Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Step Up To: Discovering Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From: Hockenbury & Hockenbury (2007) Discovering Psychology 4e Worth Publishers From: Hockenbury.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Step Up To: Discovering Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From: Hockenbury & Hockenbury (2007) Discovering Psychology 4e Worth Publishers From: Hockenbury."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Step Up To: Discovering Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From: Hockenbury & Hockenbury (2007) Discovering Psychology 4e Worth Publishers From: Hockenbury & Hockenbury (2007) Discovering Psychology 4e Worth Publishers

3 Chapter 11: Social Psychology First Impressions Attribution You’ve got an attitude. Follow the Crowd Helping Others

4 First Impressions

5 Attribution

6 You’ve got attitude.

7 Follow the Crowd

8 Helping Others

9 1. ___ refer(s) to the mental processes people use to make sense out of their social environment. A) Social psychology B) Social cognition C) Social influence D) Social constructs A) Social psychology B) Social cognition C) Social influence D) Social constructs

10 2.Mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people are called: A) social influence. B) social cognition. C) social psychology. D) person perception. A) social influence. B) social cognition. C) social psychology. D) person perception.

11 3. No one suspected that the man in the clown suit visiting sick children in the hospital to cheer them up would be John Gacy. He just wasn’t that “type” of person. This illustrates: A) implicit personality theories. B) social cognition. C) trait theory of personality. D) expectation evaluation. A) implicit personality theories. B) social cognition. C) trait theory of personality. D) expectation evaluation.

12 4.Kristi is sitting alone on the bus. She feels uncomfortable when the bus stops and only one person gets on and sits next to her. Her discomfort is, in part, caused by: A) social influence. B) person perception. C) social norms. D) implicit personality theory. A) social influence. B) person perception. C) social norms. D) implicit personality theory.

13 5. David was directed to an office with a man and a woman inside. He saw the name “Dr. Smith” on the door, and approached the man. He was engaged in the process of: A) implicit personality theory. B) person perception. C) social categorization. D) social norms. A) implicit personality theory. B) person perception. C) social categorization. D) social norms.

14 6.While watching a homeless person beg on the street corner, George thinks, “He must be lazy. If he would just get a job, he wouldn’t have to beg.” George is most likely demonstrating: A) good judgment. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) personal bias. D) stereotyping. A) good judgment. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) personal bias. D) stereotyping.

15 7.Rape victims are sometimes blamed for wearing clothes that are too revealing and thus “getting what she deserved.” This false conclusion is based on: A) the just-world hypothesis. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) social categorization. D) the social exchange theory. A) the just-world hypothesis. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) social categorization. D) the social exchange theory.

16 8.The tendency to give ourselves credit when we succeed and to blame our failures on external circumstances is called: A) actor-observer discrepancy. B) personal perception. C) fundamental attribution error. D) self-serving bias. A) actor-observer discrepancy. B) personal perception. C) fundamental attribution error. D) self-serving bias.

17 9.When you attribute your own behavior to the situation and others’ behavior to the fact that “it’s just the way they are,” you are demonstrating: A) blaming the victim. B) self-serving bias. C) fundamental attribution error. D) actor-observer discrepancy. A) blaming the victim. B) self-serving bias. C) fundamental attribution error. D) actor-observer discrepancy.

18 10.The tendency to blame ourselves for failures while attributing our successes to external causes is called a(n): A) self-serving bias. B) self-effacing bias. C) actor-observer discrepancy. D) fundamental attributional error. A) self-serving bias. B) self-effacing bias. C) actor-observer discrepancy. D) fundamental attributional error.

19 11.When you behave in a way that is in conflict with your attitude, you experience: A) cognitive dissonance. B) thought confusion. C) attitude adjustment. D) behavior reassessment. A) cognitive dissonance. B) thought confusion. C) attitude adjustment. D) behavior reassessment.

20 12.Prejudice is defined as: A) taking negative action toward people who belong to a different social group. B) speaking badly about people who belong to a different social group. C) a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group. D) all of the above. A) taking negative action toward people who belong to a different social group. B) speaking badly about people who belong to a different social group. C) a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group. D) all of the above.

21 13.Barb believes that all teenagers are immature, aggressive, selfish, and irresponsible. Her attitudes toward teenagers represent her: A) prejudice. B) out-group classification. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance. A) prejudice. B) out-group classification. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance.

22 14.Mr. Jamison believes it is justifiable to send troops to invade another country because his country is morally superior to the other. His beliefs demonstrate: A) ethnocentrism. B) prejudice. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance. A) ethnocentrism. B) prejudice. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance.

23 15.This study demonstrated that cooperation among group members can lessen prejudice. A) Robbers Cave Experiment B) Jigsaw Classroom C) In-group, Out-group study D) Zimbardo’s Cognitive Dissonance study A) Robbers Cave Experiment B) Jigsaw Classroom C) In-group, Out-group study D) Zimbardo’s Cognitive Dissonance study

24 16.In Solomon Asch’s experiment about how our perceptions may be influenced by others: A) more than a third of the people changed their opinions to agree with others. B) most people changed their opinions to agree with others. C) most everyone ignored what others said. D) more than two thirds of the people denied what they saw with their own eyes and instead chose to agree with the group. A) more than a third of the people changed their opinions to agree with others. B) most people changed their opinions to agree with others. C) most everyone ignored what others said. D) more than two thirds of the people denied what they saw with their own eyes and instead chose to agree with the group.

25 17.For teens, it is especially important to dress and act like their peers in order to be accepted by the group. This pressure to conform is called: A) informational social influence. B) ethnocentrism. C) out-group homogeneity effect. D) normative social influence. A) informational social influence. B) ethnocentrism. C) out-group homogeneity effect. D) normative social influence.

26 18.The results of Milgram’s experiment found that: A) the subjects who continued knew it wasn’t real. B) most subjects discontinued when shock levels became extreme. C) most subjects continued to deliver the highest level of shock. D) subjects had to be threatened to deliver dangerous levels of shock. A) the subjects who continued knew it wasn’t real. B) most subjects discontinued when shock levels became extreme. C) most subjects continued to deliver the highest level of shock. D) subjects had to be threatened to deliver dangerous levels of shock.

27 19.Further experiments by Milgram helped to identify factors influencing the outcome of destructive obedience. These factors include all of the following, except: A) volunteering to participate. B) being told the learners were not really being harmed. C) the repetitive escalation of the task. D) the situation, or context, in which the obedience occurred. A) volunteering to participate. B) being told the learners were not really being harmed. C) the repetitive escalation of the task. D) the situation, or context, in which the obedience occurred.

28 20.Phillip Zimbardo conducted the Stanford Prison Experiment in His results could have predicted problems of prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib, in that: A) people will follow the direct orders of a superior when in the military. B) implied social norms can be just as powerful as explicit orders. C) we will easily scapegoat those different from ourselves. D) people can not resist pressure to perform evil action. A) people will follow the direct orders of a superior when in the military. B) implied social norms can be just as powerful as explicit orders. C) we will easily scapegoat those different from ourselves. D) people can not resist pressure to perform evil action.

29 21.According to studies done on helping behavior, if you want to collect for a charity, the person most likely to give would be: A) Joe, who was just told by his boss he did a good job. B) Mary, who has one hundred dollars in her pocket. C) David, who just lost a tennis match. D) Sarah, who has never given before. A) Joe, who was just told by his boss he did a good job. B) Mary, who has one hundred dollars in her pocket. C) David, who just lost a tennis match. D) Sarah, who has never given before.

30 22.Kitty Genovese was killed while others watched and listened. They knew others were watching, too. Their behavior is explained by the: A) apathy. B) prosocial behavior. C) altruism. D) bystander effect. A) apathy. B) prosocial behavior. C) altruism. D) bystander effect.

31 23.Regarding size of the city/town and its relationship to helping behavior towards a stranger: A) people are less likely to help the larger the city is. B) people are more likely to help the smaller the town is. C) people are less likely to help in a large city or very small town. D) people are more likely to help in a large city. A) people are less likely to help the larger the city is. B) people are more likely to help the smaller the town is. C) people are less likely to help in a large city or very small town. D) people are more likely to help in a large city.

32 24.According to the bystander effect, if you needed help you would be more likely to get it if: A) many people were present. B) few people were present. C) someone else was also helping. D) no one knew you. A) many people were present. B) few people were present. C) someone else was also helping. D) no one knew you.

33 25.Prosocial behavior with no expectation of personal reward or benefit is called: A) bystander intervention. B) altruism. C) diffusion of responsibility. D) cost-benefit analysis. A) bystander intervention. B) altruism. C) diffusion of responsibility. D) cost-benefit analysis.

34

35 Stop here, or continue as a review

36 1. ___ refer(s) to the mental processes people use to make sense out of their social environment. A) Social psychology B) Social cognition C) Social influence D) Social constructs A) Social psychology B) Social cognition C) Social influence D) Social constructs 438

37 2.Mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people are called: A) social influence. B) social cognition. C) social psychology. D) person perception. A) social influence. B) social cognition. C) social psychology. D) person perception. 438

38 3. No one suspected that the man in the clown suit visiting sick children in the hospital to cheer them up would be John Gacy. He just wasn’t that “type” of person. This illustrates: A) implicit personality theories. B) social cognition. C) trait theory of personality. D) expectation evaluation. A) implicit personality theories. B) social cognition. C) trait theory of personality. D) expectation evaluation. 440

39 4.Kristi is sitting alone on the bus. She feels uncomfortable when the bus stops and only one person gets on and sits next to her. Her discomfort is, in part, caused by: A) social influence. B) person perception. C) social norms. D) implicit personality theory. A) social influence. B) person perception. C) social norms. D) implicit personality theory. 439

40 5. David was directed to an office with a man and a woman inside. He saw the name “Dr. Smith” on the door, and approached the man. He was engaged in the process of: A) implicit personality theory. B) person perception. C) social categorization. D) social norms. A) implicit personality theory. B) person perception. C) social categorization. D) social norms. 440

41 6.While watching a homeless person beg on the street corner, George thinks, “He must be lazy. If he would just get a job, he wouldn’t have to beg.” George is most likely demonstrating: A) good judgment. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) personal bias. D) stereotyping. A) good judgment. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) personal bias. D) stereotyping. 443

42 7.Rape victims are sometimes blamed for wearing clothes that are too revealing and thus “getting what she deserved.” This false conclusion is based on: A) the just-world hypothesis. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) social categorization. D) the social exchange theory. A) the just-world hypothesis. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) social categorization. D) the social exchange theory. 443

43 8.Tending to give ourselves credit when we succeed and to blame our failures on external circumstances is called: A) actor-observer discrepancy. B) personal perception. C) fundamental attribution error. D) self-serving bias. A) actor-observer discrepancy. B) personal perception. C) fundamental attribution error. D) self-serving bias. 445

44 9.When you attribute your own behavior to the situation and others’ behavior to the fact that “it’s just the way they are,” you are demonstrating: A) blaming the victim. B) self-serving bias. C) fundamental attribution error. D) actor-observer discrepancy. A) blaming the victim. B) self-serving bias. C) fundamental attribution error. D) actor-observer discrepancy. 444

45 10.The tendency to blame ourselves for failures while attributing our successes to external causes is called a(n): A) self-serving bias. B) self-effacing bias. C) actor-observer discrepancy. D) fundamental attributional error. A) self-serving bias. B) self-effacing bias. C) actor-observer discrepancy. D) fundamental attributional error. 446

46 11.When you behave in a way that is in conflict with your attitude, you experience: A) cognitive dissonance. B) thought confusion. C) attitude adjustment. D) behavior reassessment. A) cognitive dissonance. B) thought confusion. C) attitude adjustment. D) behavior reassessment. 448

47 12.Prejudice is defined as: A) taking negative action toward people who belong to a different social group. B) speaking badly about people who belong to a different social group. C) a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group. D) all of the above. A) taking negative action toward people who belong to a different social group. B) speaking badly about people who belong to a different social group. C) a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group. D) all of the above. 450

48 13.Barb believes that all teenagers are immature, aggressive, selfish, and irresponsible. Her attitudes toward teenagers represent her: A) prejudice. B) out-group classification. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance. A) prejudice. B) out-group classification. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance. 450

49 14.Mr. Jamison believes it is justifiable to send troops to invade another country because his country is morally superior to the other. His beliefs demonstrate: A) ethnocentrism. B) prejudice. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance. A) ethnocentrism. B) prejudice. C) stereotype. D) cognitive dissonance. 452

50 15.This study demonstrated that cooperation among group members can lessen prejudice. A) Robbers Cave Experiment B) Jigsaw Classroom C) In-group, Out-group study D) Zimbardo’s Cognitive Dissonance study A) Robbers Cave Experiment B) Jigsaw Classroom C) In-group, Out-group study D) Zimbardo’s Cognitive Dissonance study 454

51 16.In Solomon Asch’s experiment about how our perceptions may be influenced by others: A) more than a third of the people changed their opinions to agree with others. B) most people changed their opinions to agree with others. C) most everyone ignored what others said. D) more than two thirds of the people denied what they saw with their own eyes and instead chose to agree with the group. A) more than a third of the people changed their opinions to agree with others. B) most people changed their opinions to agree with others. C) most everyone ignored what others said. D) more than two thirds of the people denied what they saw with their own eyes and instead chose to agree with the group. 455

52 17.For teens, it is especially important to dress and act like their peers in order to be accepted by the group. This pressure to conform is called: A) informational social influence. B) ethnocentrism. C) out-group homogeneity effect. D) normative social influence. A) informational social influence. B) ethnocentrism. C) out-group homogeneity effect. D) normative social influence. 456

53 18.The results of Milgram’s experiment found that: A) the subjects who continued knew it wasn’t real. B) most subjects discontinued when shock levels became extreme. C) most subjects continued to deliver the highest level of shock. D) subjects had to be threatened to deliver dangerous levels of shock. A) the subjects who continued knew it wasn’t real. B) most subjects discontinued when shock levels became extreme. C) most subjects continued to deliver the highest level of shock. D) subjects had to be threatened to deliver dangerous levels of shock. 459

54 19. Further experiments by Milgram helped to identify factors influencing the outcome of destructive obedience. These factors include all of the following, except: A) volunteering to participate. B) being told the learners were not really being harmed. C) the repetitive escalation of the task. D) the situation, or context, in which the obedience occurred. A) volunteering to participate. B) being told the learners were not really being harmed. C) the repetitive escalation of the task. D) the situation, or context, in which the obedience occurred. 460

55 20.Phillip Zimbardo conducted the Stanford Prison Experiment in His results could have predicted problems of prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib, in that: A) people will follow the direct orders of a superior when in the military. B) implied social norms can be just as powerful as explicit orders. C) we will easily scapegoat those different from ourselves. D) people can not resist pressure to perform evil action. A) people will follow the direct orders of a superior when in the military. B) implied social norms can be just as powerful as explicit orders. C) we will easily scapegoat those different from ourselves. D) people can not resist pressure to perform evil action. 463

56 21.According to studies done on helping behavior, if you want to collect for a charity, the person most likely to give would be: A) Joe, who was just told by his boss he did a good job. B) Mary, who has one hundred dollars in her pocket. C) David, who just lost a tennis match. D) Sarah, who has never given before. A) Joe, who was just told by his boss he did a good job. B) Mary, who has one hundred dollars in her pocket. C) David, who just lost a tennis match. D) Sarah, who has never given before. 467

57 22. Kitty Genovese was killed while others watched and listened. They knew others were watching, too. Their behavior is explained by: A) apathy. B) prosocial behavior. C) altruism. D) the bystander effect. A) apathy. B) prosocial behavior. C) altruism. D) the bystander effect. 467

58 23. Regarding size of the city/town and its relationship to helping behavior towards a stranger: A) people are less likely to help the larger the city is. B) people are more likely to help the smaller the town is. C) people are less likely to help in a large city or very small town. D) people are more likely to help in a large city. A) people are less likely to help the larger the city is. B) people are more likely to help the smaller the town is. C) people are less likely to help in a large city or very small town. D) people are more likely to help in a large city. 468

59 24.According to the bystander effect, if you needed help you would be more likely to get it if: A) many people were present. B) few people were present. C) someone else was also helping. D) no one knew you. A) many people were present. B) few people were present. C) someone else was also helping. D) no one knew you. 468

60 25.Prosocial behavior with no expectation of personal reward or benefit is called: A) bystander intervention. B) altruism. C) diffusion of responsibility. D) cost-benefit analysis. A) bystander intervention. B) altruism. C) diffusion of responsibility. D) cost-benefit analysis. 466

61 AcknowledgmentsAcknowledgments Step Up Created by: John J. Schulte, Psy.D. Based on Discovering Psychology 4e by Hockenbury & Hockenbury Worth Publishers, 2007 Step Up Created by: John J. Schulte, Psy.D. Based on Discovering Psychology 4e by Hockenbury & Hockenbury Worth Publishers, 2007

62 AnswersAnswers 1.B 2.D 3.A 4.C 5.C 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.D 10.B 11.A 12.C 13.C 14.A 15.B 16.A 17.D 18.C 19.B 20.B 21.A 22.D 23.C 24.B 25.B


Download ppt "Step Up To: Discovering Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From: Hockenbury & Hockenbury (2007) Discovering Psychology 4e Worth Publishers From: Hockenbury."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google