Presentation on theme: "Dr. Carla Di Giorgio UPEI Faculty of Education May 20, 2009"— Presentation transcript:
1Dr. Carla Di Giorgio UPEI Faculty of Education May 20, 2009 Access of students with learning disabilities/challenges to higher education: Issues and solutionsDr. Carla Di GiorgioUPEI Faculty of EducationMay 20, 2009
2Dr. Audrey Penner, Holland College Community Partners:Dr. Audrey Penner, Holland CollegeJoanne McCabe, UPEI Webster Centre- Accessibility ServicesLD Association of PEI
3Research questions1. What are the barriers to students with learning disabilities/challenges in post-secondary programs in PEI?2. What successful practices have helped students?3. How do educators at community college and university view their role as teachers of students with learning challenges?4. What practices might improve the experiences of students?
4Literature reviewAdults with learning disabilities and difficulties have been studied in university and community college settings in the United States, but few studies have explored factors specific to Canadian populations.(Educational Policy Institute, 2006; Vogel and Holt, 2003).
5"Learning Disabilities" refer to: a number of disorders which may affect the acquisition, organization, retention, understanding or use of verbal or nonverbal information. These disorders affect learning in individuals who otherwise demonstrate at least average abilities essential for thinking and/or reasoning. As such, learning disabilities are distinct from global intellectual deficiency.
6Learning disabilities range in severity and may interfere with the acquisition and use of one or more of the following:oral language (e.g. listening, speaking, understanding);reading (e.g. decoding, phonetic knowledge, word recognition, comprehension);written language (e.g. spelling and written expression); andmathematics (e.g. computation, problem solving).may also involve difficulties with organizational skills, social perception, social interaction and perspective taking.
7Factors affecting post-secondary success: level of academic achievement in the school systemlow self-esteemlack of occupational goalsgenderageliteracypovertyin some cases health issues, including mental health issues such as anxiety, depression
8Leads to…?negative experiences in school systems lead to lack of confidence in pursuing areas of learning which are challenging.students not having realistic understanding of their strengths and weaknesses in pursuing post-secondary programs leads to unrealistic goals (Reiff, 1997).
9Very little research has explored teaching and other related educational practices that help adult learners reach their potential in accessing and succeeding in these settings (Butler, 2003; Towler, Wallace and Smith, 2000).
10Assessment practices and the transition from secondary school to post-secondary need to be improved to allow for better access for students, and better sharing of information with students and educators (Ross-Gordon et al, 2003; Goupil et al, 2002).
11Direct teaching practices, mentoring, strategy instruction, and organizational skills have been found to help students and educators adapt their learning and teaching to better educate not only those students with learning disabilities but all participants in programs (Deford, 2006).
12Several specific programs exist in American universities which address students with learning disabilities, but these practices need to be available to adults in basic education and community college settings as well (Covington, 2004).
13In Canada:Accessibility services in many universities allow students to attend regular classes while providing supports such as assistive technology and adapted testing to students.Community colleges as well offer assessment, counselling and accommodations for students with learning difficulties.Associations such as the Learning Disabilities Associations in each province advocate for students and inform them of available services and occupational opportunities.BUT there is a lack of integration between these various systems (Learning Disabilities Association of Canada, 2007).
14Research aims of this study: collect and connect knowledge on barriers facing students with learning difficulties and their instructorsprovide educators with useful strategies for improving access and success for students.connect learning difficulties to other life needs and issues
15Stages 1. Interviews with students at UPEI and Holland College 2. Interviews with instructors and professors at UPEI and Holland College3. Interviews with adults not in school4. Workshops with instructors/students at both institutions and at the LD Assoc.5. Develop recommendations and disseminate
16Stage 1: Interviews UPEI students with LD: 8 UPEI professors: 8 Holland College students with LD/ learning challenges: 7Holland College instructors: 7Non-students: 1
17Interviews1. For students: what are the positive and negative experiences you have had as a person with a learning challenge?2. For instructors: What is it like to have a student with learning challenges in your class? How have you adapted your teaching for this?
18Results: University students Many rely on the Accessibility Services office and this experience has supported them greatlyHowever, many students still do not like to ask professors for extra supportThey want to be assessed like other studentsExtreme determination to be self-sufficientRely on support from family and friendsLimited social life
19AnxietyMy anxiety isn’t going to go away because I can read a little better. Especially when it comes to an exam and there’s somebody watching every move you’re making…I don’t have anxiety anywhere else in my life. But when it comes to my schooling, I have huge anxiety. Like if I’m getting a test back, my heart’s beating. Even after the test is back and I know I did okay, I still have anxiety and it takes me a while to calm down.
20EmbarrassmentThere’s a few that I met in class, some people I’ve seen there dropping off books and stuff. Some people are really shy about it…really shy. Like one girl I met…so I said to her in class, “So it was a pretty bad scan, wasn’t it?” and her face just dropped and she was like, “what do you mean?”… I guess I caught her off-guard.
21Limited social lifeI don’t know- I’m not too into the social scene. Like, I like to keep on top of my work and stuff. Most weekends I do schoolwork and watch TV because I’m tired from working on schoolwork.
22University professors Difference between LD and ACE studentsAdaptations are taken care of by Accessibility ServicesVariance in ownership taken by professorsAdaptation of teaching?Variance in personal contact with students with LDPersonal experienceProfessional standards
23Lack of knowledgeOne was that they wouldn’t give me my accessibilities. They wouldn’t allow me to write my tests in a separate place or to use the technology. So I said, “fine. I won’t take your course”. And the other one, it was mostly her lack of knowledge about learning disabilities. I told her I had one, and she- I think she thought I was blind or something because I said learning disability. So I was just kind of annoyed with her that she wouldn’t take the time to know that…like blindness isn’t a learning disability.
24Professional resistance And they actually denied that (extra time on lab exam) because they said it was part of the (program)…I don’t know…But the way I understood it was that with (program), you have to have a certain amount of respect for the time frame, and they just weren’t going to accommodate that; they put it into their policy, I believe.
25Equity?He said to me “If I do it for you, I’d have to do it for everybody else”.
26Role of professorI did have one that did become particularly clingy. She wa sin my office twice a week when I taught her, and then every week for the next two years. You know, just dropping by. Eventually I just had to step back a little and, not withdraw, but I didn’t want to be feeling like her mother, and I expect from what she told me that she had a very abusive mother, psychologically, and certainly a very uncaring mother. So I didn’t want to become like a substitute mother for her, because it’s just so inappropriate. But at the same time, she’d sometimes come in and just be crying and just need a hug- that’s what she needed. And so that it’s really hard to know where that line is drawn…
27Personal empathyI think it could have been different because in that time, my whole understanding of what a learning disability was- because I was doing all of this reading because of my (child)…
28Community College students Life experienceGender, familyDeterminationLack of identification of LDNegative experience of schoolPlans for futureNeed for supportHealth including mental health issuesLarge range of abilities and motivesMedication effects
29Tough lifeI got pregnant when I was sixteen; dropped out of school. Raising, I chose to stay home to raise my son. And as he got older, I decided to try upgrading but upgrading just wasn’t doing it so I hadn’t gone to school in eighteen years and since my son passed away in (month), I decided to try school again and I’m liking it and it’s good. Really rough, but-
30Pass it on…See, when I was pregnant for my daughter, I had a lot of prior, before I found out I was pregnant I had a …surgery, and I had lots of medications, so they thought she was going to be brain dead when she was born, because of all of the medication. Come to find out she might have a learning disability from it and she might have thyroid problems from the medication when she gets older. So I contributed with the medication, but I know that with learning disabilities and stuff like that, it could be hereditary, I know there’s something somewhere…but I want to try to nip it in the bud, so I can help my kids so they can help their kids, you know what I mean?
31Medication/motivation I wonder if it’s medication, she just is unfocused. You can look at her some days and say, you know, are you thinking? Most of my other students, because we have a self-paced environment, if they hand me something to be corrected they immediately move into something else. (Student) always has to be prompted. Is it because you’re unmotivated? And there’s some of that too.
32Student quote: mental health I have to get past the problem of getting into the workforce and staying there. And then with my bipolar it kinda throws me off, because if I miss any days then I lose the job. So it’s like a Catch-22. So I have to work it out.
33Family secretsNo, not a thing, no. I kept it hush, hush. I kept it, because…”Well, mom, you never did it, why should I do it?” So I never gave them that ammo. I always told them, I lied to them. I told them that I had my grade 12. Always did.
34Community college instructors Plateaued learnersGoals and abilitiesCurriculum vs. peopleVariety of programsEasy accessLimits to time in programSelf-paced learningGender of teachers
35Instructor quotePeople come in, have a lot of uh, some teachers call it garbage, I don’t call it garbage. Some teachers say, “Leave your garbage at the door” but to me it’s not, you get them as a , they’re a unit and uh, you accept them as they are and if you have to take, you have to take their…Our students are the ones that probbaly fell through the cracks in the school system and maybe they’ve had brushes with the law. Maybe they’re in debt…So we have people that have a lot on their plate.
36Themes and questions Ownership Stigma Assessment services School experienceRole of the university and community collegeOutside influencesFuture opportunitiesCarryover into next generations
37AssessmentSo usually, you know, quite often if they have been tested it’s a relief. Sometimes to find out that there is something wrong as opposed to not knowing and not really wanting to look into it, but knowing deep down that there is something.
38School experienceWell it’s funny it never got picked up in school, cause I struggled all along. And mom said that I fell into just the middle- you know, I wasn’t overly smart, I wasn’t failing…they kicked me out (of resource)- I was doing too good. But I was struggling- my mom realized I was struggling and they just never, I wasn’t struggling enough, I guess.
39DiscouragementI guess this would have been in about grade six, where she told me that I couldn’t go to a university, that I’d have to go to a college, ‘cause of my reading problems and stuff. So then I just wanted to go to university.
40CounsellingYeah I’m the first one from my family to ever graduate. So I didn’t have anyone to really give me guidance for university. So they had something called the first year advisement.
41Future goalsTo her, I think she wants, with the interest situation, when they’ve had addictions and mental health issues, then they want to go into that field…and so she sees herself as a crisis counsellor and really doesn’t have the concept to understand how much work that would be. They really feel that if you have the life experience, therefore you know how to deal with somebody else. So there’s that unrealistic disconnect there…She doesn’t have that, “okay, I could do the job, but if I could do the job I wouldn’t be where I’m at”.
42Recommendations Earlier assessment and identification in schools Connection between parents and childrenIntegration of education and health, community care and supportMore technological supportCloser look at teaching and personal supportLength of time in program; economic supportTransitioning to lifeOpportunities to support others
43Helping othersAnd he ended up firing her. And she didn’t have an advocate in her life…and they fired her and I never saw her again. Yeah that’s pretty illegal what he did, I think- she was there for three weeks. They never asked her. That was something that was pretty bad.
44Limitations Time for study Range of students and instructors/programs Differences between university and community college programsLD vs. learning difficultiesGender in community college