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Russian Social structure can be compared to the French Estate System.Russian Social structure can be compared to the French Estate System. What constituted.

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Presentation on theme: "Russian Social structure can be compared to the French Estate System.Russian Social structure can be compared to the French Estate System. What constituted."— Presentation transcript:

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4 Russian Social structure can be compared to the French Estate System.Russian Social structure can be compared to the French Estate System. What constituted the French system??What constituted the French system??

5 Clergy – Russian Orthodox ChurchClergy – Russian Orthodox Church Nobility – owned most of the land, and held most gov’t and military positions.Nobility – owned most of the land, and held most gov’t and military positions.

6 4/5 of Population = Peasants4/5 of Population = Peasants City workers (factories)City workers (factories) Low wagesLow wages Poor working conditionsPoor working conditions Middle ClassMiddle Class Very fewVery few Resented the nobilityResented the nobility

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8 Only through reform and emancipation of the serfs could Russia compete with the west.

9 Russian expansion west – into Turkey Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, and France along with the Ottoman Empire, defeated Russia Army largely consisted of illiterate serfs who could barely operate gunsArmy largely consisted of illiterate serfs who could barely operate guns Created massive Peasant RebellionCreated massive Peasant Rebellion

10 Mir – land became the collective property of the commune or village community They weren’t happy, still tied to the land – couldn’t leave without permission of the mir (even temporarily)They weren’t happy, still tied to the land – couldn’t leave without permission of the mir (even temporarily) New type of local government – representative body – cutting across class lines Nobility was upset, because they had to share control with lower classes Right to an attorneyRight to an attorney Right to a jury trialRight to a jury trial Right to public trialRight to public trial Equality before the LawEquality before the Law Nobility upset

11 Service reducedService reduced Brutality reducedBrutality reduced Military schools – reorganizedMilitary schools – reorganized 21 year old males – 6 years active and additional 9 in the reserves21 year old males – 6 years active and additional 9 in the reserves Improved Military strength

12 Women had more opportunities Primary education Intelligentsia & nihilism “a nihilist is a man who does not bow down before any authority, who does not take any principle on faith Reforms ended due to 1866 assassination attempt on Alexander II 1881 – he was assassinated by a homemade bomb

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14 Peasant discontent – little better off than they had been as serfsPeasant discontent – little better off than they had been as serfs Intelligentsia – (philosophes) – discredited the existing order and paved the way for revolutionary changeIntelligentsia – (philosophes) – discredited the existing order and paved the way for revolutionary change Nihilism – believed that all Russian institutions were fit for the “rubbish heap”.Nihilism – believed that all Russian institutions were fit for the “rubbish heap”. Duma – Russian Parliament didn’t have much power – no power of the purseDuma – Russian Parliament didn’t have much power – no power of the purse Behind in Industrialization – Islands of industrialization in a sea of peasants. St. Petersburg and Moscow.Behind in Industrialization – Islands of industrialization in a sea of peasants. St. Petersburg and Moscow. There was no strong middle classThere was no strong middle class

15 Russo-Japanese War – 1904 – 05Russo-Japanese War – 1904 – 05 Factory workers were discontent = strikes -> turned into political strikesFactory workers were discontent = strikes -> turned into political strikes Bloody Sunday – workers marched on the Winter Palace – 1,000 were killed by troops -. Lead to riots and strikes in the cities. Peasants roamed the countryside, looting and burning homes of noblesBloody Sunday – workers marched on the Winter Palace – 1,000 were killed by troops -. Lead to riots and strikes in the cities. Peasants roamed the countryside, looting and burning homes of nobles October ManifestoOctober Manifesto

16 Troops loyal to the Tsar prevailed – several days of fighting in MoscowTroops loyal to the Tsar prevailed – several days of fighting in Moscow 1906 – Duma – Dissolved – wanted land belonging to the church and state to be given to peasants1906 – Duma – Dissolved – wanted land belonging to the church and state to be given to peasants 1907 – 2 nd Duma – Dismissed1907 – 2 nd Duma – Dismissed Tsar illegally altered elections – giving more representation to aristocracyTsar illegally altered elections – giving more representation to aristocracy – 3 rd Duma – improved conditions for peasants and workers – 3 rd Duma – improved conditions for peasants and workers – 4 th Duma – supportive of Tsar – 4 th Duma – supportive of Tsar Stolypin Reforms – Freed peasants from the mirStolypin Reforms – Freed peasants from the mir

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18 Marxist –Marxist – Urban workers – wanted better working conditionsUrban workers – wanted better working conditions Russia must be industrialized before a socialist revolution could take placeRussia must be industrialized before a socialist revolution could take place Proletariat revolutionProletariat revolution Split into Mensheviks and BolsheviksSplit into Mensheviks and Bolsheviks

19 Largest group Looked to the peasants as revolutionaries – giving them a broad base of support.Looked to the peasants as revolutionaries – giving them a broad base of support.

20 (Minority) Orthodox MarxistOrthodox Marxist Evolutionary Socialism- need to go through capitalism before reaching the socialist stateEvolutionary Socialism- need to go through capitalism before reaching the socialist state Willing to work with the middle classWilling to work with the middle class

21 (majority) Wanted to speed up socialist revolution (skipping steps to get there)Wanted to speed up socialist revolution (skipping steps to get there) Distrustful of the middle classDistrustful of the middle class It was a closed/underground socialist partyIt was a closed/underground socialist party

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23 Tsar banned the sale of Vodka for remainder of the warTsar banned the sale of Vodka for remainder of the war Vodka was gov’t owned and brought in a lot of revenue, shutting it down was disastrousVodka was gov’t owned and brought in a lot of revenue, shutting it down was disastrous

24 Management and workers – designed to help the war effort Town council (elected) Effective in Peace-Time – hospitals and schoolsEffective in Peace-Time – hospitals and schools During the War it organized ambulanceDuring the War it organized ambulance

25 By 1916 – Industries were producing enough supplies to keep the war goingBy 1916 – Industries were producing enough supplies to keep the war going Russia wasn’t capable of both feeding the civilians and running the warRussia wasn’t capable of both feeding the civilians and running the war Railway wasn’t running properly – couldn’t get munitions to front linesRailway wasn’t running properly – couldn’t get munitions to front lines Food was being grown, but it wasn’t being transportedFood was being grown, but it wasn’t being transported

26 Practically everyone supported it Not the Bolsheviks – arrested – escaped to Switzerland or Siberia – Stalin – in exile was not involved in the 1917 revolution (hothead)Not the Bolsheviks – arrested – escaped to Switzerland or Siberia – Stalin – in exile was not involved in the 1917 revolution (hothead)

27 Women were protesting about bread, and armed forces wer on the side of the people – forced the Czar to abdicate Czar Nicolas Romanov

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30 A system of government in which the state exercises total control over the individual and society. No institution can run inside the state outside of state control. all fall under total control of the state

31 Which of the following were totalitarian regimes?  Napoleon  Henry VIII  Louis XIV  Hitler  Mussolini  Peter the Great  Catherine the Great  Elizabeth I

32 1.Revolutionary Groups in Russia 2.Tsar Nicolas II abdicated – it collapsed he was not overthrown 3.Kerensky’s Provisional Government – only a gov’t because they called themselves a gov’t 4.Soviets – Challenged the gov’t

33 After Tsar’s abdication – Kerensky ran an inefficient and weak provisional government in Russia The Soviets Informal councils – claimed to represent the working classInformal councils – claimed to represent the working class They were there to protect the peasantsThey were there to protect the peasants Didn’t govern but had the power to veto the Provisional GovernmentDidn’t govern but had the power to veto the Provisional Government

34 Provisional Government succeedsProvisional Government succeeds Lenin is put in exileLenin is put in exile 1917 – MARCH TO PETROGRAD (St. Petersburg)1917 – MARCH TO PETROGRAD (St. Petersburg) Nothing to defend the Provisional GovernmentNothing to defend the Provisional Government Not one battalion was faithfulNot one battalion was faithful

35 Bolsheviks (led by Lenin)Bolsheviks (led by Lenin) Seized the Winter PalaceSeized the Winter Palace Not that violent a revolutionNot that violent a revolution

36 Lenin implemented his own version of CommunismLenin implemented his own version of Communism 1.Slowed up Nationalization 2.Encouraged small capitalistic undertakings and agriculture and retail trade [The speed of Lenin’s communist experiment threatened the regime’s existence]

37 1924 -LENIN DIED THERE WAS A DEBATE OVER WHO WOULD TAKE OVER? THERE WAS A DEBATE OVER WHO WOULD TAKE OVER? 1.TROTSKY 2.STALIN

38 Communism must spread – he advocated a World Revolution

39 Consolidation within one country – he wanted to build socialism in the USSR and not focus on World Revolution

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41 EVOLUTIONARY SOCIALISM  Theoretically – a vision of a better society  It is a philosophy of history – historical development is made up of class conflicts

42  It is a critique of capitalism  Condemns exploitation of workers  Workers have control of the means of production

43  It is a strategy of revolutionary action for overthrowing capitalist society and enabling the world’s workers to establish the INEVITABLE communist society

44 REVOLUTIONARY SOCIALISM WORLD REVOLUTION  Modified Marxist doctrine  Speed up the revolution  Conspiratorial  Dictatorial

45  Security for the USSR’s communism would happen only if there were communist revolutions in the advanced industrial countries of Europe NEP

46 REVOLUTIONARY SOCIALISM ONE SOCIALIST STATE  Consolidation within one country

47  MOTTO: “From each according to his ability; to each according to his needs”

48  Socialist Morality  Divorce more difficult  Abortion made illegal  Socialist realism art  Collectivization – 5 Year Plans  PURGES

49 “When there is a threat we cannot deal with, we cannot control-but because we cannot deal with the real threat we create another.”

50  Show Trials--Trials were not based on evidence – but on confessions (given under intense torture)  Some were ridiculous


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