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The last Neanderthal Emerged about 300,000 ybp most likely from Homo heidelbergensis Cold adapted bodies; short stocky 20% heavier than modern humans of.

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Presentation on theme: "The last Neanderthal Emerged about 300,000 ybp most likely from Homo heidelbergensis Cold adapted bodies; short stocky 20% heavier than modern humans of."— Presentation transcript:

1 The last Neanderthal Emerged about 300,000 ybp most likely from Homo heidelbergensis Cold adapted bodies; short stocky 20% heavier than modern humans of same stature. Larger brains, but possibly smaller frontal and parietal lobes.

2 Hunting, Toolmaking Close in kills, not projectiles Injury patterns similar to rodeo riders Smaller ranges, little evidence of raw material exchange Levallois technique Mousterian tools: hafting

3 Social life Smaller, more local groups Less organized camps, more temporary Less organized hearths Abundance of ochre, other oxides Chatelperronian controversy No sexual division of labor?

4 Emergence of Homo sapiens First anatomically modern humans (behaviorally?) Omo Kibish Ethiopia 190,000 Herto 160,000 ybp (defleshing) Homo sapiens more derived than Neanderthals. Human developmental pattern (necessary for cultural learning): altricial infants-early weaning age-extended juvenile period-adolescent growth spurt Two stages: Homo erectus (Turkana Boy 1.6 mybp) Transition to Homo sapiens ( ybp)

5 Middle Paleolithic or Middle Stone Age: 250,000 – 35,000 ybp Emergence of two new species (possibly both descended from Homo heidelbergensis: Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthals in Europe), and Homo sapiens sapiens (AMH in Africa). Levant event: First (failed) excursion of AMH out of Africa

6 Upper Paleolithic Aurignacian tool kit MCPH1: 37,000 ybp

7 AMH: Expansion out of Africa (about 60,000 ybp) Genetic evidence: Interbreeding with Neanderthals 60,000ybp in Levant – on to Europe and Asia About 50,000ybp same with Denisovians in East Asia -- on to Melanesia (Denis: pinky and one tooth!)

8 Modern Cognition: Cave art, abstract artifacts, religious/symbolic imagery

9 McBrearty & Brooks (2000) The revolution that wasn’t JHE, 39, 453–563

10 Effects of EMW Increased phonological storage capacity Recursion Cross-modal thinking Long range planning (subjunctive “what if” thinking) Episodic buffer capacity (mental time travel)

11 Archeological evidence for EWM Alloying metals: 5,000 ybp Traps and weirs: hard evidence: 9-12,000 ybp; implications 20,-25,000 ybp. Harpoons: 17,000ybp Managed foraging: burning, Niah Cave, Borneo 30,000ybp Colonization: Australia 40,000? 30,000 New Guinea Abstract artifacts: Hohlen-Stadel; Lartet Plaque; 30,000ybp

12 Blombos beads Why not evidence for EWM Social categorization based on expanded parietal cortex, but not abstract, and not combination of categories (as is true with H-S figurine).


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