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ANALYZING INTERVIEW DATA Assoc. Prof. Dr. Şehnaz Şahinkarakaş.

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Presentation on theme: "ANALYZING INTERVIEW DATA Assoc. Prof. Dr. Şehnaz Şahinkarakaş."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANALYZING INTERVIEW DATA Assoc. Prof. Dr. Şehnaz Şahinkarakaş

2 BASIC STEPS I.Prepare the data (Transcription) II.Develop codes / categories (content analysis) III. Complete and revise the system of categories based on the data IV. Report the result of data analysis

3 PREPARING THE DATA (TRANSCRIBING) Transcribing data is very important when your study is mostly based on interviews Transcription is time-consuming and demanding Try to transcribe your data soon after the interview, when it is still fresh in your mind.

4 P OINTS TO CONSIDER FOR TRANSCRIPTION Begin the transcript with the name of the participants and a pseudonym you have given to him/her Transcribe all the interview carefully and completely (words are the data of the qualitative study!) It’s possible to ask someone else to transcribe the data for you, but if you prepare yourself, you will be familiar with it.

5 Use some conventions such as: Brackets [ ]: your addition to transcript Question mark ?: interviewer’s words couldn’t be deciphered Three periods …: there is a pause (or missing data) Italics or bold : emphatic stress

6 Types of transcription Simple transcription “Jeffersonian/Jefferson” transcription Summarising protocol

7 S IMPLE T RANSCRIPTION IR:So today is March seventh. I’m at Annals of Internal Medicine and I’ll be interviewing Dr. P.E. And for the record can you state your name and position? DrE: It’s P.E. I’m deputy editor of Annals of Internal Medicine. IR: Okay. And how long have you been working at Annals? DrE: Since It’s a long time. I was associate editor from 1978 to 1999 and I’ve been deputy editor from 1999 to 2003.

8 “J EFFERSONIAN ” TRANSCRIPT IR= So: today is March seventh, I’m at Annals of Internal Medicine and I’ll be interviewing doctor Pete Ernest. (0.4) A::nd um for the record can you state your name and position? IE= It’s Pete Ernest, I’m deputy editor of Annals of Internal Medicine. IR= Okay. And how long have you been working at Annals? (0.4) IE= Since nineteen seventy eight. It’s a lo::ng time. I was uh:: associate editor from nineteen seventy eight to nineteen ninety ni:ne, …

9 S UMMARISING P ROTOCOL Contains only the important contents of the interview. Important passages can be verbatim transcripts E.g. Dr. E: I’m deputy editor of Annals of Internal Medicine. I was associate editor from 1978 to 1999, and I was deputy editor from 1999 to My sub-specialty is pulmonary disease which I practice every day at the University of Pennsylvania.

10 D EVELOPING C ODES /C ATEGORIES (C ONTENT A NALYSIS ) Content analysis is used to determine the presence of certain words, concepts, themes, phrases, characters, or sentences within texts or sets of texts and to quantify this presence in an objective manner. How can this be done? Making sense out of the text data Dividing the text into segments Labelling the segments with codes Examining codes (for overlap and redundancy) Putting them in broad themes

11 G ETTING R EADY TO C ODE Mainly two ways of categorization: 1. A Priori Coding (Relational Analysis) : Before the analysis begins, the researcher determines the categories which are based on previous knowledge, experience, literature, or theory (i.e. Develops a coding scheme) These can be identified from a range of sources: Previous research or theory Research or evaluation questions you are addressing Questions and topics from your interview schedule PS. Conduct a pre-test to the coding scheme to see if it is working.

12 A SAMPLE CODING SCHEME CodeAcronymDescription T-FECFeedback Evaluative CorrectConfirmation of correct answers T-FEIFeedback Evaluative IncorrectRejection of incorrect answers T-FDDFeedback Descriptive Data Guidelines on how to succeed against pre- determined data T-FDMAFeedback Descriptive Mutual Achievement Mutual discussion/articulation of the current achievement T-FDSFeedback Descriptive Self Engage learners to self-assessment (prompt them to compare their current achievement to their previous work) T-FDMDFeedback Descriptive Mutual Development Mutual discussion /articulation on whether there was some development or whether some development is needed. T-FDSDFeedback Descriptive Strategies Development Provision of strategies for further development.

13 2. Emergent Coding (Grounded Coding-- Conceptual Analysis): Categories emerge as the analysis continues. Good categories are Exhaustive (all relevant content can be categorized) Mutually exclusive (data can be placed in only one category) Independent (assignment of data to one category does not affect the assignment of other data to a category)

14 C ODING THE M ATERIAL (A NALYZING THE D ATA ) If you are using a priori coding, analyze the data according to the codes you have already identified. If you are using grounded/emergent coding, there are some steps to follow

15 S TEPS FOR E MERGENT C ODING (C RESWELL, 2012) 1. Get a sense of the whole: read the transcripts and take notes in the margins 2. Take one document (e.g. one interview); go through it and consider the underlying meaning. 3. Start coding the document: identify text segments (word/sentence/paragraph for a code) and assign a code word for the segment (In first coding, don’t use lots of different codes; try to assign only a few—you can separate them later)

16 4. Make a list of all code words. Group similar codes and check redundancies (reduce if necessary) 5. Check the data with this list (grouped and reduced) and check whether new codes emerge. Circle the quotes that support the codes 6. Reduce the list of codes to get themes (categories).

17 S AMPLE C ODING 1

18 S AMPLE C ODING 2

19 R ELIABILITY & V ALIDITY The primary reason for content analysis is to collect objective information, so reliability is very important and it means the degree to which multiple coders yield identical results. In general there are two stages in determining coding reliability. Ensure that the classification system is understood and applied to each unit separately. Compare how multiple coders classify a sample of the same material. (80% of agreement is good enough)

20 M AIN A DVANTAGES OF C ONTENT A NALYSIS 1.Quantifies largely qualitative information 2.Adds qualitative richness to otherwise quantitative data 3.Helps researchers learn more about issues of interest.

21 D ISADVANTAGES OF C ONTENT A NALYSIS 1.Usually limited to recorded information 2.Might have validity problems Analysts can achieve acceptable agreements (reliability) but the true meanings of categories might still be a problem. 3.Be challenged as too subjective.

22 Exercise for coding!

23 1. D ECIDE WHICH CODE SUMS UP WHAT IS BEING TOLD IN EACH LINE L IST OF C ODES : BREAKING UPGETTING PREGNANTINSECURITY LIFESTYLESETTLING DOWNNOT WANTING TO MOVE UNCERTAINTYMOVING IN TOGETHER PROPOSAL 1. When I found out I was pregnant, I wasn’t sure if I wanted to get married and he … 2. wasn’t the settling down kind. He was old enough to bring up a child but I knew he … 3. wasn’t ready to. He was in the Navy he liked the life and preferred going off with … 4. his friends and that bothered me. At first I hoped something would happen so I … 5. didn’t have the baby and I wanted him to marry me ’cause he wanted to not … 6. because I was pregnant. Anyway when the baby was born we broke up and I have … 7. seen him a couple of times but he has phoned lots and says he will marry me. He … 8. wanted me to marry him and go and live with him, but I didn’t want to leave home. 9. He leaves the Navy in 6 months so I’m getting the flat ready for him to move in. But … 10.I still worry he’ll go off with his friends and won’t be able to give up the life.

24 O RIGINAL CODING FOR THE FIRST 3 LINES ( EXERCISE 1) 1. When I found out I was pregnant, I wasn’t sure if I wanted to get married and he … (getting pregnant) 2. wasn’t the settling down kind. He was old enough to bring up a child but I knew he … (settling down) 3. wasn’t ready to. He was in the Navy he liked the life and preferred going off with … (lifestyle) 4. his friends and that bothered me. At first I hoped something would happen so I … 5. didn’t have the baby and I wanted him to marry me ’cause he wanted to not … 6. because I was pregnant. Anyway when the baby was born we broke up and I have … 7. seen him a couple of times but he has phoned lots and says he will marry me. He … 8. wanted me to marry him and go and live with him, but I didn’t want to leave home. 9. He leaves the Navy in 6 months so I’m getting the flat ready for him to move in. But … 10. I still worry he’ll go off with his friends and won’t be able to give up the life.

25 O RIGINAL CODING FOR ALL THE LINES ( EXERCISE 1) 1. When I found out I was pregnant, I wasn’t sure if I wanted to get married and he … (getting pregnant) 2. wasn’t the settling down kind. He was old enough to bring up a child but I knew he … (settling down) 3. wasn’t ready to. He was in the Navy he liked the life and preferred going off with … (lifestyle) 4. his friends and that bothered me. At first I hoped something would happen so I … (uncertaintly) 5. didn’t have the baby and I wanted him to marry me ’cause he wanted to not … (insecurity) 6. because I was pregnant. Anyway when the baby was born we broke up and I have … (breaking up) 7. seen him a couple of times but he has phoned lots and says he will marry me. He … (proposal) 8. wanted me to marry him and go and live with him, but I didn’t want to leave home. (not wanting to move) 9. He leaves the Navy in 6 months so I’m getting the flat ready for him to move in. But … (moving in together) 10. I still worry he’ll go off with his friends and won’t be able to give up the life. (insecurity)

26 2. W RITE A CODE THAT SUMMARIZES WHAT HAPPENS IN EACH LINE 1. It was challenging, after living in Italy for 6 months and then I moved home before … 2. I started university. I was used to doing things my own way when it suited me … 3. and not having to tell people where I was going. I was living with friends and they … 4. didn’t care what I did or where I went. It was really hard to go back to sort of … 5. thinking of others … ’cause Mum and Dad wanted to know where I was going and … 6. who with, which was a nightmare. My parents were strict but I had a lot of … 7. freedom growing up, as long as I didn’t overstep the boundaries. After I came … 8. back from Italy they realised I was more independent and things changed and … 9. they didn’t try and stop me doing things anymore but they would still let know if … 10. they didn’t approve.

27 O RIGINAL C ODING ( EXERCISE 2) 1. It was challenging, after living in Italy for 6 months and then I moved home before … moving away 2. I started university. I was used to doing things my own way when it suited me … independence 3. and not having to tell people where I was going. I was living with friends and they … freedom 4. didn’t care what I did or where I went. It was really hard to go back to sort of … moving back home 5. thinking of others … ’cause Mum and Dad wanted to know where I was going and … control 6. who with, which was a nightmare. My parents were strict but I had a lot of … control 7. freedom growing up, as long as I didn’t overstep the boundaries. After I came … boundaries 8. back from Italy they realised I was more independent and things changed and … growing up 9. they didn’t try and stop me doing things anymore but they would still let know if … letting go 10. they didn’t approve. disapproval

28 W HAT THEMES ( MAIN CATEGORIES ) CAN YOU GENERATE ? 1. It was challenging, after living in Italy for 6 months and then I moved home before … moving away 2. I started university. I was used to doing things my own way when it suited me … independence 3. and not having to tell people where I was going. I was living with friends and they … freedom 4. didn’t care what I did or where I went. It was really hard to go back to sort of … moving back home 5. thinking of others … ’cause Mum and Dad wanted to know where I was going and … control 6. who with, which was a nightmare. My parents were strict but I had a lot of … control 7. freedom growing up, as long as I didn’t overstep the boundaries. After I came … boundaries 8. back from Italy they realised I was more independent and things changed and … growing up 9. they didn’t try and stop me doing things anymore but they would still let know if … letting go 10. they didn’t approve. disapproval

29 3. C ODE THE FOLLOWING DATA AND DEVELOP THEMES / CATEGORIES We were playing for our title. (the injury) It was pretty bad I got a concussion and I hurt my jaw it was probably one of the worst concussions I have had so far This is my thirteenth year (of playing this sport). I’m on a high school varsity team I also play on another like semi-competitive team everyone kind of just goes for the ball it wasn’t really a foul or anything I don’t really remember it people say it was like my own team mate that kicked me.(smiling) but I don’t really blame her, she was just trying to stop the goal I was really frustrated

30 A S AMPLE C ODING ( EXERCISE 3) Raw data themesHigher order sub-themes (the injury) It was pretty bad I got a concussion and I hurt my jaw it was probably one of the worst concussions I have had so far experience of her injury This is my thirteenth year (of playing this sport). I’m on a high school varsity team I also play on another like semicompetitive team experience of playing football Everyone kind of just goes for the ball It wasn’t really a foul or anything I don’t really remember it people say it was like my own team mate that kicked me.(smiling) but I don’t really blame her, she was just trying to stop the goal feelings about the accident

31 4. Following transcripts are taken from an interview with 3 people. Read the responses of the interviewees and develop the common themes/categories that come up.

32 4. I NTERVIEW Q UESTION : H OW WOULD YOU ASSESS THE LEVEL OF AUTOMATION IN YOUR OFFICE ? 21Overall, the system is pretty good. The information we have access to is very helpful. But, updates to the data base are batch processed. If the system allowed real-time updates this would give case workers more up-to-date information. 22The terminals hurt my eyes. They are hard to look at for long periods of time. The system is very slow retrieving information, and much of the information we get is miscoded or incorrect. Terminal time is also limited because of frequent down time for repairs. I can’t say the current system helps me much in doing my job. 23There is a serious lack of printers. Case workers need to be able to print out information on our terminals, but this is time consuming because we all have to send output to one printer. Lots of days the printer is offline for repairs which complicates the situation

33 Next week is the practice time for Content Analysis (Coding) Don’t forget to prepare 3-4 interview questions on a topic of your interest.


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