Presentation on theme: "THE REVOLUTIONARY ERA Chapter 4. WAR AND DIPLOMACY The 18 th century was an interesting juxtaposition of the Enlightenment (seeking to make a better society)"— Presentation transcript:
THE REVOLUTIONARY ERA Chapter 4
WAR AND DIPLOMACY The 18 th century was an interesting juxtaposition of the Enlightenment (seeking to make a better society) and intense rivalry/competition between European nations. In Europe: wars tended to be dynastic as well as territorial, especially in central Europe between the emerging powers of Austria and Prussia. In the Colonies: wars were fought over land and trade opportunities, with England/France the main rivals to expand their territories
WARFARE IN THE 18 TH CENTURY Increasingly deadly- the technology of weaponry began to improve rapidly in the 1700s. Muskets could fire farther, with greater accuracy(and safety for user) Bayonets invented for hand to hand combat Battle tactics developed with required enormous discipline and coordination, but could be remarkably effective. These sophisticated militaries were quite expensive, and military became an increasing part of a nation’s budget (requiring taxes to pay for it)
COMPETITION BETWEEN FRANCE AND ENGLAND By the time of the revolution, more than ½ of British trade, and 1/3 of French trade wasn’t European. Colonies and International trade represented vital segments of the economy- and England/France were more than willing to protect what was theirs….and go after what wasn’t. England and France claimed land in the same areas: North America, the Caribbean, and India. English colonies had the population (1.7 million in 1760) French colonies had the size. Probably the most valuable and contested area was actually the Caribbean (it’s the sugar) where territories were small (therefore easier to potentially conquer), and revenues were big
FRENCH CANADA Established at Quebec in 1608 Claimed not only territory north of the Great Lakes, but in Ohio River Valley and west of Mississippi. Fur trade (especially Beaver) most important econ activity. Had the most cooperative relationship with Native Americans- specifically the Huron and Algonquin, meaning that Indian tribes (with valuable knowledge of territory) would fight for French. And that’s important, b/c the European population is small- only 6000 white Men in “New France”
CLASH OF EMPIRES There were 4 “World Wars” (meaning fought in areas other than Europe) between 1688 and Primary antagonists are France and England King William’s War ( ) and Queen Anne’s War ( ) were faintly dynastic, outside nations trying to get on the throne of England. There are skirmishes between British and French colonist along borders. Treaty of Utrecht (1713) will create a 30 year peace King George’s War/War of Austrian Succession ( ) Same theme, but with Austrian throne (under Maria Theresa) as the prize. New England will invade New France and take Ft Louisbourg at the mouth of the St Lawrence. They give it back as part of Treaty of Paris 1748…which made colonists mad. Creates Salutary Neglect- England is busy doing other things… and Prime Minister Robert Walpole thought that if colonies were left alone, they would be more productive (which is true at that time period)
THE SEVEN YEARS WAR The most important (and deciding) conflict. This one actually STARTS in North America. The treaty of 1748 had called for French to give up forts in Ohio Valley….but they weren’t 1754 George Washington, a colonial Lieutenant in the British Army, led surveyors to areas near what is today Pittsburgh to make sure they aren’t building a fort there (Ft Duquesne). He is attacked by French and forced to surrender (though allowed to leave with his army) General Braddock (and Washington) bring main army out to attack the fort- and get stomped by an Indian ambush (ft Necessity) Braddock and 2/3 of Army killed- Washington leads survivors out. Meanwhile back in Europe…Prussia/England squares off against Austria/France/Russia/Sweden over territory in German states and eastern Europe
THE ALBANY PLAN OF UNION Many colonists felt vulnerable to Fr/Indian attack. Called Albany Congress in 1754 to discuss the issue, and attempt to create a firm alliance with the Iroquois- attended by 7 northern colonies Ben Franklin (delegate for PA) says Britain is too far away to be useful in a crisis, colonies need Home Rule. Proposes Albany Plan of Union: An association for mutual trade and defense. Would have a colonial assembly to manage policy. Didn’t work: Iroquois refused an official alliance (looked like French were winning), and neither the colonies nor the British felt that colonies working together was a good idea BUT: important 1 st step to colonial unity
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR Fighting on several fronts- there were significant naval battles in the Caribbean, and a decisive victory in India at the Battle of Plessy (which gave the British East India Company dominion over trade in the area). But the heart of the fighting was in North America- specifically around the great lakes and Ohio Valley. Prime Minister William Pitt put 40,000 troops (British and colonial) into the field Decisive battle of the War fought on Plains of Abraham near Quebec: General James Wolfe scales cliffs to take city by surprise- defeats the Marquis de Montcalm Treaty of Paris 1763: France gave up Canada, to Britain, pulled out of trade with India, lost land west of Mississippi to Spain. (Spain also gives Florida to Britain, and regains Cuba) Very humiliating (and expensive) for France…this is why they support colonial rebellion 15 years later…. Britain emerges as dominant naval power, and dominant colonial power. (A position they will hold for over a century)
FRICTION AFTER THE WAR Colonists emerge from war feeling great- they fought for their homes and won! BUT, were annoyed so few colonials had been appointed officers in British army British were annoyed that colonists had continued to smuggle in West Indies during war- essentially supplying the French (b/c they paid better than English) Made them question colonial loyalty. Colonial militias had also been reluctant to leave their home areas and fight where needed, which had complicated British war effort.
PONTIAC’S REBELLION Now that French threat beyond the Appalachians removed…. Colonist assumed that there was all sorts of new land available- and began flocking west to get it. As the war ended, in order to pacify Native Americans (who had been allies of the French, and weren’t leaving) the British had promised to limit settlement As colonials came west, Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa led an alliance of Indian tribes to attack in Ohio Valley/Great Lakes region. 9 of 11 British Forts taken, 2000 settlers killed, and it took British army 18 months to get area under control. (Germ warfare- smallpox blankets) British decide this whole area is a hassle, not liable to make them $$, and they don’t want to have to protect it…..
PROCLAMATION OF 1763 So…… to keep peace with the Indians, the British issue Proclamation of 1763, which says there can be no colonial expansion beyond the Appalachians. It’s actually intended to be temporary, just to get things under control, and create more organized settlement. But Colonists FREAK. Why had they fought? They see the order as permanent, and outright refuse to obey. This gets the British gov’t mad….they had given a direct order, what was unclear? Setting up the idea (for the colonists) that the British might not have their best interests at heart….
PAXTON BOYS AND REGULATORS Not only were colonists, annoyed, they were ready to fight for what they saw as their rights. (Similar to Liesler’s and Bacon’s Rebellions) Paxton Boys In Pennsylvania Scotts Irish settlers kill 20 Indians (from a peaceful tribe), and governor (a Quaker) wants them tried for murder. 250 Scotts Irish march on Philadelphia demanding Indians removed from frontier. Benjamin Franklin negotiates a truce between Scotts, Quakers, and Indians. Regulators: Western Carolina (more Scotts) frustrated with British land and tax policies, become vigilantes, demanding access to the frontier for what they call “fair” treatment in terms of land ownership Again- British just don’t want to deal with this….and decide they need to get the colonies under control.
REVIEW: AMERICA BEFORE THE REVOLUTION American colonists have the highest standard of living in the world. Mercantilism and Navigation Laws restricted trade, but certainly allowed the colonists to make good $$. (Southern colonies generally suffered more, as they needed manufactured goods, and didn’t tend to smuggle) Colonists had more direct representation in local government than English
TOWARDS INDEPENDENCE In 1763 colonies were happy to be a part of the victorious British empire. In 1776 they were in open rebellion- that’s a big change in 15 years! Revolution (according to John Adams) came from a change in the colonists interpretation in the balance of liberty and order: “the principles, opinion, sentiments and affections of the people”. England itself had dealt with the same issue during the English Civil War, and the Glorious Revolution. After French and Indian War, and the problems with Western expansion; British feel they need to get a grip on the colonies. AND they should pay for their own defense (which was admittedly a HUGE expense) Actually, what the British wanted wasn’t unreasonable or repressive- but the Americans (b/c that’s what they are becoming) no longer the goals of England as their own best interest.
THE ISSUE OF TAXATION Doesn’t start with NEW taxes…but with attempts to ENFORCE the old ones- and end the loss of revenue that came from colonial smuggling with the west indies. Sugar Act of 1764 replaced Molasses Act 1733: 1 st British tax designed to raise revenues in the colonies. Taxed foreign sugar to stop smuggling. Currency Act 1764: forbid colonies to issue their own paper $$. (they don’t want Colonies to control the specie they use to pay debts, they could devalue it) they have to pay taxes in bullion- which is scarce in colonies.
THE END OF SALUTARY NEGLECT Prime Minister after War was George Grenville, and he wanted to recoup expenses of French and Indian War. (which was HUGE, ½ of the British national debt directly related to colonial expense) Wanted colonists to pay 1/3 of cost of maintaining a garrison of 10,000 soldiers for continued protection against Native Americans. Increased authority of admiralty courts to try smugglers and tax evaders, and those trials were conducted without a jury. George III (became king in 1762) very stubborn. Surrounded himself with government officials who were inexperienced in colonial affairs, and narrow minded. When things go badly, King George replaces them, he will have 5 prime ministers in the 1 st 10 years of his reign – no stablity
WRITS OF ASSISTANCE British customs officers given right to inspect all colonial ships (with or without probable cause) to reduce smuggling. Seen as very offensive by colonists, as though their government assumes they are criminals. 1761: James Otis (a Boston Lawyer) demanded Parliament repeal the acts (they did not). He coined the phrase “No Taxation without Representation”
THE STAMP ACT Probably the most important event leading to the revolution Required all printed materials (like published papers and legal documents) must bear an official “stamp” to be legal. Grenville’s Justification: Colonies needed to pay for their defense, and a similar act (but larger) had been used in England during times past. When colonies complained about “taxation w/o representation” he said that all British citizens had “virtual representation” in Parliament, b/c Parliament represents all Englishmen (Even if they didn’t vote for members) Virginia Resolves: (drafted by Patrick Henry) said that Stamp Act violated colonists rights as Englishmen. Called for non importation of English goods. 8 other colonies drafter similar resolutions
INTERNAL/EXTERNAL TAXES Colonists differentiated between “legislation” and “taxation” Parliament has the right to make laws for the empire, and those laws MAY include taxes that apply to ALL British citizens (external) such as customs duties and tariffs. But local taxes – those that apply to only one area) are the right of local government (internal) and since the stamp act applied only to the colonies, parliament was violating colonial rights
THE STAMP ACT CONGRESS Colonists did NOT accept Grenville’s reasoning, and 9 colonies (the ones with resolutions) met in Boston in 1765 to discuss matter. Massachusetts and Virginia the leaders. Petitioned the King to repeal the Stamp act (in a list of rights and grievances, a forerunner of the declaration), called for a boycott of trade with Britain. Important b/c the colonies are working together, seeing that they have more in common with each other than England. Sons of Liberty: (Led by Sam Adams) put pressure (sometimes pretty intense, vandalize, tar and feather etc) on merchants. All Stamp Act agents resigned.
THE STAMP ACT REPEALED Boycotts work (if you really want to get someone to change their minds, hit them in the pocketbook) George Grenville replaced as PM by Lord Rockingham, who didn’t want merchants (an important electoral group in England) mad at him, so he repealed Stamp Act. However, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act to save face, saying that parliament had the right to tax colonies in any way they saw fit
TOWNSHEND ACTS Charles Townshend becomes Prime Minister wanted to punish colonies for stamp act uprising, and creates a series of new taxes. They are not large, and external (indirect) paid as customs duties at ports, so Townshend assumes they will not cause problems. Import fee on glass, white lead, paper, paint, silk and tea. Sticky bit is that revenue is used to pay the salaries of royal governors and admiralty judges- which makes them unpopular, and causes colonists to challenge their validity (again) John Dickenson: “letters from a Pennsylvania farmer” said England didn’t have right to tax colonies to pay for British officials.
MASSACHUSETTS CIRCULAR LETTER Sam Adams and James Otis drafted a letter in the Massachusetts legislature which supported Dickenson’s argument- and called for the repeal of the Townshend Acts, and the renewal on non-importation British sent troops to Boston, and demanded the letter be retracted. When it wasn’t, they dissolved the Mass. Legislature…warning that they will do the same in any colony that supports (Maryland, Virginia, Delaware and South Carolina will have their legislatures dissolved) British exports fall 40% over then next few months.
TROUBLE IN BOSTON: THE BOSTON MASSACRE Parliament decides it’s time to stop messing around- and the send two regiments to Boston in Colonists take this as a sign that the British are a threat not only to their liberty, but to their lives. March 5 th 1770 a mob began taunting and threatening British soldiers on patrol. The soldiers “took” the abuse for some time- but eventually fired on the crowd. 5 killed, 6 wounded. (Crispus Attucks, a free Black, the 1 st shot) Colonial propaganda grossly exaggerated the incident. John Adams and Josiah Quincy defended the soldiers in court- the majority were acquitted
TOWNSHEND ACTS REPEALED Repealed again as a result of econ downturn caused by colonial non importation. (we were a much larger part of their econ then they had bargained for) More than ½ the troops pulled out of Boston The tax on tea was NOT repealed- once again parliament is trying to save face and assert their supremacy. From relations between America and England somewhat stabilized
COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE Sam Adams was a master of propaganda. Didn’t WANT the anger/resentment to die down, so he found a way to keep colonists stirred up. Local groups organized to write letters of propaganda, to keep opposition to British policy alive. At first just in Massachusetts, but idea spread into other colonies, and intercolonial ties developed (which will help lead to the 1 st continental congress)
BOSTON TEA PARTY Tea Act 1773: East India Company in financial trouble- on the verge of bankruptcy. SO, the gov’t (a large shareholder) gave them a monopoly on Tea. The monopoly actually made the price of tea in the colonies LOWER than it had been, but that wasn’t the point, colonists were furious. As the tea landed in Philadelphia, New York, Charleston and Boston; colonists attempted to convince governors not to allow it to land (some successful) but when “talking” failed in Boston, Sam Adams led a party of 60 (dressed as Indians) to throw 342 barrels of tea overboard. And now we are talking about destruction of gov’t property, and the government doesn’t think that’s funny….
COLONIAL UNITY Britain responds with the Intolerable (Coercive) Acts- intending to put a stop to rebellion by punishing Boston/Massachusetts/New England Closed Boston Harbor until damages paid, Massachusetts charter revoked. Restrictions of town hall meetings. Anyone who attacked a British officer or British property would be tried in England. Quartering of troops in Boston Also passed the Quebec Act- which was designed to organize the lands taken from the French in the War. And even THIS makes the colonists mad (showing how high the tension level is) b/c they feel it means the proclamation of 1763 will be permanent, and they will never get the lands in the Ohio valley they want so badly. Also afraid they will lose representative gov’t as Act specifically says new lands won’t have it (which they didn’t under French anyway) All of this pushes the colonies together….they are developing a common cause
CONTINENTAL CONGRESS(ES) Colonies decided it was time to talk….Reps from 12 colonies (no GA) meet in Philadelphia during Sept/Oct (1 st Continental Congress) Suffolk Resolves: Agree to boycott British goods, and to send an Declaration of Rights to the King, and organize a colonial militia. Intended to be brief, but was cordial and successful, so delegates leave agreeing to meet again 2 nd Continental Congress convenes May Prime Minister North declares it an illegal assembly- and says colonies are in rebellion. Blockaded all trade with foreign nations
LOYALISTS V. PATRIOTS Between 1763 and 1776, many colonists went from loyal subjects to rebels- but NOT all of them, not even close. Loyalists: did not support the revolution (some even fought for British) Econ was a prime reason, and the wealthier a colonist was, the more likely to want to stay in the empire. (esp those engaged in Atlantic trade, large landowners, or those in backcountry, who need protection from Indians). Conservative, feared rebellion would bring anarchy. Patriots: More likely to be urban, small merchants (feeling pinch of taxes), and artisans. Congregationalist/Presbyterian/Methodist/Baptist
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 2 nd Congress make us rebels, but “the shot heard round the world” starts the war for independence. April 1775: 700 British troops sent to confiscate arms/gunpowder from colonials to prevent it being used against them (and arrest leaders Sam Adams and John Hancock). Warned by Paul Revere (and others) 70 “minutemen” are ready- and fire on the British (0 British killed, 8 Americans)- who move on to Concord. There they are met with by an even larger colonial group- and the Americans take the field. By the end of the day, 273 British casualties, 95 American British return to Boston- and find a city ready for siege, which they are forced to dislodge (bunker’s/breed’s hill) though Americans saw it as a victory, they had surrendered only b/c they were out of ammo. (actually bloodiest battle of war) Will lead King George to send mercenaries: Hessians.
THE 2 ND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS Now faced with a war- and they have to decide what to do…. (it’s one thing to write letters and boycott) They were forced to become a government- and the delegates become the 1 st group of the “founding fathers”. Drafted a 2 nd letter for the king- and for the British people: “Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms” (Thomas Jefferson) But they aren’t really an authorized government, and one of their great challenges during the war was getting the colonies to act together when they didn’t want to.
OLIVE BRANCH PETITION Last ditch effort by loyalists/moderates in congress to avoid full out bloodshed. Written by John Dickenson of PA, pledged loyalty to the crown, and sought to restore peace. Asked king/parliament to “reconsider” Intolerable acts, and withdraw troops. Ignored in England
CONTINENTAL ARMY Most significant act in 1775 was the agreement to fight- and fight together (after all, early conflict all in Mass) Authorized summer of George Washington made commander (he didn’t really have all that much experience, and he had never had large numbers of troops or planned strategy- and in the end he loses more battle than he won) BUT- he had a personal integrity that inspired loyalty….and he was from Virginia, and New England NEEDS southern colonies on board. More early fighting done by Ethan Allen/Benedict Arnold and “Green Mountain Boys” who attacked and captured British Ft Ticonderoga
COMMON SENSE Thomas Paine: January 1776 Helped shift the mindset of the “average” American (who thought all out warfare with the most powerful country in the world fairly risky) Irony: He’s English- had come to America as an adult. But he is an ardent Republican- against a hereditary government. Detailed what the Britain gained from colonies, and made it seem exploitive. Also criticized them for inconsistent policy. Expressed confidence that an independent America would grow stronger than her mother country. “Nowhere in the universe does a smaller heavenly body control a larger one”. Said we had a sacred mission to create a pure new nation. Sold 120,000 copies in 6 months- huge publicity burst for patriot cause. Convinced Congress to go for full independence- not home rule or other reconciliation.
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE The resolution for Independence was introduced by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia (great, great, great… of Robert E Lee- irony)Adopted July 2,1776. Such a thing had never been done- and lots of people were nervous. So Congress decides that an explanation is needed, and appoints a 5 man committee: John Adams, Ben Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston…and Thomas Jefferson to create it The bulk of the Declaration is a list of Grievances against the king, but that’s not what makes it famous. It’s a statement of ideology, of the philosophical ideas we will use as the foundation of our new nation But Jefferson doesn’t come up with the ideas fully on his own…..
JOHN LOCKE: TWO TREATISE ON GOVERNMENT Inspiration for much of Jefferson’s work in the Declaration Locke had written after the English Civil War (1689)- was a call for a constitutional government. Does NOT look for a democracy, or even a Republic (Locke had no problem with the idea of a king) though it does say “all men are created equal” …in the eyes of the law. Two particularly important concepts
NATURAL RIGHTS There were humans before there was government (State of Nature) and therefore not ALL rights came from government, some came from being human. Life Liberty and Property- if the gov’t tries to take these from you without cause, then it is NOT a valid government
CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED It the Social Contract: Humans give freedom to the government in return for safety/welfare of society. The key word is GIVE. If the government is not acting to promote “the general welfare”, then it is not legitimate The argument in the Declaration is that the British are not promoting our welfare, therefore we have no CHOICE but to act in our own defense.
GRIEVANCES AGAINST THE KING There are 27 listed- by far the longest part. Imposing taxes w/o consent, eliminating trial by jury, military dictatorship, cutting off trade, burning towns, hiring mercenaries etc.. Meant to show the world (especially the citizens of Britain) that we weren’t silly or ungrateful, but that there were reasons behind our actions- which was actually really effective, it did get a number of Englishmen on our side (or at least made the war against us unpopular at home)
BALANCE OF POWER: BRITAIN VS US On paper it’s a no brainer….Britain should have been able to kick our tails. BUT- things aren’t always as they seem, and Americans weren’t completely w/o skills
American strengths and weaknesses Strengths 1. Outstanding leadership (Washington, B. Franklin) 2. Early economic aid from France 3. Effective defensive military tactics- territory worked to their advantage- forced British to engage them 4. Agriculturally self-sustaining 5. Americans better marksmen (shooting a big part of frontier life) 6. Moral advantage: the “cause”
Weaknesses 1. Badly organized and lacking unity- Congress dithered, colonies don’t trust each other 2. Economic difficulties- very little gold/silver for $$, had to print paper $$ which created wild inflation (“Not worth a Continental”) 3. Military challenges- supplies inadequate- troops not always willing to fight far from home- deserted to care for families 4. Morale compromised by profiteers- who provided shoddy goods or sold to the British 5. Supported by only a minority of colonials (perhaps 1/3)
British strengths and weaknesses Strengths 1. Population 7.5 million British vs 2.5 million colonists 2. Economic advantages- England richest country in the world in Best navy in the world 4. 20,000 slaves joined the Brits 5. Allied with many Amerindians (resentedcolonial expansion) 6. 50,000-man professional army (plus 30,000 Hessians) 7. Support of 50,000 Loyalists
Weaknesses 1. Distance between the colonies and England- made communication/strategy difficult 2. America was large to occupy- population dispersed over a massive area 3. Poor military leadership in many cases- Best commanders not sent, Many British regulars had trouble killing people they thought of a s fellow citizens 4. America only needed to tie; Britain needed outright victory 5. France sought to help the U.S. (Revenge) 6. British gov’t was ineffective (George III not a great king)
WAR IN THE NORTH British war plan was to “divide and conquer”. Summer 1776 Sent General Sir William Howe to take New York, and isolate New England (which they considered to be the source of trouble) Washington did NOT do well in his 1 st encounters with the British, he lost battles (Brooklyn Heights), had a significant number captured, and was lucky to escape total defeat. British didn’t push too hard, lost their best chance to smush the rebellion early. With the British firmly encamped, Washington crossed the Delaware River from PA to Trenton NJ (Battle of Trenton) and surprised 1000 Hessians (sleeping off xmas celebrations- European armies didn’t tend to fight in the winter) who were forced to surrender. Washington had gambled, and won, kept things going
SARATOGA In the next “campaign season”, 1777; the British army under “gentleman John” Burgoyne came down from Canada to compete division of colonies. 3 armies were to come together in Albany; from the north, west and south….but it becomes a hot mess(Howe decides to go to Philadelphia- he thought capturing the “capital” would end the war), and they never get together. Instead, Horatio Gates holds Burgoyne’s army, defeats them at Saratoga Oct 17 th 1777, and Burgoyne’s army is forced to surrender. Probably the most important military action in the war… Our 1 st major battlefield victory- and it not only gave patriots hope, but made us look plausible.
VALLEY FORGE Howe is in Philadelphia with the main branch of the army (Continental congress had fled to Lancaster PA) and Washington “keeps an eye” on them encamped outside the city- at primitive Valley Forge, where 2000 of his soldiers die of exposure and/or disease But, they use the time well, drilling under Baron Von Steuben, making militia fighters into trained soldiers.
BENEDICT ARNOLD General in Continental army and important leader in the North. Felt he wasn’t getting enough credit for his efforts (he was wounded, spent his own $$ on campaigns, but everyone loves GW) Arnold changed sides in Washington had given him command of West Point (strategic fort)- plotted with British to sell out the fort, which would give British command of the Hudson Valley (lost a Saratoga) Plot accidentally discovered- Arnold fled – fought for British the rest of the war Huge blow to Morale
ALLIANCE WITH FRANCE After Saratoga- it looks like we have a chance….and that draws in badly needed foreign support. French/British are rivals anyway, and France still smarting from last war. Make an alliance 1778 in which they agree to provide training, supplies and naval support- and to recognize US as an independent nation. They hope that supporting America will regain them lost territory (Canada), and with a little luck, maybe the “new nation” will be weak…. Spain/Dutch also makes an alliances. Less important, they offer some funds and to blockade in the Caribbean, but are let Britain know they don’t have a lot of friends, and makes them nervous this will turn into a war in Europe
WAR IN SOUTH Britain’s next move was to focus on the south…figuring there are more loyalists there, and knowing southerners were worried about possible slave uprisings Savannah taken 1778/79. Charleston and the rest of South Carolina captured in 1780 under Lord Cornwallis (who defeated General Gates, the Hero of Saratoga). The loss of Charleston was actually a bigger problem for Americans than Saratoga had been for British. Charleston 4 th largest city in US, and largest port in the south….which needs to sell their crops internationally. Nathanial Greene and Francis Marion (the swamp fox) made S. Carolina too hot to handle for Cornwallis; the “Refused to fight like gentlemen”
WAR IN WEST Clashes in the west lasted most of the war Amerindian allies of the British attacked U.S. frontier positions. Iroquois, Joseph “Monster” Brant led Indians on raids. Defeated and forced to sign treaty of Ft. Stanwyck, the first treaty between US and Indians (they lose all their land) Illinois country -- George Rogers Clark seized British forts along the Ohio river. His success justified America’s claim of Ohio territory at the end of the war (it was really part of Canada at the time)
AMERICAN NAVY John Paul Jones most famous commander. Navy used to Damage British merchant shipping (not fight full battles) Privateers- private ships authorized by congress to attack enemy (merchant) ships- far more effective. There were Major naval battles fought between British, French, Spanish and Dutch forces during the war-- Britain was forced to protect its empire (e.g. India)
YORKTOWN British head to Virginia to take rendezvous with reinforcements, but Washington raced 300 miles south and trapped him on a peninsula at Yorktown- pinning him between his army and the French fleet. (under the Marquis de Lafayette) where Cornwallis surrendered Oct 1781 Fighting actually continued for nearly 2 more years, but British decided to ask for peace negotiations to start. They were tired of an unpopular war
TREATY OF PARIS 1783 Signed September US sent John Adams, Ben Franklin (very popular in Paris) and John Jay. France and US had an alliance, we were supposed to negotiate together. But the LAST thing the British wanted was for us to end up BFFs with France, so they offered generous terms to entice us to sign quickly, and keep our trade. Recognized US independence Gave us all land East of the Mississippi, south of Great Lakes, and North of Florida (which went back to Spain US promised that Loyalists would not be prosecuted or persecuted, and confiscated property would be returned
AMERICAN SOCIETY DURING THE WAR 250,000 American fought, and 10% of those who fought died, our highest % in any war. People from all classes served, though much of the actual “fighting” was done by lower classes (richer people tended to get tired and go home) Native Americans tended to help the British (whom they hope will respect land claims) ramps up US enmity towards them (Andrew Jackson) Women managed farms and businesses while men served. Traveled with army as nurses and cooks- a few even fought. Deborah Sampson dressed as a man. Mary Hays took over loading her husband cannon when he was wounded
THE “REAL” REVOLUTION John Adams said it was “The radical changes in the principles, opinion, sentiments and affections of the people” Our new nation will be the 1 st large Republic: a government run by an elected assembly, with no established king or ruling class. Thomas Jefferson helped define this in the Declaration “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Freedom and Equality as thus intrinsic American values
THE CRITICAL PERIOD Ok, we’re independent…..now what? Americans did end the war with a Government: The Articles of Confederation (Written by John Dickenson) drafted in 1777, and went into effect (Cont. Congress disbanded) in ,000 loyalists left America at the end of the War (most to Canada or Caribbean) many of them had been wealthy and conservative- this will open up opportunities for democracy. Still, it’s a confusing time- and the fact that we only have to change our gov’t ONCE (think back to France) shows that we were willing to be flexible and create new ways of running things
EMPHASIS ON EQUALITY At 1 st it’s something we TALK about more than something we DO… (after all, we are denying rights to more than ½ the people who live in the nation: women, slaves, native Americans) but we get there. Primogeniture and entail made illegal by And yet- the American Revolution put on a path where our defined goal as a nation was to support the interests and prosperity of ordinary citizens (“pursuit of happiness”) and that is radical- no gov’t has ever done that before. We have no “Aristocracy”, no ruling class fixed exclusively by birth. Our “base” is the common man, in charge of his own destiny, and able to rise or fall by his own merits.
STATE CONSTITUTIONS War created stronger more centralized governments than had existed during colonial period, these guys had to get stuff DONE. “Colonies” became “States”, and wrote constitutions to replace their Charters. Common Themes: A Bill of Rights 3 Branches of Government Checks and Balances Bicameral legislatures Annual elections Popular Sovereignty/Social Contract/Consent of Governed
VOTING RIGHTS There was a generally held belief in BOTH European and American society that you needed to own property to be allowed to participate in government- b/c property owners had something to lose….and some states (like Virginia and South Carolina) maintained that in their constitutions, although many states lowered the amount you had to own, so that the majority of men were able to vote But “Democratization” was happening in Revolution- some of those who fought did NOT own property, where was their stake in the new nation? Universal Manhood Suffrage: One man, One vote. (PA) New thinking growing that gov’t belongs to ALL (male) citizens, rather than those of priviledge.
REVOLUTION AND RELIGION If one of the “Natural Rights” is freedom of thought- doesn’t that include religion? And what about separation of church and state? A tricky question is what to do in colonies with “Established” (tax supported) churches- especially the Anglican church in Southern states. Deists and Pietists disagreed about role gov’t should have in religion (All European countries had an “official” religion- would we be weird if we didn’t?) How can we create a morally upright nation without a defined set of acceptable beliefs? Thomas Jefferson “Virginia Statue on Religious Freedom” presented a powerful argument. 7 States specifically included “Free Exercise” in their constitutions, and others withdrew gov’t funding... But gave them special status as “tax exempt”
ECONOMIC FREEDOM One of the major reasons we had fought was b/c of anger at restrictions imposed by Navigation laws. Mercantilism assumed that all resources are limited, and therefore you need to get the biggest chunk possible- and not share. Someone else’s gain is your loss- hence no colonial trade with foreign nations. Physiocrats We weren’t the only ones who found Mercantilism limiting: Physiocrats were Enlightenment thinkers who applied Enlightenment reason to economics, and their conclusion was that mercantilism hampered the expansion of trade and manufacturing… the best was to make $$ was through a “Free Market” economy
ADAM SMITH: CAPITALISM The Father of Capitalism and Modern Economic Theory. He challenges Mercantilist theory, saying there are 3 components to the economy: Land, Labor and Capital, and that they can be unlimited- no nation must be poor. Wealth of Nations published It’s all about the (very creepy) Invisible hand which allows supply and demand to control the market. There is a natural business cycle of growth and recession, any Government “Interference” actually does more harm than good. (though gov’t should do things like est armies/navies, build roads/infrastructure etc.. That will support business)
REVOLUTION AND SLAVERY Slavery was legal in all colonies (except PA), it was just more “popular” in South. But during democratization of revolution, the idea of slavery didn’t really seem to “work” with that of Liberty…. Vermont 1 st state to officially abolish, and most other northern states had by around Northwest Ordinance made slavery illegal in territory north of Ohio River. Slave trade abolished 1808 There were actually a significant number of Free Blacks (250,000) in the new United States. Some had been freed, some had escaped, some had earned freedom through service in the Continental Army. Largest free community in Philadelphia Greatest irony is that #s of slaves were on the decline in 1781, and a number of historians have theorized that it would have died on it’s own (like serfdom in western Europe) but the Cotton Gin was invented in 1793…..
NATIVE AMERICANS Had fought for British….it’s their only hope of keeping their land. BUT, the fact that they did, made them seem “enemies” of the new US. (not that there was much chance we’d see them any other way- we want their land) For the next century and a half- US gov’t policy is to remove Native Americans wherever possible- they were probably the biggest “losers” of the revolution.
REPUBLICAN MOTHERHOOD Coverture etc… still the base of most state law (though national law says nothing about it) Abigail Adams argued that her husband should “remember the ladies” in creating a new government, but no one gave any serious thoughts to women’s rights as citizens. Republican Motherhood: an important new trend rose at the end of the revolution describing the importance of women’s role as mothers to raise good citizens of the new nation. Women needed to be educated, so they could pass intellect and virtue to their sons Companionate Marriage: union based on affection rather than domination the norm in US from beginning. Not fully “romantic” yet, but heading that way.