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1 1 How to Plan and Conduct Qualitative Research © Fraser Health Authority, 2007 The Fraser Health Authority (“FH”) authorizes the use, reproduction and/or.

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Presentation on theme: "1 1 How to Plan and Conduct Qualitative Research © Fraser Health Authority, 2007 The Fraser Health Authority (“FH”) authorizes the use, reproduction and/or."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 1 How to Plan and Conduct Qualitative Research © Fraser Health Authority, 2007 The Fraser Health Authority (“FH”) authorizes the use, reproduction and/or modification of this publication for purposes other than commercial redistribution. In consideration for this authorization, the user agrees that any unmodified reproduction of this publication shall retain all copyright and proprietary notices. If the user modifies the content of this publication, all FH copyright notices shall be removed, however FH shall be acknowledged as the author of the source publication. Reproduction or storage of this publication in any form by any means for the purpose of commercial redistribution is strictly prohibited. This publication is intended to provide general information only, and should not be relied on as providing specific healthcare, legal or other professional advice. The Fraser Health Authority, and every person involved in the creation of this publication, disclaims any warranty, express or implied, as to its accuracy, completeness or currency, and disclaims all liability in respect of any actions, including the results of any actions, taken or not taken in reliance on the information contained herein.

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4 Rosa Haywood ( ), Research Ethics Coordinator, Research Ethics Board.Rosa Haywood Susan Chunick ( ), Director, Research Administration and Development (RAD). Susan Chunick Michael Wasdell ( ), Epidemiologist. Grant Facilitator. Who we are: Camille Viray ( ), RAD Administrative Assistant.

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6 RESEARCH ETHICS BOARD STATUS REPORT 01 December 2008 Total Studies 528 (From 2005 September 01 to Date) ACTIVE STUDIES =210 PENDING APPROVAL = 31 Active Studies by Department Area Access & Utilization 1 Environmental Health 2Neurology1Physiotherapy4 Acute Programs 2 Family Medicine 1Nursing5Planning1 Administration2Finance1Obstetrics6 Professional Practice 3 Biomedical Engineering 1 Food & Nutrition 2 Occupational Therapy 1Psychiatry18 Cardiology31 Health Services 4Oncology8 Public Health Prevention 1 Chronic Care 1 Infection Control 1 Operating Room 1 Residency Facility 2 Critical Care (ICU) 7 Internal Medicine 1Orthopaedics19Respiratory2 Decision Support Services 1 Material Management 1 Palliative Care 3 Social Work 2 Dentistry1Medicine5Pathology1Surgery2 Diversity Services 1 Mental Health 8Pediatrics7 Workplace Health 9 Elder Research 2 Multiple Sclerosis 12 People Services 1 Non FH Research 2 Emergency4Nephrology5Pharmacy14

7 FH Health Research Intelligence Unit How can we help?  Grant Facilitator-Writer  Conducting a search for funding opportunities  Automatic notification of new funding sources and deadlines  Identifying a research team  Preparing letters of intent  Identifying resources required for conducting research  Formulating the research budget  Writing the grant application in collaboration with researchers  Understanding FH and funding agency requirements regarding preparation of specific documents

8 FH Health Research Intelligence Unit How can we help?  Epidemiologist  Specifying the research goal, objectives and hypothesis  Identifying outcomes  Specifying variables for analysis  Identifying sources of data  Developing data collection tools for quantitative or qualitative studies  Developing the analysis plan  Analyzing quantitative data  Understanding how to use statistical software, such as SPSS

9 What is Qualitative Research? When to Conduct Qualitative Research? Qualitative versus Quantitative Research Qualitative Methods of Data Collection How to Write up Qualitative Research for Publication? Qualitative Data Analysis and Coding Workshop Outline

10 What is qualitative research? “The goal of qualitative research is the development of concepts which help us to understand social phenomena in natural (rather than experimental) settings, giving due emphasis to the meanings, experiences, and views of all the participants.” Pope & Mays. BMJ 1995; 311: : : Qualitative research focuses on the ‘why’ and ‘how’ which is sometimes missing in quantitative research.

11 Qualitative “vs.” Quantitative? Quantitative  Explanation, prediction  Test theories  Known variables  Larger sample  Standardized instruments  Deductive Qualitative  Explanation, description  Build theories  Unknown variables  Smaller sample  Observations, interviews  Inductive

12 Guba and Lincoln (1981) Guba and Lincoln (1981) Four criteria for judging the soundness of qualitative research Four criteria for judging the soundness of qualitative research Traditional Criteria for Judging Quantitative Research Alternative Criteria for Judging Qualitative Research Internal validityCredibility External validityTransferability ReliabilityDependability Objectivity Confirmability (Can findings be confirmed by others?) Validity: Qualitative Research Guba, E.G., and Lincoln, Y. S. (1981) Effective evaluation: Improving the usefulness of evaluation results through responsive and naturalistic approaches. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

13 When to Conduct Qualitative Research?

14  When you want to explore topics in more breadth and depth than quantitative research breadth and depth than quantitative research  Your research goal is to explore a topic or an idea  You want to gain insight into a target audience’s lifestyle, culture, motivations, behaviours etc.  You want to understand the reasons behind the results of quantitative research  You want to get input from key informants or others or others

15  Many types  Focus: Ethnography Ethnography Case studies Case studies Phenomenology Phenomenology Narrative Research Narrative Research Grounded Theory Grounded Theory Qualitative Design Types

16  Ethnography Derived from anthropology Derived from anthropology The study of cultural groups in a natural setting, over a prolonged period of time. Emphasis in ethnography is on studying entire culture. The study of cultural groups in a natural setting, over a prolonged period of time. Emphasis in ethnography is on studying entire culture. Common data collection methods: Observation and interviews. Common data collection methods: Observation and interviews.  E.g. Observing children in a classroom over the school year.

17  Case studies In-depth exploration of an area (i.e. Program, event, individual) using a variety of data collection methods. In-depth exploration of an area (i.e. Program, event, individual) using a variety of data collection methods.  E.g. Researching an individual with a particular health condition. Qualitative Design Types

18  Phenomenological research Identifying the essence of human experiences concerning a phenomenon, as described by participants in a study. Identifying the essence of human experiences concerning a phenomenon, as described by participants in a study. Involves studying a small number of subjects to develop patterns and relationships of meaning and experiences. Involves studying a small number of subjects to develop patterns and relationships of meaning and experiences.  E.g. Studying children at playtime, with imaginary toys in imaginary settings, game playing etc. Qualitative Design Types

19  Narrative research Study of the lives of individuals as told by the individuals. The researcher re-tells the information into a narrative chronology, combining views from the participant’s and researcher’s life.  E.g. Autobiography Qualitative Design Types

20  Grounded theory Researcher tries to derive a theory of a phenomena of interest. Theory needs to be grounded or rooted in observation Analytic techniques: Coding- Open and selective coding of information Memoing- Comments and thoughts of researcher are recorded Diagrams- Integrative diagrams used to bring concepts together and understand data Qualitative Design Types

21 Group Exercise 1  1) Qualitative versus quantitative Identify whether specific research questions would best use a qualitative or quantitative approach Identify whether specific research questions would best use a qualitative or quantitative approach Group exercises taken from “An Introduction to Qualitative Research” by B. Hancock, 2002.Group exercises taken from “An Introduction to Qualitative Research” by B. Hancock, 2002.http://faculty.uccb.ns.ca/pmacintyre/course_pages/MBA603/MBA603_files/IntroQualitativeResearch.pdf

22 Sampling  Regardless of quantitative or qualitative, important to consider sampling  How will you choose those participants you wish to gather information from for a qualitative study? Convenience Convenience Purposeful Purposeful Theoretical Theoretical

23 Sampling  Convenience: Selection of the most accessible subjects. Limitations-Possibility of poor quality data.  Example: Investigator asks patients leaving hospital to talk about their experience.  *PurposefulInvestigator actively selects the most productive sample to answer the research question. Intellectual strategy based on researcher’s knowledge, literature, evidence.  *Purposeful: Investigator actively selects the most productive sample to answer the research question. Intellectual strategy based on researcher’s knowledge, literature, evidence.  Example:  Theoretical: Sampling is theory-based. Building theories, elaborating on theories by selecting participants that will add to study (Commonly used-Grounded theory)  Example:  Reality: Combination of sampling methods typically used in order to best fit the research goal. to best fit the research goal.  See handout

24 Types of Qualitative Methods  Wide range of qualitative methodologies:  Interviews: structured, semi-structured, in-depth. structured, semi-structured, in-depth.  Focus groups.  Qualitative questionnaire.  Observation.  Analysis of written documents (content analysis).  Conversation or discourse analysis.

25 Focus: 3 Methods Focus Groups Interviews Qualitative Questionnaires Types of Qualitative Methods

26 Focus Groups  Group recruited to discuss particular topic  ONE focus group is ONE unit of analysis  Each focus group should take 1-2 hours  Ideal size: 6 – 12 people (plus a moderator/note taker)  Several groups are necessary for validity  Homogeneity and anonymity are important factors to consider People may open up with others who are People may open up with others who are perceived to think along similar lines and perceived to think along similar lines and whom they may never see again whom they may never see again

27 Advantages/Disadvantages of Focus Groups  Advantages: Socially oriented research procedure Socially oriented research procedure Format allows the moderator to probe Format allows the moderator to probe Discussions have high face validity Discussions have high face validity Can be relatively low cost Can be relatively low cost Can provide speedy results Can provide speedy results Enable researchers to increase the sample size of qualitative studies Enable researchers to increase the sample size of qualitative studies Adapted from: Krueger, R. A. (1994). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

28  Disadvantages: Researcher has less control in the group interview than in an individual interview. Researcher has less control in the group interview than in an individual interview. Data are more difficult to analyze. Data are more difficult to analyze. Technique requires carefully trained moderators. Technique requires carefully trained moderators. Groups can vary considerably. Groups can vary considerably. Groups are difficult to assemble. Groups are difficult to assemble. Discussion must be conducted in an environment conducive to conversation. Discussion must be conducted in an environment conducive to conversation. Adapted from: Krueger, R. A. (1994). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Advantages/Disadvantages of Focus Groups

29 When/When Not to Use Focus Groups  Consider the use of a focus group when: Insight is needed in exploratory or preliminary studies. Insight is needed in exploratory or preliminary studies. There is a communication or understanding gap between groups or categories of people. There is a communication or understanding gap between groups or categories of people. The purpose is to uncover factors relating to complex behavior or motivation. The purpose is to uncover factors relating to complex behavior or motivation. The researcher desires ideas to emerge from the group. The researcher desires ideas to emerge from the group. The researcher needs additional information to prepare for a large-scale study. The researcher needs additional information to prepare for a large-scale study. The client/intended audience place high value on capturing the open-ended comments of the target audience. The client/intended audience place high value on capturing the open-ended comments of the target audience. Adapted from: Krueger, R. A. (1994). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

30 When/When Not to Use Focus Groups  Do NOT use focus groups when: The environment is emotionally charged and more information of any type is likely to intensify the conflict. The environment is emotionally charged and more information of any type is likely to intensify the conflict. The researcher has lost control over critical aspects of the study. The researcher has lost control over critical aspects of the study. Statistical projections (of numerical data) are needed. Statistical projections (of numerical data) are needed. Other methodologies can produce better quality information or more economical information of the same quality. Other methodologies can produce better quality information or more economical information of the same quality. The researcher cannot ensure the confidentiality of sensitive information. The researcher cannot ensure the confidentiality of sensitive information. Adapted from: Krueger, R. A. (1994). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

31 Focus Group Question Design  Using the overall purpose, develop specific questions  Points to keep in mind when considering questions: Should be “open-ended” to provide wide variety and depth of responses. Simple “yes/no” questions provide very specific information Should be “open-ended” to provide wide variety and depth of responses. Simple “yes/no” questions provide very specific information Should be clearly stated so participants are not confused Should be clearly stated so participants are not confused Should be neutral to avoid influencing the responses of participants Should be neutral to avoid influencing the responses of participants Should be ordered from easy, general questions to more difficult Should be ordered from easy, general questions to more difficult

32 Focus Group Methodology  After questions are developed, the methodology for the focus group is designed.  Methodology: this is the step where the procedures for conducting the focus group are developed: How many people How many people How many sessions will be held How many sessions will be held How participants will be recruited How participants will be recruited How they will be contacted. How they will be contacted.

33  How many people per group?  It is important to have a sufficient number of people to generate ideas and create discussions. It is equally important not to have too large a group.  Too large a group can prevent participants from being involved in discussions.  Ideal size: 6 – 12 people (plus a moderator/note taker) Focus Group Methodology

34 What to Look for in a Facilitator  Good understanding of topic area and goal of project  Does not make participants uncomfortable (objective) (E.g. Manager asking about employee satisfaction). (E.g. Manager asking about employee satisfaction).  Can make each participant feel safe enough to express themselves  Can take charge and lead group if it gets off track (E.g. keep single participant from dominating discussion) (E.g. keep single participant from dominating discussion)

35  WHO: identify a target group that can provide the most useful data  WHEN: determine when to conduct the focus group (the information to be collected determines the timeframe for the conduct of the focus group)  LOGISTICS: coordinating rooms, dates, and times, as well as contacting the participants so that they can block out their calendars.

36 FOCUS GROUP REQUIREMENTS  Participants must feel confident and trust what they say will be treated with the same confidentiality as responses on a survey questionnaire. Only the facilitator will have access to the participants’ names. Only the facilitator will have access to the participants’ names. Only the facilitator will have access to the participants’ comments. Only the facilitator will have access to the participants’ comments. No observers are allowed in a focus group. No observers are allowed in a focus group. Ground rules should be posted and discussed with participants, including: Ground rules should be posted and discussed with participants, including: Participate fullyParticipate fully Respect comments of all participantsRespect comments of all participants What is said here, stays hereWhat is said here, stays here

37 Group Exercise 2  2.) Focus Group Exercise  Imagine that you want to undertake a research project about a particular patient or client group you deal with as part of your work. It may be a group defined by age or clinical problem. You want to collect information using focus groups composed of members of your own professional group.  Consider the following questions:   1. What is the geographical spread of your potential participants?  2. Are there any specific inclusion criteria for selecting participants?  3. Where or how could you obtain a list of potential participants?  4. Are there any pre existing groups and what are the advantages and disadvantages of using members? Group exercises taken from “An Introduction to Qualitative Research” by B. Hancock, Group exercises taken from “An Introduction to Qualitative Research” by B. Hancock,

38 Interviews and Surveys Survey and question development is a full workshop all on it’s own- January 26, 2009 (9 am-12 pm RCH) Survey and question development is a full workshop all on it’s own- January 26, 2009 (9 am-12 pm RCH) Five methods: 1. Face-to-face interviews 2. Exit survey 3. Telephone survey 4. Mail/self-administered survey 5. Web-based survey

39 Method of data collection CostTime Response rate LengthComplex FACE TO FACE HIGHMEDIUMHIGHLONGHIGH EXIT* MEDIUM FAST- SLOW MEDIUMSHORTLOW TELEPHONEMEDIUMFAST MEDIUM- HIGH MEDIUMMEDIUM MAIL* LOWSLOW VERY LOW MEDIUMLOW WEB-BASEDLOWFAST LOW- MEDIUM SHORT- MEDIUM MEDIUM * Can be anonymous Data Collection Methods

40 Interviews  Informal- Researcher is required to recollect discussion  Unstructured- Researcher allows interview to proceed at respondent’s pace and subjects to vary by interviewee (to an extent)  Semi-structured- Researcher uses an interview guide, but respondent is given freedom to respond  Structured- Researcher uses identical situation and adheres to interview schedule

41 Questionnaire/Survey Design Process  1) Define objectives and requirements Keep “need to know” questions, be cautious about “like to know” Keep “need to know” questions, be cautious about “like to know” 2) Consult with experts familiar with, or are part of interest group during development 3) Draft questions while thinking about data collection method and burden on respondent 4) Review/revise the questionnaire 5) Pre-test or pilot the questionnaire Tip: Focus groups can be used to develop content of survey

42 Keys points to remember  Write in everyday terms  Follow basic writing principles (direct/to the point, no spelling errors, grammar etc).  Use consistent wording  Be clear about directions (what you would like the respondent to do).

43 Things to avoid  “And”- potential double barrelled question  “If”- potentially confusing direction/question  Asking more than one question in a single question.

44 Final Task of Conducting a Focus Group: Coding, Analysis and Reporting  Communicate the findings clearly and accurately so that they can be used for making decisions.  The facilitator will compile and analyze the comments to determine trends and single comments worthy of inclusion.  Conclusions and recommendations will be based on this analysis.

45 Open-ended Data coding  It’s easy to code closed response or rating questions, but how do you code open-ended data?  Objective: to create codes and classify responses into categories respondents would have chosen, had they been offered categories Two phases: 1) Scan responses 1) Scan responses 2) Scan responses and then 2) Scan responses and then code code Themes will emerge Themes will emerge

46 Coding Focus Group Data Thematic coding factors: 1. Frequency- Number of times something is mentioned 2. Specificity- Details 3. Emotion- i.e. Enthusiasm, frustration in responses 4. Extensiveness- How many different people said something

47 Emotion and Context  It is important to take emotion/context into account.  For example: the phrase “He was alright". *  Can be said in a variety of ways and mean something different in every case.  "He was ALRIGHT" (He was alright, I liked him)  "HE was alright" (He was alright but I wasn't so keen on the others)  "He WAS alright" (He used to be but he isn't now)  "He was alright?" (Well you might think so but I don't) * Example from “An Introduction to Qualitative Research” by B. Hancock,

48  Tapes are transcribed verbatim  Text is sorted into themes by at least 2 researchers to ensure validity using pile-sort method or computerized version CDC’s EasyText (free) CDC’s EasyText (free)  Themes are compared with note-taker’s notes  The complete focus group process usually takes about three to four months Coding Focus Group Data

49 Group Exercise 3 3) Content Analysis exercise 3) Content Analysis exercise  The following text is an excerpt from the transcript of an interview conducted by a community psychiatric nurse with a woman following discharge from hospital. The excerpt deals with the woman's recollection of being admitted and how she felt at that time.  Read the transcript carefully and complete the following tasks.  1) Make a note of all the items of data you consider to be potentially interesting.  2) Identify “categories” of data.  3) How many categories have you identified?  4) Do some items of data potentially relate to more than one category?  5) Can you identify major and minor categories? Group exercises taken from “An Introduction to Qualitative Research” by B. Hancock, Group exercises taken from “An Introduction to Qualitative Research” by B. Hancock,

50 How to Write up Qualitative Research for Publication Typical article format also works for qualitative research!  Same standards as for any type of paper  A link in reasoning from introduction to methodology to findings to conclusion. Abstract AbstractIntroduction What’s the question?What’s the question? Why’s it important?Why’s it important? How to address it?How to address it? Theory/Framework and Research Questions MethodFindingsDiscussionConclusionReferences

51  Consider the use of tables to summarize less exciting details  Use of quotes from participants  Use diagrams to show analyses and framework  Thoroughly justify and explain your philosophy/theory and research method.  Use the standard research paper format as a guideline for qualitative write-up. How to Write up Qualitative Research for Publication

52 Writing Tips for Qualitative Research  Reference article hive/ _v14n1s12_ pdf hive/ _v14n1s12_ pdf hive/ _v14n1s12_ pdf

53 Important  Qualitative research is different than quantitative research May not be appropriate to generalize May not be appropriate to generalize Findings only apply to group of focus Findings only apply to group of focus


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