ßPhysical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life ßLove (need to belong) more important than $
Happiness is... Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries) Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness
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