3Defining perfectionism Burns (1980) definition: “people who strain compulsively and unremittingly towards impossible goals and who measure their own worth entirely in terms of productivity and accomplishment.”Frosts et al. (1990) definition: “setting of excessively high standards for performance accompanied by overly critical self-evaluations.”
4Defining perfectionism Shafran et al. (2002) definition: “the overdependence of self-evaluation on the determined pursuit of personally demanding self-imposed standards in at least one highly salient domain, despite adverse consequences.”Hall (2013) definition: “encompasses a specific constellation of achievement related cognition and behaviour associated with the compulsive pursuit of flawlessness in contexts that hold personal relevance for the individual.”
6Can perfectionism be healthy? “My bias is that perfectionism is not only an undesirable goal but a debilitating one as well. In my judgement, perfection per se does not exist in reality, but it is the striving for that non-existent perfection that keeps people in turmoil.” (Pacht, 1984, p. 386) Hewitt and Flett (1991,2006) - Perfectionism is problematic and debilitating. Greenspon (2000)- Perfectionism is illusionary and irrational.
7Can perfectionism be healthy? Hamachek (1978)- ‘Normal’ and ‘Neurotic’ perfectionism.Slade and Owens (1998)- dual process model of perfectionism (positive and negative).“Almost 30 years after Hamachek published his seminal article, a large body of evidence has accumulated confirming that two basic forms of perfectionism can be distinguished.” (Stoeber, 2006, p. 295)
8UnidimensionalBurns (1980) created one of the first scales for measuring Perfectionism, however it only considers the dysfunctional attitudes.More recently, Shafran et al. (2002) supported the unidimensional approach and dismissed the multidimensional approach as it wasn’t relevant to “clinical perfectionism”.
9Multidimensional Frost et al. (1990) Hewitt and Flett (1991) OrganisationPerfectionismPerfectionismDoubts about actionsParentalcriticismsOther orientatedSelf orientatedPersonal standardsSocially prescribedConcerns over mistakesParental expectations