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CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (1) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Lecturer PSOE Dan Garcia www.cs.berkeley.edu/~ddgarcia inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/~cs61c.

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Presentation on theme: "CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (1) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Lecturer PSOE Dan Garcia www.cs.berkeley.edu/~ddgarcia inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/~cs61c."— Presentation transcript:

1 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (1) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Lecturer PSOE Dan Garcia www.cs.berkeley.edu/~ddgarcia inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/~cs61c CS61C : Machine Structures Lecture 33 – Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II 2004-04-14 Google Gmail Service!!   Not so fast! State Sen Liz Figueroa (Fremont) is drafting legislation to block it because it’d place advertising in personal messages after searching them for keywords. “We think it's an absolute invasion of privacy. It's like having a massive billboard in the middle of your home.”

2 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (2) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Storage Element: Idealized Memory Memory (idealized) One input bus: Data In One output bus: Data Out Memory word is selected by: Address selects the word to put on Data Out Write Enable = 1: address selects the memory word to be written via the Data In bus Clock input (CLK) The CLK input is a factor ONLY during write operation During read operation, behaves as a combinational logic block: -Address valid => Data Out valid after “access time.” Clk Data In Write Enable 32 DataOut Address

3 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (3) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Verilog Memory for MIPS Interpreter (1/3) //Behavioral modelof Random Access Memory: // 32-bit wide, 256 words deep, // asynchronous read-port if RD=1, // synchronous write-port if WR=1, // initialize from hex file ("data.dat") // on positive edge of reset signal, // dump to binary file ("dump.dat") // on positive edge of dump signal. module mem (CLK,RST,DMP,WR,RD,address,writeD,readD); input CLK, RST, DMP, WR, RD; input [31:0] address, writeD; output [31:0] readD; reg [31:0] readD; parameter memSize=256; reg [31:0] memArray [0:memSize-1]; integer chann,i; // Temp variables: for loops... // ~ Constant dec.

4 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (4) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Verilog Memory for MIPS Interpreter (2/3) integer chann,i; always @ (posedge RST) $readmemh("data.dat", memArray); always @ (posedge CLK) if (WR) memArray[address[9:2]] = writeD; always @ (address or RD) if (RD) begin readD = memArray[address[9:2]]; $display("Getting address %h containing %h", address[9:2], readD); end // write if WR & positive clock edge (synchronous) // read if RD, independent of clock (asynchronous)

5 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (5) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Why is it “ memArray[address[9:2]] ”? Our memory is always byte-addressed We can lb from 0x0, 0x1, 0x2, 0x3, … lw only reads word-aligned requests We only call lw with 0x0, 0x4, 0x8, 0xC, … I.e., the last two bits are always 0 memArray is a word wide and 2 8 deep reg [31:0] memArray [0:256-1]; Size = 4 Bytes/row * 256 rows = 1024 B If we’re simulating lw/sw, we R/W words What bits select the first 256 words? [9:2]! 1 st word = 0x0 = 0b000 = memArray[0]; 2 nd word = 0x4 = 0b100 = memArray[1], etc.

6 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (6) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Verilog Memory for MIPS Interpreter (3/3) end; always @ (posedge DMP) begin chann = $fopen("dump.dat"); if (chann==0) begin $display("$fopen of dump.dat failed."); $finish; end for (i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/11/2942704/slides/slide_6.jpg", "name": "CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (6) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Verilog Memory for MIPS Interpreter (3/3) end; always @ (posedge DMP) begin chann = $fopen( dump.dat ); if (chann==0) begin $display( $fopen of dump.dat failed. ); $finish; end for (i=0; i

7 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (7) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Peer Instruction A. We should use the main ALU to compute PC=PC+4 B. We’re going to be able to read 2 registers and write a 3 rd in 1 cycle C. Datapath is hard, Control is easy ABC 1: FFF 2: FFT 3: FTF 4: FTT 5: TFF 6: TFT 7: TTF 8: TTT

8 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (8) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB How to Design a Processor: step-by-step 1. Analyze instruction set architecture (ISA) => datapath requirements meaning of each instruction is given by the register transfers datapath must include storage element for ISA registers datapath must support each register transfer 2. Select set of datapath components and establish clocking methodology 3. Assemble datapath meeting requirements 4. Analyze implementation of each instruction to determine setting of control points that effects the register transfer. 5. Assemble the control logic (hard part!)

9 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (9) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Storage Element: Register (Building Block) Register Similar to the D Flip Flop except -N-bit input and output -Write Enable input Write Enable: -negated (or deasserted) (0): Data Out will not change -asserted (1): Data Out will become Data In Clk Data In Write Enable NN Data Out

10 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (10) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Verilog 32-bit Register for MIPS Interpreter // Behavioral model of 32-bit Register: // positive edge-triggered, // synchronous active-high reset. module reg32 (CLK,Q,D,RST); input [31:0] D; input CLK, RST; output [31:0] Q; reg [31:0] Q; always @ (posedge CLK) if (RST) Q = 0; else Q = D; endmodule // reg32

11 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (11) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Storage Element: Register File Register File consists of 32 registers: Two 32-bit output busses: busA and busB One 32-bit input bus: busW Register is selected by: RA (number) selects the register to put on busA (data) RB (number) selects the register to put on busB (data) RW (number) selects the register to be written via busW (data) when Write Enable is 1 Clock input (CLK) The CLK input is a factor ONLY during write operation During read operation, behaves as a combinational logic block: -RA or RB valid => busA or busB valid after “access time.” Clk busW Write Enable 32 busA 32 busB 555 RWRARB 32 32-bit Registers

12 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (12) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Verilog Register File for MIPS Interpreter (1/3) // Behavioral model of register file: // 32-bit wide, 32 words deep, // two asynchronous read-ports, // one synchronous write-port. // Dump register file contents to // console on pos edge of dump signal.

13 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (13) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB module regFile (CLK, wEnb, DMP, writeReg, writeD, readReg1, readD1, readReg2, readD2); input CLK, wEnb, DMP; input [4:0] writeReg, readReg1, readReg2; input [31:0] writeD; output [31:0] readD1, readD2; reg [31:0] readD1, readD2; reg [31:0] array [0:31]; reg dirty1, dirty2; integer i; 3 5-bit fields to select registers: 1 write register, 2 read register Verilog Register File for MIPS Interpreter (2/3)

14 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (14) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Verilog Register File for MIPS Interpreter (3/3) always @ (posedge CLK) if (wEnb) if (writeReg!=4'h0) // why? begin array[writeReg] = writeD; dirty1=1'b1; dirty2=1'b1; end always @ (readReg1 or dirty1) begin readD1 = array[readReg1]; dirty1=0; end

15 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (15) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Step 3: Assemble DataPath meeting requirements Register Transfer Requirements  Datapath Assembly Instruction Fetch Read Operands and Execute Operation

16 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (16) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB 3a: Overview of the Instruction Fetch Unit The common RTL operations Fetch the Instruction: mem[PC] Update the program counter: -Sequential Code: PC = PC + 4 -Branch and Jump: PC = “something else” 32 Instruction Word Address Instruction Memory PCClk Next Address Logic

17 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (17) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB 3b: Add & Subtract R[rd] = R[rs] op R[rt] Ex.: addU rd, rs, rt Ra, Rb, and Rw come from instruction’s Rs, Rt, and Rd fields ALUctr and RegWr: control logic after decoding the instruction 32 Result ALUctr Clk busW RegWr 32 busA 32 busB 555 RwRaRb 32 32-bit Registers RsRtRd ALU oprsrtrdshamtfunct 061116212631 6 bits 5 bits Already defined register file, ALU

18 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (18) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Clocking Methodology Storage elements clocked by same edge Being physical devices, flip-flops (FF) and combinational logic have some delays Gates: delay from input change to output change Signals at FF D input must be stable before active clock edge to allow signal to travel within the FF, and we have the usual clock-to-Q delay “Critical path” (longest path through logic) determines length of clock period Clk........................

19 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (19) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Register-Register Timing: One complete cycle 32 Result ALUctr Clk busW RegWr 32 busA 32 busB 555 RwRaRb 32 32-bit Registers RsRtRd ALU Clk PC Rs, Rt, Rd, Op, Func ALUctr Instruction Memory Access Time Old ValueNew Value RegWrOld ValueNew Value Delay through Control Logic busA, B Register File Access Time Old ValueNew Value busW ALU Delay Old ValueNew Value Old ValueNew Value Old Value Register Write Occurs Here

20 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (20) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB 3c: Logical Operations with Immediate R[rt] = R[rs] op ZeroExt[imm16] ] 32 Result ALUct r Clk busW RegWr 32 busA 32 busB 555 RwRaRb 32 32-bit Registers Rs ZeroExt Mux RtRd RegDst Mux 32 16 imm16 ALUSrc ALU 11 oprsrtimmediate 016212631 6 bits16 bits5 bits rd? immediate 0161531 16 bits 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rt? Already defined 32-bit MUX; Zero Ext? What about Rt register read??

21 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (21) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB 3d: Load Operations R[rt] = Mem[R[rs] + SignExt[imm16]] Example: lw rt, rs, imm16 oprsrtimmediate 016212631 6 bits16 bits5 bits 32 ALUctr Clk busW RegWr 32 busA 32 busB 555 RwRaRb 32 32-bit Registers Rs RtRd RegDst Extender Mux 32 16 imm16 ALUSrc ExtOp Clk Data In WrEn 32 Adr Data Memory 32 ALU MemWr Mu x W_Src ?? Rt?

22 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (22) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB 3e: Store Operations Mem[ R[rs] + SignExt[imm16] ] = R[rt] Ex.: sw rt, rs, imm16 oprsrtimmediate 016212631 6 bits16 bits5 bits 32 ALUctr Clk busW RegWr 32 busA 32 busB 555 RwRaRb 32 32-bit Registers Rs Rt Rd RegDst Extender Mux 32 16 imm16 ALUSrc ExtOp Clk Data In WrEn 32 Adr Data Memory MemWr ALU 32 Mu x W_Src

23 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (23) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB 3f: The Branch Instruction beqrs, rt, imm16 mem[PC]Fetch the instruction from memory Equal = R[rs] == R[rt]Calculate the branch condition if (Equal) Calculate the next instruction’s address -PC = PC + 4 + ( SignExt(imm16) x 4 ) else -PC = PC + 4 oprsrtimmediate 016212631 6 bits16 bits5 bits

24 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (24) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Datapath for Branch Operations beq rs, rt, imm16 Datapath generates condition (equal) oprsrtimmediate 016212631 6 bits16 bits5 bits 32 imm16 PC Clk 00 Adder Mux Adder 4 nPC_sel Clk busW RegWr 32 busA 32 busB 555 RwRaRb 32 32-bit Registers Rs Rt Equal? Cond PC Ext Inst Address Already MUX, adder, sign extend, zero

25 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (25) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Putting it All Together:A Single Cycle Datapath imm16 32 ALUctr Clk busW RegWr 32 busA 32 busB 555 RwRaRb 32 32-bit Registers Rs Rt Rd RegDst Extender Mux 32 16 imm16 ALUSrc ExtOp Mux MemtoReg Clk Data In WrEn 32 Adr Data Memory MemWr ALU Equal Instruction 0 1 0 1 0 1 Imm16RdRtRs = Adder PC Clk 00 Mux 4 nPC_sel PC Ext Adr Inst Memory

26 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (26) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB Peer Instruction Suppose we’re writing a MIPS interpreter in Verilog. Which sequence below is best organization for the interpreter? A. repeat loop that fetches instructions B. while loop that fetches instructions C. Decodes instructions using case statement D. Decodes instr. using chained if statements E. Executes each instruction F. Increments PC by 4 1: ACEF 2: ADEF 3: AECF 4: AEDF 5: BCEF 6: BDEF 7: BECF 8: BEDF 9: EF 0: FAE

27 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (27) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB An Abstract View of the Implementation Data Out Clk 5 RwRaRb 32 32-bit Registers Rd ALU Clk Data In Data Address Ideal Data Memory Instruction Address Ideal Instruction Memory Clk PC 5 Rs 5 Rt 32 A B Next Address Control Datapath Control Signals Conditions

28 CS 61C L33 Single Cycle CPU Datapath, with Verilog II (28) Garcia, Spring 2004 © UCB °5 steps to design a processor 1. Analyze instruction set => datapath requirements 2. Select set of datapath components & establish clock methodology 3. Assemble datapath meeting the requirements 4. Analyze implementation of each instruction to determine setting of control points that effects the register transfer. 5. Assemble the control logic °Control is the hard part °Next time! Summary: Single cycle datapath Control Datapath Memory Processor Input Output


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