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Measuring Student Achievement Presentation at the 2005 Howard University UTEP Alliance for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) PFF STEM Summer.

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Presentation on theme: "Measuring Student Achievement Presentation at the 2005 Howard University UTEP Alliance for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) PFF STEM Summer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Measuring Student Achievement Presentation at the 2005 Howard University UTEP Alliance for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) PFF STEM Summer Institute UTEP El Paso, Tx June 25, 2005 M ichael T. Nettles Policy Evaluation & Research Center Copyrighted (C) 2004 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. The ETS logo is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Service (ETS).

2 First-Time Full-Time Freshmen Attending Four-Year Colleges and Universities (N=1,438) By Selectivity: 2002 Note: These data represent student enrollment at institutions ranked by Barron’s Profile of American Colleges 2004 (25 th Edition) with 2002 IPEDS enrollment data. Includes only Title IV institutions.

3 First-Time Full-Time Freshmen Attending Four-Year Colleges and Universities (N=1,438) By Selectivity: 2002 Note: These data represent student enrollment at institutions ranked by Barron’s Profile of American Colleges 2004 (25 th Edition) with 2002 IPEDS enrollment data. Includes only Title IV institutions.

4 African American and Hispanic Students are Underrepresented in Top 158 Colleges & Universities Note: Selectivity is from the Barron’s Profiles of American Colleges, 2004 and enrollment data are from the IPEDS Fall 2002 enrollment survey. Institutions that received Title IV funds.

5 Three Magic Letters: Getting to Ph.D. Michael T. Nettles & Catherine M. Millett Johns Hopkins University Press

6 Czars of Persistence Research Astin (1962) Lavin (1964) Spady (1970, 1971) Tinto (1975) Bean (1980) Pascarella & Terenzini (1976) Braxton (1988) St. John (1989) Brazziel (1977) Nettles (1985) Rendon (1995) Nora (1987) Cabrera (1988) Clewell & Ficklen (1986) Stage (1989)

7 Stephan & Abigail Thernstrom However benevolent the motives of such progressive thinkers, their muddled thinking has had unfortunate consequences, as we saw with the University of Illinois example. The risk in taking in a “high risk” student like Fred Abernathy is that of academic failure. When it does not work out, the loser is not the institution but the individual student, who suffers a crushing, humiliating personal defeat that may have lasting results. That should be of special concern when the student (who might be fine at a less competitive school) has already been scarred by encounters with racial prejudice. Source: America in Black & White: One Nation Indivisible, pg. 395

8 1992 Entering Cohort 6 Year Graduation Rate Source: Institutional data reported to Nettles and Millett for six-year graduation rates in 1998.

9 Addressing Three Questions About Student Persistence 1.Is there a race and social class difference? 2.What distinguishes persisters from stopouts and transfers from stopouts? 3.For persisters, what distinguishes the quality of their performance and experience?

10 Terminology 1.Persister – a student who is enrolled or graduates from the institution where she enrolled as a first-time, full-time freshman 2.Stopouts – a student who is not continuously enrolled at the institution where she enrolled as a first-time, full- time freshman 3.Transfer – a student who self-reported that she had left her original college and enrolled at a different one.

11 The Research Study conducted from 1999-present Survey of College Choices, Experience, and Retention (SOCCER) –Persisters –Stopouts –Transfers Interviews of sub-samples in each category

12 Selecting a Stratified Sample 1.College or University first enrolled – 24 institutions 2.Entering cohort year , 1997, 1998, At least 18 but not older than 25 4.U.S. Citizens by Race/Ethnicity –African American –Asian American –Hispanic –White 5.Enrollment status –Enrolled or not enrolled

13 Participating Institutions (N=24) Bryn Mawr College * Cornell University Howard University Lehigh University Macalester College New Mexico Highlands Univ. Northwestern Univ.* Oberlin College * Princeton Univ. * Rice University * Smith College * Swarthmore College Tulane University * Univ. of CA, Berkeley Univ. of CA, Los Angeles Univ. of Michigan * Univ. of N. Carolina-Chapel Hill * Univ. of Pennsylvania * Vanderbilt University * Wellesley College * Wesleyan University * Williams College * Xavier University University of Texas, El Paso * College and Beyond Institutions Note: Institutions in blue and green are not in the analyses Kathy Gilbert: New Mexico Highlands and UTEP are not on this slide Per MTN-do not add 11/29 KD added Kathy Gilbert: New Mexico Highlands and UTEP are not on this slide Per MTN-do not add 11/29 KD added

14 SOCCER Surveys – 6 Surveys Persistence 1999 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 28 pages Stopout 1999 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 28 pages Freshman 2000 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 20 pages Persistence 2001 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 32 pages Stopout 2001 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 40 pages Graduate 2001 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 32 pages

15 Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention - SOCCER Persisters (28 pages) /Freshman (20) Student Application, Acceptance & Enrollment Experiences –Attitudes –Behaviors Student Background Non-Persisters (28 Pages) After departing –Attitudes –Behaviors Experiences at Orig. Inst. –Attitudes –Behaviors Student Application, Acceptance & Enrollment Student Background

16 Fall 1999 Response Rates (N=15) Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention

17 Racial Distribution of the Sample Race/Ethnicity % within Cohort African American7.2 Asian American17.7 Hispanic/Latino6.0 White69.0 Total100.0 Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention

18 Bowen, Kurzweil and Tobin Cutting through all of this analysis, there is one major take-away: for those applicants who took the SAT, did well on it, and applied to one of these selective institutions, family income and parental education, in and of themselves, had surprisingly little effect on admissions probabilities, on matriculation decisions, on choices of majors, on subsequent academic performance and graduation rates, and even on later-life outcomes such as earnings and civic participation. Source: Equity and Excellence in American Higher Education, pg. 135

19 The Distribution of the Sample by First Generation and Enrollment Status Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention Note: No statistical relationship between family education and enrollment status

20 The Distribution of the Sample by Family Income and Enrollment Status Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention Note: No statistical relationship between family income and enrollment status

21 The Distribution of the Sample by Enrollment Status and Race/Ethnicity Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention Note: Statistical difference between race/ethnicity and enrollment status

22 Predictors of Persisting vs. Stopping Out Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention

23 Predictors of Transferring vs. Stopping Out Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention Note: Financial Concerns, institutional satisfaction and UGPA were not significant predictors of transferring vs. stopping out

24 First-time, Full-time Freshman at C/U #1 (4,159) Leave C/U #1at 1999 (232) Persister/Graduate from C/U #1 (3,822) Enrolled at C/U #2, which is more prestigious than C/U #1 (24/227) 11% Stopout of C/U #1 (104) Enrolled at C/U #2, which is equally as prestigious as C/U #1 (32/227) 14% Enrolled at C/U #2, which is less prestigious than C/U #1 (167/227) 73% Enrolled at special programs (4/227) 2% First-time, Full-time Freshman at C/U #1 (4,159) First-time, Full-time Freshman at C/U #1 (4,159) Student’s Educational Paths 6% 92% 3%

25 Demographic and Background Characteristics Predicting UGPA Standardized Coefficients Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention

26 Demographic, Background and Experience Characteristics Predicting UGPA Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention Note: African Americans are the only race/ethnic group who differ from Whites Standardized Coefficients

27 SAT Scores are related to Standardized UGPA

28 Factors Self Concept Social Compatibility Academic Time Management Faculty Support Faculty Interaction Academic Compatibility Instructional Quality Supportive Environment College Belonging Institutional Satisfaction Racial Climate Experienced Discrimination Financial Concerns Institutional Commitment Note: All factors have a Cronbach alpha of.67 or higher

29 The Student Interviews Copyrighted (C) 2004 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. The ETS logo is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Service (ETS).

30 Goal of the Interviews To understand the meaning of events and actions as expressed by the students in their own words about their experiences in college. –To explain the participants point of view –How the participants think –How the participants interpret and explain their behavior in a given setting.

31 Interviewee Data Enrollment Status by Institution (N=15) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

32 Interviewee Data Enrollment Status by Race (n=163) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study Note: CB_15 institutions only

33 Brendan Persister African American Male First Generation Low Family SES Low SAT score

34 “I took the SAT once. My plan was not to go to college. I did not think about college first. Because of my SAT score (1050) and because of all these issues especially since that year affirmative action was kicked out here so I didn’t think I had too much of a chance to get into college.” “I wasn’t going to apply to college but my science teacher encouraged me to apply to college. I couldn’t do it on my own because I couldn’t afford it.” - Brendan

35 “It was difficult. It was very, very difficult. I felt so many feelings of inadequacy before I even came here because the school I came from already watered down grades. I was like … I don’t think I’m prepared. In fact, I wasn’t. … One of my first papers I got a D on. That was really discouraging. I had to push through. I had to adjust because I didn’t know anybody. It was hard because I had people prodding me about not going. Like, “You’ll flunk out.” Transition from High School - Brendan

36 “I worked really, really hard. I studied a lot… I thought I was doing pretty well in that class and then come back to find out I got a D+. After I got a D+ I think that was when my perception changed. I was focused on making sure I’d never get another D or anything like that. That’s when I really began to question (my ability) and really come to terms with the reasons for being here. I had to definitely define some reasons for being here. After all, if I’m going to think to myself, “Why am I here? What do I really want to get out of the school? Am I here just because everyone said I could go to college?” It took me about a year to figure it out. When I figured it out it was revelation.” - Brendan

37 “There’s such a high standard in the class and I got an A-. That was my first quarter. That set the tone for me. That let me know that I can make it here, that I’m actually capable. My high school counselors would say, “If you made into CalSouth than obviously you must be CalSouth material.” I didn’t feel like CalSouth material. When I got my A- in my political science class I said, “Hey, that’s great for me.” I wrote my papers. I got a lot of help. I got tutoring to help out. I went to speak with my professors who were really cool.” - Brendan

38 Matt Persister Hispanic Male First Generation Low Family SES High SAT score

39 “Success in college? I think college is definitely, for a lot of people, a big change in their life from high school to college. Just by thinking for yourself and feeling comfortable in college is successful because there are times when all you want to do is go home. It gets to the point where there’s so much work and there’s so much stress and there’s no one there to help you. At high school you had your mom and your family but here there’s kind of no one. I think success in college is just being able to handle it and learn from it.” - Matt

40 Just a few surprises –While no race differences in transferring/stopping out, race is a factor in grades. –Grades are the biggest predictor of persisting versus stopping out. –All things being equal, Asian Americans like African Americans and Hispanics have lower grade point averages than Whites. –All things being equal, students from low SES status backgrounds have higher grades.

41 Surprises (continued) –While background characteristics play a major role in predicting grades, they have little effect on persistence. –Persisters are less satisfied, have lower academic time management skills but are academically compatible with the institution, have high faculty interaction and are concerned about finances.

42 Mantra To equalize the quality of preparation for college as well as the collegiate experience for all students

43 Policy Evaluation & Research Center

44 Factors

45 Self Concept (0.81) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

46 Social Compatibility (0.84) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

47 Academic Time Management (0.73) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

48 Faculty Support (0.78) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

49 Faculty Interaction (0.71) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

50 Academic Compatibility (0.86) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

51 Instructional Quality (0.87) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

52 Supportive Environment (0.95) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

53 College Belonging (0.70) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

54 Institutional Satisfaction (0.94) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

55 Racial Climate (0.83) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

56 Experienced Discrimination (0.73) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

57 Financial Concerns (0.81) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

58 Institutional Commitment (0.75) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

59 The Student Interviews Copyrighted (C) 2004 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. The ETS logo is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Service (ETS).

60 Joanne Persister African American Female Middle Class Low SAT

61 Dealing with a difficult class- “Putting in extra study hours before tests, studying a week in advance, trying to get the concepts down and make sense of the material because he was teaching at a fast rate.” - Joanne

62 Feelings about grades and motivation - “Good. I also think that I could be doing better too so again I am working. I have one year and a half left so I feel strong, I am at a stable point, I have 3.57 now. It is a bit above average. I would like to be 3.7, 3.75, before I leave.” “I want to do well because I want to reach my maximum potential.”

63 Issues of preparation and success

64 Jose Persister Hispanic Male First Generation Low Family SES Low SAT score

65 “Academically I had a feel that I wasn’t going to meet everybody else’s standard. I had the fear in the beginning that I wasn’t going to be smart enough, that I wasn’t going to be able to handle the workload. Just because of the idea I had of ChicagoPrivate being really academically challenging. As I got into it I discovered that it is not easy but it is not as hard as I thought it was so I was able to manage the workload, the topic that I was looking at in my classes.” Jose - Persister

66 Kimberly Stop out African American Female Low Family SES Low SAT score

67 “I was getting like B’s and C’s and everyone is like oh that is what I am getting so you are doing fine. But I wanted A’s you know. I wanted to strive and I felt I could do more but it just wasn’t coming… So I really felt like that I wasn’t applying myself like I should be. But I didn’t know what to do. I was seeing my teachers and I had tutors, spending extra time studying and I wasn’t getting the grades that I wanted to. So I kind of felt like I wasn’t smart enough. And I know it sounds silly now but I felt that it wasn’t clicking.” Kimberly – Stop out

68 Ramon Persister Hispanic Male Low Family SES First Generation Relatively high SAT score

69 “I think it’s a really good thing that I know my professors and they know me by name and that I know I can go talk to them about anything, it doesn’t have to do with academics. We can just talk about what’s going on lately and stuff like that. I think that’s very positive for me academically because it keeps me motivated to do my work and everything. I know that these people know me. One professor…I got a B on a test that I had been getting A’s on. It was like a B-. He wrote a little note on it that said, not your finest effort. That greatly affected me. It was a huge motivating factor to get me back into working even harder to do better.” Ramon - Persister

70 Cody Persister African American Male First Generation Low ACT score

71 “I took the very hardest classes, I received a 4.0 throughout my high school. I came here and I struggled…I was the valedictorian, (I am) supposed to represent our community as best I can… I wouldn’t even say I was valedictorian anymore… I mean it’s not something that I am ashamed of, but it doesn’t say anything about where I’m at now.” Cody - Persister

72 The transition from high school… “was very, very hard. Very hard because I am used to receiving A’s and the work not being so hard, and it normally comes so naturally to me that I didn’t have to do homework. Once getting here and giving my best at the time, it wasn’t a 4.0 status it was more like 2.7, 3.0 status and it was very hard for me to adjust, I had only received A’s and now I was receiving C’s and B’s, so I found that gap, it was definitely a gap that needed to be bridged.” - Cody

73 “I find that my African-American professors have been more supportive of me succeeding because in their eyes we’re like an African-American male, we’re like an endangered species to succeed in this world, there’s not too many things you can get into. So they have pushed me, along with my mother and my family, have pushed me to want to succeed in life.” - Cody

74 JUNK!!!!

75 SAT Scores are related to Adjusted UGPA

76 Reasons for Discontinuing Enrollment - Lack of Social Fit with Students

77 Reasons for Discontinuing Enrollment - Wanted to Attend Different College

78 Reasons for Discontinuing Enrollment - Gain Work Experience

79 Reasons for Discontinuing Enrollment - Could Earn More Money Now

80 Reasons for Discontinuing Enrollment - Work to Save Money and Return

81 Reasons for Discontinuing Enrollment - Travel

82 Fall 1999 Respondent Data Enrollment Status by Institution (N=20) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

83 Fall 1999 Response Rates (N=20)

84 Fall 1999 Respondent Data Enrollment Status by Institution (N=20) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

85 First-Time Full-Time Freshmen Attending Four-Year Colleges and Universities (N=1,438) By Selectivity: 2002 Note: These data represent student enrollment at institutions ranked by Barron’s Profile of American Colleges 2004 (25 th Edition) with 2002 IPEDS enrollment data. Includes only Title IV institutions.

86 First-Time Full-Time Freshmen Attending Four-Year Colleges and Universities (N=1,438) By Selectivity: 2002 Note: These data represent student enrollment at institutions ranked by Barron’s Profile of American Colleges 2004 (25 th Edition) with 2002 IPEDS enrollment data. Includes only Title IV institutions.

87 Barron’s Selectivity Admissions CompetitivenessHigh School Rank High School GPA (recentered) SAT 1ACT 10 = Most CompTop 10% to 20%A to B+655 to and above 9 = Highly Comp+Top 20% to 35%B+ to B645 and above28 and above 8 = Highly CompTop 20% to 35%B+ to B620 to or 28 7 = Very Comp+Top 35% to 50%No less than B-610 and above26 and above 6 = Very CompTop 35% to 50%No less than B-573 to to 26 5 = Competitive+Top 50% to 65%B- or better563 and above24 and above 4 = CompetitiveTop 50% to 65%Min. of C+ or C500 to to 23 3 = Less CompTop 65%C or belowBelow 500Below 21 2 = Non Comp 4 yr 1 = 2 yr college Evidence of high school graduation Median Freshman Test Scores Barron's Profile of American Colleges 1997 Edition

88 NCAA Six-Year Graduation Rates Source:

89 NCAA Six-Year Graduation Rates Source:

90 Persister, Transfer, Stopout Status by Race/Ethnicity Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

91 Change in Institutional Selectivity for Transfer Students

92 SOCCER Surveys – 6 Surveys Persistence 1999 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 28 pages Stopout 1999 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 28 pages Freshman 2000 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 20 pages Persistence 2001 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 28 pages Stopout 2001 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 28 pages Graduate 2001 Survey of College Choices, Experiences, and Retention (SOCCER) 28 pages Institutional Requests for Data – Sample selection file and institutional request for admissions, academic performance and financial aid data. Catherine M. Millett: Get an institutional request letter for Michael Catherine M. Millett: Get an institutional request letter for Michael

93 Importance of Reasons for Enrolling at Transfer Institution

94 First-time, Full-Time Freshman at C/U #1 First-time, Full-Time Freshman at C/U #1 First-time, Full-Time Freshman at C/U #1 First-time, Full-Time Freshman at C/U #1 Stopout of C/U #1 Leave C/U #1 Leave C/U #1 Graduate from C/U #1 Graduate from C/U #2, which is more prestigious than C/U #1 Graduate from C/U #2, which is less prestigious than C/U #1 Do not re-enroll in higher education Student’s Options Graduate from C/U #2,which is equally as prestigious as C/U #1

95 Factors that Contribute to Persisting vs. Stopping Out Table 15 – Exp (B)

96 Factors that Contribute to Persisting vs. Stopping Out Table 15 – Using Inverse Odds

97 Table 1: Persistence Study Wave 1 Sample Disaggregated by Race/Ethnicity and Cohort (N=3,273) Race/Ethnicity Cohort Total African American Count % within Race/Ethnicity % within Cohort Asian American Count % within Race/Ethnicity % within Cohort Hispanic/Latino Count % within Race/Ethnicity % within Cohort European American Count ,1542,260 % within Race/Ethnicity % within Cohort Total Count ,6163,274 % within Race/Ethnicity % within Cohort100.0 Note: There is no statistical relationship between cohort and race (Pearson χ 2 = 10.46, d.f. = 6, and p-value = 0.107).

98 Table 10: Persistence Study, Multivariate Analysis of Covariance Statistical Significance Summary (N=3,273) Dependent Variable Independent Variables Standardized Test Scores Family Education Family Income Race/ Ethnicity Gender Race/Ethnicity *Gender Academic Compatibility+++ ** Academic Time Management-++**** College Belonging++++ *** Experienced Discrimination *** Faculty Interaction--++++**** Faculty Support +++++** Financial Concerns++--- *** Institutional Commitment ++++* Institutional Satisfaction +++***** Instructional Quality+++ ***** Racial Climate--** Self Concept +++*** Social Compatibility Social Integration *** Supportive Environment ++++*** Undergraduate GPA++++--*** Table 10: Persistence Study, Multivariate Analysis of Covariance Statistical Significance Summary (N=3,273)

99 First-Time Full-Time Freshmen Attending Non Specialized 4-Yr C/U (N=1,395) By Selectivity: 1997 Note: Includes non-specialized institutions with a Barron’s rank and 1997 IPEDS enrollment data.

100 First-Time Full-Time Freshmen Attending Four-Year Colleges and Universities (N=1,438) By Selectivity: 2002 Note: These data represent student enrollment at institutions ranked by Barron’s Profile of American Colleges 2004 (25 th Edition) with 2002 IPEDS enrollment data. Includes only Title IV institutions.

101

102 Fall 1999 Response Rates (N=24) Catherine M. Millett: Need to do for all 24 institutions all 4 years Catherine M. Millett: Need to do for all 24 institutions all 4 years

103 Methods of Analysis Quantitative –Factor Analysis –Regressions Qualitative –NVivo

104 Demographic and Background Characteristics Predicting UGPA Unstandardized co-efficient Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention

105 Demographic and Background Characteristics Do Not Predict Persisting vs. Stopping Out Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention Note: Family education is the only significant predictor (p<.05)

106 Factors that Contribute to Transfer vs. Stopping Out

107 Table 17: Factors that Contribute to Persisting vs. Stopping Out

108 Factors that Contribute to Transfer vs. Stopping Out

109 Predictors of Persisting vs. Transferring Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention

110 Sampling continued Total Population – all students at selective colleges and universities – CMM add info on all 24 schools and all 4 years. Sampling frame – 24 participating institutions Sample = 2,906 –students from the 1996, 1997, 1998 entering cohorts from 15 institutions –24 Weighted Total 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000= –24 Unweighted Total 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000= –15 Weighted Total 1996, 1997, 1998 = –15 Unweighted Total 1996, 1997, 1998 = Catherine M. Millett: CMM needs to look up Catherine M. Millett: CMM needs to look up

111 Conceptual Model of Factors Related to Student Persistence Persist Stopout Transfer Background Characteristics: - Gender - Race - Family Income -Parents’ educ. (BA or BA+) College Admissions: - SAT Scores - First Choice College Academic: - Grades in college - Major - Academic preparation - Academic motivation - Faculty interaction - Instructional Quality - Have an advisor Educational Commitment: - Degree aspirations - Commitment to their C/U - Social Integration - Living on-campus Perceived Discrimination: - Aspiration Discouragement - Campus experiences Family influence: - Family relations - Family pressure Self Concept - self worth - Worry about paying for college - Have educ. debt

112 Selecting Participants Registration status as of Fall 1999 Student’s willingness to participate in student interview from 1999 survey Lived in or enrolled in a college or university in our geographical outreach area

113 Persistence Study States Where Interviews Were Conducted

114 Interview Status by Institution (N=15) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study

115 Interviewee Data Enrollment Status by Freshman Term (N=163) Source: Nettles & Millett The High Achieving College Student Persistence Study Note: CB_15 institutions only

116 Persister Interview Topics College admissions Academic experiences –Grade motivation –Challenging courses –Faculty Support Significant college experiences Success in college Family involvement Enrollment challenges Support systems

117 Non-Persister Interview Topics College admissions Academic experiences –Grade motivation –Faculty Support Significant college experiences Success in college Family involvement Support systems Factors that lead to non-enrollment Current activities

118 Respondent Data by Enrollment Status by Institution (N=15) Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention Note: for students in 1996, 1997 and 1998 entering cohorts

119 The Distribution of the Sample by Enrollment Year and Race/Ethnicity Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention Note: Statistical difference between race/ethnicity and cohort

120 The Influence of Family Income on Persistence Does Not Vary by Race/Ethnicity Source: Nettles and Millett Survey of College Choices, Experiences and Retention

121 African American and Hispanic Students are Underrepresented in Top 158 Colleges & Universities Note: Selectivity is from the Barron’s Profiles of American Colleges, 2004 and enrollment data are from the IPEDS Fall 2002 enrollment survey. Institutions that received Title IV funds.


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