Presentation on theme: "TRIPLE HELIX IX INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE WELCOME ADDRESS."— Presentation transcript:
TRIPLE HELIX IX INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE WELCOME ADDRESS
FROM “SABATO’S TRIANGLE” TO THE “TRIPLE HELIX” JOSÉ MANOEL CARVALHO DE MELLO VICE-PRESIDENT THA FLUMINENSE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY, BRAZIL
South America decades 1960 & 1970 Concept: Sabato Triangle Author: Jorge Sábato
ex- ante concept Multiple and coordinate actions of three vertices of society: government (G); the productive structure (E), including private and government- owned companies; and the science-technology infrastructure (I), including universities, public and private R&D centers Context: Underdeveloped region (South America) Strategy: to construct a vigorous science and technology infrastructure linked to the productive structure of the society.
Argentina and Brazil as well as many other Latin American countries were under military rule. Authoritarian and nationalist regimes - issues of sovereignty and autonomy; Adoption of policies that would strengthen technological capacities in strategic areas such as informatics, telecommunications, the defense industry, aviation and nuclear energy. Sabato posited a set of three types of relationship among the elements of the triangle: intra-relations (within each vertex), inter- relations (within the vertices) and extra- relations (with the government directing the two other vertices).
Some sectoral public triangles were, however, successfully implemented in Brazil as a convergence of interests articulated by government-owned companies, involving the government, the productive sector and public S&T infra- structure in agro- business, aerospace and off-shore oil fields. Sabato was surprised that the government wasn’t assuming a sufficiently active role in S&T policy. Indeed, it showed itself to be incapable of implementing the prescribed triangles despite having the means to do so. Sabato called this ‘La paradoja del sector público’ (‘the paradox of the public sector’)
SOUTH AMERICA Significant power has since been devolved to the regional level with municipalities and states demanding a fair distribution of S&T resources and willing to commit some of their own to innovative initiatives. DECADES Democracy restoration A more open and competitive economic environment. This change of policy stance towards democratization and decentralization brought about new forces that would unleash the dynamics underlying Brazilian society.
From triangle to triple helix In contrast to Sabato’s triangle in which the impetus to innovation is expected to come from government, the triple helix model posits multiple sources of initiative arising from each sphere individually and in collaboration with one or two others. A transition of S&T policy from a top-down approach to a post-linear model with inputs from various sectors of society, including university, industry and government at the federal, state and municipal levels, is under way in Brazil.
NEW CONTEXT NEW IDEAS NEW POLICIES TO DEAL WITH NEW CONTEXT POLICIES MORE CLOSE TO THE TRIPLE HELIX MODEL AN EX POST CONCEPT UTILIZED AS AN EX ANTE STRATEGY