Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

General Practice as an Integral Part of the Health System

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "General Practice as an Integral Part of the Health System"— Presentation transcript:

1 General Practice as an Integral Part of the Health System
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 General Practice as an Integral Part of the Health System Barbara Starfield, MD, MPH 16th Nordic Conference on General Practice Copenhagen, Denmark May 13-16, 2009 1

2 Life Expectancy Compared with GDP per Capita for Selected Countries
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Life Expectancy Compared with GDP per Capita for Selected Countries Country codes: AG=Argentina AU=Australia BZ=Brazil CH=China CN=Canada FR=France GE=Germany HU=Hungary IN=India IS=Israel IT=Italy JA=Japan MA=Malaysia ME=Mexico NE=Netherlands PO=Poland RU=Russia SA=South Africa SI=Singapore SK=South Korea SP=Spain SW=Sweden SZ=Switzerland TK=Turkey TW=Taiwan UK=United Kingdom US=United States This graph shows the well-known relationship between country wealth (as expressed by GDP per capita) and life expectancy. Although not previously stressed, it shows considerable variation in life expectancy at any given GDP. For example, Poland and South Africa have approximately similar wealth but life expectancy is, on average, 7-8 years greater in Poland. Variability is noted all along the curve, even at its asymptotic end, as some countries at the wealthy end of the curve experience lower life expectancy than less wealthy countries. These include, particularly, Switzerland and the US. Other wealthy countries fall below the curve; these include Germany, Taiwan, and Singapore. Thus, wealth alone does not assure health. The graph also shows a new phenomenon: an apparent decline in life expectancy above a certain level of country wealth. Some very wealthy countries (US, Switzerland) are recently experiencing lower life expectancy than some less wealthy countries, and some others (Germany, Singapore, Taiwan) are below the curve. That is, they have lower life expectancy than expected despite their wealth. These five countries are all countries whose health systems are more specialty oriented than primary care oriented, suggesting the likelihood that there is excessive and unnecessary specialty and technology use leading to inappropriate care and perhaps even an increasing rate of adverse effects from excessive intervention. Source: Economist Intelligence Unit. Healthcare International. 4th quarter London, UK: Economist Intelligence Unit, 1999. Source: Economist Intelligence Unit. Healthcare International. 4th quarter London, UK: Economist Intelligence Unit, 1999. Starfield 11/06 IC 3493 n 2

3 Country* Clusters: Health Professional Supply and Child Survival
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Country* Clusters: Health Professional Supply and Child Survival Density (workers per 1000) Child mortality (under 5) per 1000 live births 3 5 9 50 100 250 25 15 10 5.0 2.5 1 This slide shows the well-known direct relationship between the density of health professionals and one aspect of the health of populations: health professional supply. As this slide shows, the relationship holds only on average, and there is considerable variation, with some countries having many health workers but still relatively high child mortality under age 5. There is even one country with few health workers that has a child mortality the same as the United States and Cuba. Clearly, it is not the number of health professionals that influences child mortality; rather, it must be how those health professionals are organized and what they do that is the influence. Source: Chen L, Evans T, Anand S, Boufford JI, Brown H, Chowdhury M et al. Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis. Lancet 2004; 364(9449): *186 countries Starfield 07/07 HS 3754 n Source: Chen et al, Lancet 2004; 364: 3

4 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 Primary health care is primary care applied on a population level. As a population strategy, it requires the commitment of governments to develop a population-oriented set of primary care services in the context of other levels and types of services. In 1978, the World Health Organization Conference in Alma Ata used the term primary health to characterize an approach to organizing services to meet the needs of populations. Although its focus was derailed by the actions of international organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, which focused more on decentralization and devolving services to local areas to facilitate market solutions rather than government ones, the term primary health care lived on in the minds of many. As the term “primary care” had long been used to describe clinical services provided by family physicians, the distinction between the two became blurred or even used synonymously. The distinction, however is useful, in that the Alma Ata term connotes a population strategy, with the development of policies designed to provide the basis for interventions at the individual level. Thus, primary health care is primary care applied on a population level, with policies designed to facilitate the achievement of primary care for all individuals within the population. Starfield 07/07 PC 3755 n 4

5 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 Primary care is the provision of first contact, person-focused, ongoing care over time that meets the health-related needs of people, referring only those too uncommon to maintain competence, and coordinates care when people receive services at other levels of care. On the clinical level, primary care has four main features, all of which must be present in order to define primary care. Sometimes, family orientation and community orientation also are included. Each of these features is measurable, using comparable tools designed for system-level, provider or facility level, patient level, or community level. Starfield 07/07 PC 3756 n 5

6 Why Is Primary Care Important?
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Why Is Primary Care Important? Better health outcomes Lower costs Greater equity in health There is now good evidence, from a variety of studies at national, state, regional, local, and individual levels that good primary care is associated with better health outcomes (on average), lower costs (robustly and consistently), and greater equity in health. Starfield 07/07 PC 3757 n 6

7 International comparisons Population studies within countries
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Evidence for the benefits of primary care-oriented health systems is robust across a  wide variety of types of studies: International comparisons Population studies within countries across areas with different  primary care physician/population ratios studies of people going to different types of practitioners Clinical studies of people going to facilities/practitioners differing in adherence to primary care practices Source: Starfield B, Shi L, Macinko J. Contribution of primary care to health systems and health. Milbank Q 2005; 83(3): Comparisons of health systems involve two aspects: those that concern the nature of the system and the policies that characterize the system and those that concern the nature of the services themselves. In the comparisons of the primary care orientation of several OECD health systems, 9 characteristics of the system were hypothesized to be related to the primary care orientation of the system, as were 6 characteristics previously identified as related to primary care health services. Starfield 03/08 PC 3971 n Source: Starfield et al, Milbank Q 2005; 83: 7

8 Primary Care Scores, 1980s and 1990s
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary Care Scores, 1980s and 1990s 1980s 1990s Belgium France* Germany United States 0.8 - 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.3 Australia Canada Japan* Sweden 1.1 1.2 0.9 Denmark Finland Netherlands Spain* United Kingdom 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.9 During the 1990s, two successive international comparisons involved rating different countries on the strength of primary care within the country. Ratings of primary health care were obtained by rating 6 (and 9 in the later study) characteristics of policy in each country: efforts to distribute resources according to where they were most needed; maintaining low or no cost-sharing; financial access controlled or regulated by government; the type of primary care practitioner (family physician or a mixture of types including also general internists and general pediatricians); and the presence of patient lists by primary care practices. In the second study, the following were added: low or no copayments for primary care; strength of academic departments of family medicine; the presence of patient lists by primary care practices; and 24-hour availability of primary care practices. Extent of achievement of the clinical features of first contact care, person-focused care over time, comprehensiveness (breadth) of services, coordination of care, family centeredness, and community orientation were also rated. Each characteristic was rated on a scale of 0 to 2, then all scores were averaged to obtain a systems score, a practice score and a combined overall primary care score. Eleven, and then 13 industrialized countries were compared; this comparison led to three groups of countries: those with low scores, those with intermediate scores, and those with high scores. These three groupings were unchanged over the decade between the two studies. *Scores available only for the 1990s Starfield 07/07 ICTC 3758 n 8

9 Primary Care Orientation of Health Systems: Rating Criteria
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary Care Orientation of Health Systems: Rating Criteria Health System Characteristics Type of system Financing Type of primary care practitioner Percent active physicians who are specialists Professional earnings of primary care physicians relative to specialists Cost sharing for primary care services Patient lists Requirements for 24-hour coverage Strength of academic departments of family medicine The predominant form of the health system was rated according to the extent of its primary care orientation in two regards: the strength of health policy conducive to primary care practice and the strength of primary care practice itself. Health policy characteristics concerned to the extent to which there are efforts to distribute health services resources equitably in the population, the aegis and universality of financing for primary care, whether the modal primary care practitioner was a family physician, the balance between the number of primary care physicians and specialists as well as the amount of their professional remuneration, the absence of cost sharing for primary care services, requirements for the maintenance of patient rosters or lists, the extent of requirements for 24-hour coverage, and the strength of academic departments of family medicine. Each country was given a score of 0, 1, or 2 depending on how strongly the characteristic was developed. Source: Starfield B. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Source: Starfield. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. Oxford U. Press, 1998. Starfield 11/02 PC 2366 n Starfield 11/02 sc 9

10 System Features Important to Primary Health Care
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 System Features Important to Primary Health Care Resource Allocation (Score) Progressive Financing* Cost Sharing Compre- hensiveness Belgium France Germany US 1 2 Australia Canada Japan Sweden Denmark Finland Netherlands Spain UK ** *0=all regressive 1=mixed 2=all progressive **except Medicaid This slide shows the four main policy characteristics related to effectiveness and equity of primary health care services: distribution of resources according to extent and type of health needs, progressivity of financing, degree of cost sharing, and breadth of services provided in primary care. Scores range from zero (0), where the policy characteristic is absent, to a score of 1, where the characteristic is present but poorly developed, to a score of 2, where the characteristic is well developed. Belgium, France, Germany, and the US have weak primary health care systems; Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, Spain, and the UK have strong primary healthcare; and Australia, Canada, Japan, and Sweden are in-between. With few exceptions, countries with equity-focused health policy are countries with strong primary care; countries with weak policy characteristics have weak primary care health systems. Sources: Starfield B. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. van Doorslaer E, Wagstaff A, Rutten F. Equity in the Finance and Delivery of Health Care: An International Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Sources: Starfield. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. Oxford U. Press, van Doorslaer et al. Equity in the Finance and Delivery of Health Care: An International Perspective. Oxford U. Press, 1993. Starfield 11/06 EQ 3500 n 10

11 Universal financial coverage, under governmental control or regulation
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Key system factors in achieving primary health care in both developing and industrialized countries are: Universal financial coverage, under governmental control or regulation Efforts to distribute resources equitably (according to degree of need) No or low co-payments Comprehensiveness of services Both international comparisons and within-country studies provide the basis for specifying 6 key factors in achieving an effective health system (Starfield and Shi 2002; Gilson et al 2007). There are some countries in the world that approach the achievement of these policies; they also have the best health in the world, as measured by conventional and widely accepted health statistics, including mortality and illness rates as well as indicators related to death and age at death. Sources: Starfield B, Shi L. Policy relevant determinants of health: an international perspective. Health Policy 2002; 60(3): Gilson L, Doherty J, Loewenson R, Francis V. Challenging Inequity through Health Systems. Final Report, Knowledge Network on Health Systems, June WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. (http://www.who.int/social_determinants/resources/csdh_media/hskn_final_2007_en.pdf; accessed March 17, 2009) Johannesburg, South Africa: Centre for Health Policy, EQUINET, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2007. Sources: Starfield & Shi, Health Policy 2002; 60: Gilson et al, Challenging Inequity through Health Systems (http://www.who.int/social_determinants/resources/csdh_media/hskn_final_2007_en.pdf; accessed March 17, 2009). Starfield 07/07 GH 3794 n 11

12 More Comprehensive Health Centres Have Better Vaccination Coveragea,b
09 new slides 3/23/2017 More Comprehensive Health Centres Have Better Vaccination Coveragea,b Source: World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care – Now More than Ever. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2008. Source: World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care – Now More than Ever. Geneva, Switzerland, 2008. Starfield 05/09 COMP 4188 12

13 Primary Care Orientation of Health Systems: Rating Criteria
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary Care Orientation of Health Systems: Rating Criteria Practice Characteristics First-contact Person-focus over time Comprehensiveness Coordination Family-centeredness Community orientation Each country was also rated 0, 1, or 2 with regard to its achievement of the cardinal features of primary care practice. A score of 0 indicates poor achievement of the feature; a score of 1 indicates intermediate achievement, and a score of 2 indicates high achievement of the feature. First contact is the seeking of care for each newly occurring problem or need from a primary care practitioner rather than a specialist. Longitudinality is person-focused (not disease-focused) relationships over time with the primary care source. Comprehensiveness is the provision, by the primary care source, of services for all health-related needs except those too uncommon in the population for competence to be maintained. Coordination is the integration of care by the primary care source when services outside of primary are required. Two related characteristics were also rated. Family centeredness is the extent to which services are provided in a family context. Community orientation is the extent to which data on community health needs are taken into account in planning for primary care services. Source: Starfield B. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Source: Starfield. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. Oxford U. Press, 1998. Starfield 04/09 PC 4180 n 13

14 First contact avoids unnecessary specialist visits.
PC 4181 First contact avoids unnecessary specialist visits. Person-focus over time avoids disease-focused care (makes care more effective). Comprehensiveness avoids referrals for common needs (makes care more efficient). Coordination avoids duplication and conflicting interventions (makes care less dangerous). Starfield 04/09 PC 4181

15 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 System (PHC) and Practice (PC) Characteristics Facilitating Primary Care, Early-Mid 1990s UK NTH SP FIN CAN AUS SWE JAP GER FR BEL US DK The primary care score has two parts: the first reflects the strength of primary health care (that is, policies oriented towards primary care), and the second reflects the practice of primary care at the clinical level. In this chart, the countries are ranked by each of their two sub-scores. The country with the best sub-score is ranked #1, and the one with the worst sub-score is ranked #13. The better the policies (systems rankings), the better the practices, indicating the importance of governmental policy to good practice. Based on data in Starfield B, Shi L. Policy relevant determinants of health: an international perspective. Health Policy 2002; 60(3): *Best level of health indicator is ranked 1; worst is ranked 13; thus, lower average ranks indicate better performance. Starfield 03/05 ICTC 3099 n Based on data in Starfield & Shi, Health Policy 2002; 60: 15

16 Primary Care Score vs. Health Care Expenditures, 1997
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary Care Score vs. Health Care Expenditures, 1997 UK DK NTH FIN SP CAN AUS SWE JAP An international comparison of industrialized nations found a statistically significant relationship between per capita health care expenditures and the extent to which the health system was oriented around strong primary care policies and practices*. The stronger the primary care, the lower the total health care expenditures. This was the case even when the United States, with its high expenditures and poor primary care infrastructure, was removed from the analysis. *according to the method described in Starfield B. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998, chapter 15. GER US BEL FR Starfield 11/06 ICTC 3495 n 16

17 Primary Care Strength and Premature Mortality in 18 OECD Countries
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary Care Strength and Premature Mortality in 18 OECD Countries Year High PC Countries* Low PC Countries* 10000 PYLL 1970 1980 1990 2000 5000 In an international comparison of 18 OECD countries, they were rated* according to whether their primary care systems were strong (high scores) or weak (low scores). Trends in potential years of life lost were examined after also taking into account other influences on health. Even after considering changes in gross domestic product, percentage of elderly people, total number of doctors per capita, average income, and smoking and drinking percentages, people in countries with strong primary care had fewer years of life lost than people in the poor primary care countries, and the differences widened over time. *according to the method described in Starfield B. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998, chapter 15. Source: Macinko J, Starfield B, Shi L. The contribution of primary care systems to health outcomes within Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, Health Serv Res 2003; 38(3): *Predicted PYLL (both genders) estimated by fixed effects, using pooled cross-sectional time series design. Analysis controlled for GDP, percent elderly, doctors/capita, average income (ppp), alcohol and tobacco use. R2(within)=0.77. Starfield 11/06 IC 3496 n Source: Macinko et al, Health Serv Res 2003; 38: 17

18 Primary Care Oriented Countries Have
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary Care Oriented Countries Have Fewer low birth weight infants Lower infant mortality, especially postneonatal Fewer years of life lost due to suicide Fewer years of life lost due to “all except external” causes Higher life expectancy at all ages except at age 80 These indicators of health system “outcome”, included low birth weight, neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, years of life lost associated with suicide, with all-cause mortality excluding external causes such as injuries, and higher life expectancy at all ages (birth, age 15, age 40, and at age 65, but to a much lesser degree at age 80. Sources: Starfield B. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998. Starfield B, Shi L. Policy relevant determinants of health: an international perspective. Health Policy 2002; 60(3): Sources: Starfield. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. Oxford U. Press, Starfield & Shi, Health Policy 2002; 60: Starfield 07/07 IC 3762 n 18

19 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 The global imperative is to organize health systems around strong, patient-centered, i.e., Primary Care. A disease-by-disease approach will not address the most serious shortfall in achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals. It will also worsen global inequities. Those exposed to a variety of interacting influences are vulnerable to many diseases. Eliminating diseases one by one will not materially reduce the chances of others. Sources: IBRD/World Bank, April 8, 2008. King CH, Bertino AM. Asymmetries of poverty: why global burden of disease valuations underestimate the burden of neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2008;2:e209. Sources: IBRD/World Bank, April 8, King & Bertino, PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2008;2:e209. Starfield 03/08 GH 3992 19

20 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 Is Primary Care as important within countries as it is among countries? Given the robust findings of the superiority of primary care-orientation across countries, it was of interest to learn whether the same could be said of differences within countries. Starfield 07/07 WC 3765 n 20

21 State Level Analysis: Primary Care and Life Expectancy
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 State Level Analysis: Primary Care and Life Expectancy ME NH VT MA RI CT NY NJ PA OH IN IL MI WI MN IA MO ND SD NE KS DE MD VA WV NC SC GA FL KY TN AL MS AR LA OK TX MT ID WY CO NM AZ UT NV WA OR CA AK HI This analysis examined the relationship between the ratio of primary care physicians to population against life expectancy in every state in the United States. Although there are a few states that show considerable deviation from the general relationship, it is clear that, in general, the greater supply of primary care physicians is associated with higher life expectancy. Each additional primary care physician is associated with an increase of over a year of life expectancy, on average. Source: Shi L. Primary care, specialty care, and life chances. Int J Health Serv 1994;24: Starfield 04/09 WCUS 4178 n Source: Shi, Int J Health Serv 1994;24: 21

22 Primary Care and Infant Mortality Rates, Indonesia, 1996-2000
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary Care and Infant Mortality Rates, Indonesia, Primary care spending per capita* 10.3 9.6 8.5 8.2 Hospital spending 4.1 4.4 4.6 5.3 Infant mortality 20% improvement (all provinces) ( ) 14% worsening (22 of 26 provinces) Well designed primary care services have been demonstrated to improve health, even in developing and middle income countries that have pursued their development. In Indonesia, spending on primary care increased in the early 1990s, reaching 10.3 billion Indonesian rupiah in 1996 and accomplishing a 20% improvement over five years in infant mortality  improvement in every province in the country. Hospital spending at this time was 4.1 billion rupiah. In the subsequent five years, primary care spending per capita was progressively reduced, reaching 8.2 billion rupiah, concomitant with a rise in hospital spending per capita from 4.1 to 5.3 billion rupiah. During this period, infant mortality rose in 22 of the 26 provinces, with a 14% rise in the country as a whole. Source: Simms C, Rowson M. Reassessment of health effects of the Indonesian economic crisis: donors versus the data. Lancet 2003; 361(9366): *constant Indonesian rupiah, in billions Source: Simms & Rowson, Lancet 2003; 361: Starfield 07/07 WC 3796 n 22

23 Primary Care Score and Self-Rated Health, Petrópolis, Brazil, 2004*
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary Care Score and Self-Rated Health, Petrópolis, Brazil, 2004* (n=455) Odds Ratio 95% CI** Primary care score (0-5) 1.452 1.073, 1.966 Age (years) 0.969 0.957, 0.981 Chronic disease (yes/no) 0.578 0.360, 0.927 Recent illness (yes/no) 0.176 0.098, 0.316 Household wealth (scale 1-8) 1.219 1.007, 1.476 Completed primary school 0.733 0.374, 1.437 Clinic type (0=traditional; 1=PSF) 0.998 0.594, 1.679 In the city of Petropolis, Brazil, the extent to which people reported receiving better primary care (as measured by a survey instrument that elicited experiences with the four main features of primary care) was the most salient characteristic in reporting of their health as good or excellent  more important than their age, education, or presence of a chronic disease or recent illness. Source: Macinko J, Almeida C, de Sa PK. A rapid assessment methodology for the evaluation of primary care organization and performance in Brazil. Health Policy Plan 2007; 22(3): *1= excellent/ good health; 0=bad/fair/poor health ** standard errors adjusted for clustering by clinic Starfield 07/07 WC 3768 n Source: Macinko, Almeida, de Sá, Health Policy Plan 2007; 22: 23

24 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 Impact of PSF Coverage on Infant Mortality in Brazilian States, : Marginal Effects* Source: Macinko J, Guanais FC, de Fatima M, de Souza M. Evaluation of the impact of the Family Health Program on infant mortality in Brazil, J Epidemiol Community Health 2006; 60(1):13-19. In Brazil, primary care reform has been spreading throughout the country since the early 1990s. As a very sensitive indicator of the effectiveness of health systems, infant mortality was chosen to evaluate the impact of this reform process.  This evaluation took into consideration other changes that might be expected to influence infant mortality over the period of the primary care reform.  In evaluating the relative roles of the  different changes, the importance of decreasing the illiteracy of women was highlighted, with 15% of the decline in infant mortality attributed to it.  The second most influential change was the implementation of the primary care reform (“PSF coverage”), which accounted for almost 5% of the decline. Of lesser importance were increasing availability of clean water (about 3%), decreased fertility rates (about 2%), and the number of hospital beds (about 1%).  These characteristics alone accounted for 90% of the variability in infant mortality rates across the Brazilian states. Of no demonstrable importance in influencing the decline in infant mortality were physician and nurse supply.  That is, the number of health personnel is not of importance to health outcomes; rather, it is what these professionals do that is the determining characteristic. *Based on 2-way fixed effects model of Brazilian states, , n=351 R^2=0.90. Non-significant (p>0.05) control variables, including physician and nurse supply and sewage not shown. Starfield 10/06 WC 3457 n Source: Macinko et al, J Epidemiol Community Health 2006; 60:13-19. 24

25 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 Many other studies done WITHIN countries, both industrialized and developing, show that areas with better primary care have better health outcomes, including total mortality rates, heart disease mortality rates, and infant mortality, and earlier detection of cancers such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, uterine/cervical cancer, and melanoma. The opposite is the case for higher specialist supply, which is associated with worse outcomes. Sources: Starfield B, Shi L, Macinko J. Contribution of primary care to health systems and health. Milbank Q 2005;83: Macinko J, Starfield B, Erinosho T. The impact of primary health care on population health in low- and middle-income countries. J Ambul Care Manage 2009;32: Sources: Starfield et al, Milbank Q 2005;83: Macinko et al, J Ambul Care Manage 2009;32: Starfield 09/04 WC 2957 Starfield 09/04 04-167 25

26 What We Already Know A primary care oriented system is important for
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 What We Already Know A primary care oriented system is important for Improving health (improving effectiveness) Keeping costs manageable (improving efficiency) Starfield 09/05 PC 3316 26

27 Does primary care reduce inequity in health?
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Does primary care reduce inequity in health? The preceding empirical demonstrations of the influence of a primary care orientation show that it is associated with greater effectiveness of health services. Does primary care also improve equity in health? Starfield 07/07 EQ 3769 n 27

28 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 In the United States, an increase of 1 primary care doctor is associated with 1.44 fewer deaths per 10,000 population. The association of primary care with decreased mortality is greater in the African-American population than in the white population. As the effect of increasing primary care health professionals is greater in more deprived populations (in this case, the African American population in the US), it can be said that primary care is equity-producing. Source: Shi L, Macinko J, Starfield B, Politzer R, Xu J. Primary care, race, and mortality in US states. Soc Sci Med 2005; 61(1):65-75. Starfield 07/07 WCUS 3770 n Source: Shi et al, Soc Sci Med 2005; 61(1):65-75. 28

29 Percentage Reduction in Under-5 Mortality: Thailand, 1990-2000
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Percentage Reduction in Under-5 Mortality: Thailand, Poorest quintile (1) 44 (2) 41 (3) 22 (4) 23 Richest quintile (5) 13 Rate ratio (Q1/Q5) 55 Absolute difference (Q1-Q5) 61 Policy changes: 1989 At least one primary care health center for each rural village 1993 Government medical welfare scheme: all children less than 12, elderly, disabled 2001 Entire adult population insured Activities of Rural Doctors’ Society During the 1990s, policy in Thailand led to the development of at least one primary care health center in each rural village. During this time period, insurance for medical services was progressively expanded to cover the entire population by the early 2000s. A very active Rural Doctors Society was a major advocate of this expansion. During this period, under-5 mortality was lowered by a much greater percentage in more deprived populations than in less deprived ones: 44% in the poorest quintile and 13% in the richest percentile  with a progressively greater reduction in successive percentiles of wealth. Both relative and absolute differences in under-5 mortality were reduced. Source: Vapattanawong P, Hogan MC, Hanvoravongchai P et al. Reductions in child mortality levels and inequalities in Thailand: analysis of two censuses. Lancet 2007; 369(9564): Starfield 07/07 WC 3797 n Source: Vapattanawong et al, Lancet 2007; 369:850-5. 29

30 Why Does Primary Care Enhance Equity in Health?
09 new slides 3/23/2017 Why Does Primary Care Enhance Equity in Health? Greater comprehensiveness of services (especially important in the presence of multi-morbidity) Person-focused care over time (better knowledge of patient and better recognition of problems) Greater accessibility of services Better coordination, thus facilitating care for people of limited flexibility Better person-focused prevention Source: Starfield B, Shi L, Macinko J. Contribution of primary care to health systems and health. Milbank Q 2005;83: Starfield 05/09 PC 4184 Source: Starfield et al, Milbank Q 2005;83: 30

31 Why Does Primary Care Enhance Effectiveness of Health Services?
09 new slides 3/23/2017 Why Does Primary Care Enhance Effectiveness of Health Services? Greater accessibility Better person-focused prevention Better person-focused quality of clinical care Earlier management of problems (avoiding hospitalizations) The accumulated benefits of the four features of primary care Source: Starfield B, Shi L, Macinko J. Contribution of primary care to health systems and health. Milbank Q 2005;83: Starfield 05/09 PC 4185 Source: Starfield et al, Milbank Q 2005;83: 31

32 Primary health care oriented countries
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary health care oriented countries Have more equitable resource distributions Have health insurance or services that are provided by the government Have little or no private health insurance Have no or low co-payments for health services Are rated as better by their populations Have primary care that includes a wider range of services and is family oriented Have better health at lower costs Sources: Starfield B, Shi L. Policy relevant determinants of health: an international perspective. Health Policy 2002; 60(3): van Doorslaer E, Koolman X, Jones AM. Explaining income-related inequalities in doctor utilisation in Europe. Health Econ 2004; 13(7): Schoen C, Osborn R, Huynh PT, Doty M, Zapert K, Peugh J, Davis K. Taking the pulse of health care systems: experiences of patients with health problems in six countries. Health Aff 2005; W5: (also available at: Sources: Starfield and Shi, Health Policy 2002; 60: van Doorslaer et al, Health Econ 2004; 13: Schoen et al, Health Aff 2005; W5: Starfield 11/05 IC 3326 32

33 Primary Care and Health: Evidence-Based Summary
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary Care and Health: Evidence-Based Summary Countries with strong primary care have lower overall costs generally have healthier populations Within countries areas with higher primary care physician availability (but NOT specialist availability) have healthier populations more primary care physician availability reduces the adverse effects of social inequality The positive impact on health of primary care resources is most notable in geographic areas that are socially inequitable. Thus, primary care reduces health disparities resulting from social inequity. Conclusions Both international comparisons and studies within countries document the beneficial impact of primary care on effectiveness (health outcomes), on efficiency (lower costs), and on equity of health outcomes (reducing disparities across population subgroups). Health policy should be directed toward strengthening the primary care orientation of health systems. Starfield 09/02 PC 2218 n Starfield 09/02 sc 33

34 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 Conclusion Although sociodemographic factors undoubtedly influence health, a primary care oriented health system is a highly relevant policy strategy because its effect is clear and relatively rapid, particularly concerning prevention of the progression of illness and effects of injury, especially at younger ages. Starfield 11/05 HS 3329 34

35 Strategy for Change in Health Systems
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Strategy for Change in Health Systems Achieving primary care Avoiding an excess supply of specialists Achieving equity in health Addressing co- and multi-morbidity Responding to patients’ problems Coordinating care Avoiding adverse effects Adapting payment mechanisms Developing information systems that serve care functions as well as clinical information This slide summarizes the conclusions of many studies. The following slides provide specificity for each one. Starfield 11/06 HS 3494 n 35

36 Health Workforce Starfield 10/07 WF 3901
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Health Workforce Starfield 10/07 WF 3901 36

37 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 In 35 US analyses dealing with differences between types of areas (7) and 5 rates of mortality (total, heart, cancer, stroke, infant), the greater the primary care physician supply, the lower the mortality for 28. The higher the specialist ratio, the higher the mortality in 25. Above a certain level of specialist supply, the more specialists per population, the worse the outcomes. The poorer health outcome when specialist supply is very high is robust, and is found for different causes of mortality in different types of geographic areas. Source: Shi L, Macinko J, Starfield B, Wulu J, Regan J, Politzer R. The relationship between primary care, income inequality, and mortality in US States, J Am Board Fam Pract 2003; 16(5): Controlled only for income inequality Source: Shi et al, J Am Board Fam Pract 2003; 16: Starfield 11/06 SP 3499 n 37

38 Percentage of People Seeing at Least One Specialist in a Year
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Percentage of People Seeing at Least One Specialist in a Year US 40% of total population; 54% of patients (users) Canada (Ontario) 31% of population (68% at ages 65 and over) UK about 15% of patients (at ages under 65) Spain 30% of population; 40% of patients (users) The seeking of care from specialists varies considerably across different health systems. In some countries, e.g., the United States, it is common for  patients to go directly to a secondary care physician (specialist) without a referral from another health professional (usually a primary care physician).  In at least some parts of Canada, self-referrals are discouraged, as specialists are paid a lower fee in such instances. In the UK and Spain, seeing a secondary care physician through a referral from primary care is the norm in the national health system. The percentage of patients seeing one or more specialists in a year in the United States is very high (at least 40% of the population, but over half of people who have sought any care) but very variable, and it is much higher among the elderly, reaching to over 90% in some health care organizations. In Canada and Spain, the percentage is less and in the UK is about half of that in these two countries – about 15% in the non-elderly. The extent to which the excess in the US is a result of increased self-referral, poor comprehensiveness of primary care, historical practice and peoples’ expectations, and/or financial incentives that encourage specialty care is unknown. Whatever the explanation, the subject of the role of specialists deserves investigation. In view of the evidence that much of specialty care may be inappropriate and increasing,1 and that it raises costs of care unnecessarily, studies of the contributions made by specialists to diagnosis and management are needed, as are studies of the role of primary care in maintaining comprehensiveness of services in the primary care sector. Increasing comprehensiveness of care is associated with  more effective, efficient, and equitable services in countries where the subject has been studied.2 1Starfield B, Shi L, Grover A, Macinko J. The effects of specialist supply on populations' health: assessing the evidence. Health Aff 2005; W5: Starfield B, Shi L. Policy relevant determinants of health: an international perspective. Health Policy 2002; 60(3): Sources: Peterson S, AAFP (personal communication, January 30, 2007). Jaakkimainen L, Upshur REG, Klein-Geltink JE et al. Primary Care in Ontario. ICES Atlas. Toronto, CA: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Sicras-Mainar A, Serrat-Tarres J, Navarro-Artieda R, Llausi-Selles R, Ruano-Ruano I, Gonzalez-Ares JA. Adjusted Clinical Groups use as a measure of the referrals efficiency from primary care to specialized in Spain. Eur J Public Health 2007; 17(6): Starfield B, Chang H-Y, Lemke KW, Weiner JP. Ambulatory specialist use by non-hospitalized patients in US health plans: correlates and consequences. Submitted 2008. Sources: Peterson S, AAFP (personal communication, January 30, 2007). Jaakkimainen et al. Primary Care in Ontario. ICES Atlas. Toronto, CA: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Sicras-Mainar et al, Eur J Public Health 2007; 17: Starfield et al, submitted 2008. Starfield 01/07 SP 3529 n 38

39 Resource Use, Controlling for Morbidity Burden*
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Resource Use, Controlling for Morbidity Burden* More DIFFERENT specialists seen: higher total costs, medical costs, diagnostic tests and interventions, and types of medication More DIFFERENT generalists seen: higher total costs, medical costs, diagnostic tests and interventions More generalists seen (LESS CONTINUITY): more DIFFERENT specialists seen among patients with high morbidity burdens. The effect is independent of the number of generalist visits. That is, the benefits of primary care are greatest for people with the greatest burden of illness. Source: Starfield B, Chang H, Lemke KW, Weiner JP. Ambulatory specialist use by non-hospitalized patients in US health plans: correlates and consequences. J Ambul Care Manage 2009 forthcoming. *Using the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACGs) Source: Starfield et al, Ambulatory specialist use by patients in US health plans: correlates and consequences. J Ambul Care Manage 2009 forthcoming. Starfield 09/07 CMOS 3854 39

40 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 Percent of Patients Reporting Any Error by Number of Doctors Seen in Past Two Years Country One doctor 4 or more doctors Australia 12 37 Canada 15 40 Germany 14 31 New Zealand 35 UK 28 US 22 49 Source: Schoen C, Osborn R, Huynh PT, Doty M, Zapert K, Peugh J, Davis K. Taking the pulse of health care systems: experiences of patients with health problems in six countries. Health Affairs 2005; W5: Seeing a large number of different physicians, including specialists, is potentially dangerous for people. This chart shows that a much larger percentage of people in the US have seen four or more doctors in the most recent two years. Increased frequency of adverse events is at least partly a result of the prescription of large numbers of medications, some of which are very powerful recent additions to the armamentarium of available medications. These new medications have relatively high unintended effects.1 As the frequency of adverse events rises with increasing number of physicians seen, the practice of frequent referrals and self-referrals to specialists is likely to be detrimental to health,2-3 particularly in view of evidence that inappropriate specialty care often is associated with worse health.4-5 1Avorn J. Dangerous deception--hiding the evidence of adverse drug effects. N Engl J Med 2006; 355(21): Starfield B, Lemke KW, Bernhardt T, Foldes SS, Forrest CB, Weiner JP. Comorbidity: implications for the importance of primary care in 'case' management. Ann Fam Med 2003; 1(1): Starfield B, Lemke KW, Herbert R, Pavlovich WD, Anderson G. Comorbidity and the use of primary care and specialist care in the elderly. Ann Fam Med 2005; 3(3): Starfield B, Shi L, Grover A, Macinko J. The effects of specialist supply on populations' health: assessing the evidence. Health Aff 2005; W5: Starfield B, Chang H-Y, Lemke KW, Weiner JP. Ambulatory specialist use by non-hospitalized patients in US health plans: correlates and consequences. Submitted 2008. Starfield 09/07 IC 3870 n Source: Schoen et al, Health Affairs 2005; W5: 40

41 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 There are large variations in both costs of care and in frequency of interventions. Areas with high use of resources and greater supply of specialists have NEITHER better quality of care NOR better results from care. Sources: Fisher ES, Wennberg DE, Stukel TA, Gottlieb DJ, Lucas FL, Pinder EL. The implications of regional variations in Medicare spending. Part 1: the content, quality, and accessibility of care. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138(4): Fisher ES, Wennberg DE, Stukel TA, Gottlieb DJ, Lucas FL, Pinder EL. The implications of regional variations in Medicare spending. Part 2: health outcomes and satisfaction with care. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138(4): Baicker K, Chandra A. Medicare spending, the physician workforce, and beneficiaries' quality of care. Health Aff 2004; W4(April 7): (http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/hlthaff.w4.184v1.pdf). Wennberg JE, Fisher ES, Baker L, Sharp SM, Bronner KK. Evaluating the efficiency of California providers in caring for patients with chronic illnesses. Health Aff 2005; W5: (http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/hlthaff.w5.526v1). Sources: Fisher et al, Ann Intern Med 2003; Part 1: 138:273-87; Part 2: 138: Baicker & Chandra, Health Aff 2004; W4: Wennberg et al, Health Aff 2005; W5: Starfield 12/05 SP 3343 41

42 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 What is the right number of specialists? What do specialists do? What do specialists contribute to population health? Starfield 01/06 SP 3354 42

43 Enhancements to Primary Care
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Enhancements to Primary Care Health information systems: primary care/system-wide Analysis of variations in care with variations in use of secondary care with variations in type of payment with focus on patients versus diseases (P4P) Subspecialization in primary care Patient-centered primary care (poorly conceptualized) “Chronic care model”: self-management support; delivery system design; decision support; clinical; information systems ALL REQUIRE EVALUATION. Starfield 02/08 PC 3966 43

44 First contact for new needs/problems
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Any evaluation of enhancements to clinical primary care must consider the extent to which they better achieve the evidence-based primary care functions: First contact for new needs/problems Person (not disease) focused care (enhanced recognition of people’s health problems) Breadth of services Coordination (enhanced problems/needs recognition over time) Starfield 06/08 EVAL 4044 44

45 Good Primary Care Requires
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Good Primary Care Requires Health system POLICIES conducive to primary care practice Health services delivery that achieves the important FUNCTIONS of primary care Starfield 06/08 PC 4042 45

46

47 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 The impact of a health services intervention should not be evaluated on the basis of a structural element of health systems alone. The value of health system structures lies only in the behaviors that they engender. In order to understand why and how things have an impact, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of structures on processes of care. That is why evaluations of structures such as type or number of practitioners, electronic health records, and the Chronic Care Model (CCM) have inconsistent results. Starfield 10/08 EVAL 4072 47

48 The Health Services System
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 The Health Services System Longevity Comfort Perceived well-being Disease Achievement Risks Resilience CAPACITY PERFORMANCE HEALTH STATUS (outcome) Provision of care Receipt Personnel Facilities and equipment Range of services Organization Management and amenities Continuity/information systems Knowledge base Accessibility Financing Population eligible Governance People/practitioner interface Cultural and behavioral characteristics Social, political, economic, and physical environments Biologic endowment and prior health Problem recognition Diagnosis Management Reassessment Utilization Acceptance and satisfaction Understanding Participation Community resources Source: Starfield B. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. This figure specifies the important components of health services systems according to their type (structure, process, and outcome in the terminology of Donabedian (1966).  In the diagram, structural components of health services systems are designated as Capacity and include the characteristics that enable medical practices  to provide services.  The process components are designated as Performance and include the categories of action engaged in by practitioners as well as the actions of patients and populations that enable them to receive services that are recommended. All characteristics of health systems and their interactions with communities and civil society should be represented by this diagram.  (The diagram applies to ambulatory care as well as to care in institutions; hospitalization is represented as a management strategy under the control of providers.) Costs can be superimposed on each of the components of the system.   Donabedian A. Evaluating the quality of medical care. Milbank Q 1966; 44(3, pt 2): Source: Starfield. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. Oxford U. Press, 1998. Starfield 02/09 HS 4133 n 48

49 PCAT (Primary Care Assessment Tool)
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 PCAT (Primary Care Assessment Tool) First-contact (access and use) Person-focused care over time Comprehensiveness (services available and provided) Coordination Family centered Community oriented Culturally competent Starfield 05/03 PCM 2479 Starfield 05/03 03-095 49

50 Primary Care Scores by Data Source, PSF Clinics
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary Care Scores by Data Source, PSF Clinics First Contact Resources Available Source: Almeida C & Macinko J. Validação de uma Metodologia de Avaliação Rápida das Características Organizacionais e do Desempenho dos Serviços de Atenção Básica do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em Nível Local [Validation of a Rapid Appraisal Methodology for Monitoring and Evaluating the Organization and Performance of Primary Health Care Systems at the Local Level]. Brasília: Pan American Health Organization, Office of Technical Cooperation in Brazil, 2006. The data in this “spider’s web” depict the achievement of the essential features of primary care in primary care practices in an area of Brazil. It also shows the considerable agreement between the three sources of information: patients, practitioners, and managers in the facilities. A score of five represents the maximum, with a score of zero representing the minimum possible. Whereas the facilities scored high on the range of services available (“resources available”) and on a family focus of the health services, scores were relatively low for accessibility of the services. This study showed the potential for application of a standardized and  validated instrument (the PCAT) to assess the quality of delivery of primary care services, from the viewpoint of users, providers, and managers. In this way, possible improvements can be discussed and implemented. Source: Almeida & Macinko. [Validation of a Rapid Appraisal Methodology for Monitoring and Evaluating the Organization and Performance of Primary Health Care Systems at the Local Level]. Brasília: Pan American Health Organization, 2006. Starfield 05/06 WC 3421 n 50

51

52 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 There is no such thing as a “primary care service”. There are only primary care functions and “specialty care” functions. We know what the primary care functions are; they are evidence-based. Payment should be based on their achievement over a period of time. Any payment system that rewards specific services will distort the main purpose of medical care: to deal with health problems effectively, efficiently, and equitably. Starfield 06/08 PC 4046 52

53 Primary Care First Contact Accessibility
09 Copenhagen general practice May 3/23/2017 Primary Care First Contact Accessibility Use by people for each new problem Longitudinal Relationship between a facility and its population Use by people over time regardless of the type of problem; person-focused character of provider/patient relationship Comprehensive Broad range of services Recognition of situations where services are needed Coordination Mechanism for achieving continuity Recognition of problems that require follow-up Primary care has four main functions: first contact (the place where care is first sought for a new or newly recurring health problem or health need); longitudinality (person-focused care over time); comprehensiveness (providing for all common health needs without referral); and coordination (integrating all aspects of care when people have to go elsewhere for uncommon or unusually serious health conditions).  Each of these four essential functions can be described and assessed by using several of the elements of health systems, as described in this chart. Starfield 02/08 EVAL 3968 n 53

54 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 Structural and Process Elements of the Essential Features of Primary Care Capacity Essential Features Performance Accessibility Eligible population Range of services Continuity First-contact Utilization Person-focused relationship Longitudinality Comprehensiveness This diagram shows how just seven elements are used to describe and measure the four essential functions of primary care.  Each function entails the achievement of a particular structural element that the practitioner or practice must have in place in order for there to be appropriate performance. Three aspects of performance are important to the achievement of the function.  For two of the functions (comprehensiveness and coordination), that element is the recognition of patients’ problems.   For a service to be comprehensive, the totality of a patient’s health problems must be recognized in order for appropriate actions to be taken. For coordination, the practitioner or facility needs to recognize which problems require integration into the totality of care provided to the patient in order to achieve effective and safe care. Problem recognition Coordination Starfield 04/97 EVAL 1108 n Starfield 1997 97-194 54

55 09 Copenhagen general practice May
3/23/2017 Structural and Process Elements of the Essential Features of Primary Care Capacity Essential Features Performance Accessibility Eligible population Range of services Continuity First-contact Utilization Person-focused relationship Longitudinality Comprehensiveness This diagram shows how just seven elements are used to describe and measure the four essential functions of primary care.  Each function entails the achievement of a particular structural element that the practitioner or practice must have in place in order for there to be appropriate performance. Three aspects of performance are important to the achievement of the function.  For two of the functions (comprehensiveness and coordination), that element is the recognition of patients’ problems.   For a service to be comprehensive, the totality of a patient’s health problems must be recognized in order for appropriate actions to be taken. For coordination, the practitioner or facility needs to recognize which problems require integration into the totality of care provided to the patient in order to achieve effective and safe care. Problem recognition Coordination Starfield 10/08 EVAL 4071 n 55

56 Welcome to the 16th Nordic Congress of General Practice


Download ppt "General Practice as an Integral Part of the Health System"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google