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Grammar by STAAR-light Kaye Price-Hawkins, Consultant Priceless Literacy www.pricelessliteracy.homestead.com.

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1 Grammar by STAAR-light Kaye Price-Hawkins, Consultant Priceless Literacy www.pricelessliteracy.homestead.com

2 What is Grammar?  Grammar Girl – Mignon Fogarty Grammar is  “a set of rules for putting together a sentence.”  the rules to the game of writing.  Teaching Grammar in Context – Constance Weaver Grammar is:  Description of syntactic structure  Prescriptions for how to use structures and words  Rhetorically effective use of syntactic structures  Functional command of sentence structure that enables us to comprehend and produce language.

3 Writing moment Write a reflection on the best session you attended here at the conference. What struck you? What are you taking away from that session?

4 How do we teach Grammar?  Create opportunities to analyze and compose Anchor (Mentor) texts Workshop  Mini-lessons (see The Write Source for excellent material re: grammar instruction)  Writing (Process)  Conference (questions)  Revision (various processes)  Re-writing (multi-drafts)

5 Ratiocination Joyce Armstrong Carroll’s concrete approach to teaching grammar: a color-coding technique that focuses students on problematic areas in their writing. CodeClueDecode Verb Active Passive Tenses Subject/verb agreement Participles Direct/indirect objects Fragments Etc.

6 STAAR – 7 th (Verb) (7) His cinematographers wasn’t having much luck getting footage of the big cats. ? What change, if any, should be made in sentence 7? A Change wasn’t having to weren’t having B Change much luck to no luck C Insert a comma after luck D Make no change

7 STAAR – 7 th (Verb) (8) One day, while watching some elephants at the campsite, Downer has an idea. ? What change should be made in sentence 8? A Change while watching to he was watching B Delete the comma after campsite C Change has to had D Change idea to ideal

8 STAAR – 4 th (Verb) (15) The light from my headlamp shown that we were in an enormous room. ?What change, if any, should be made in sentence 15? A Change shown to showed B Change that to something C Change were to was D Make no change

9 4th [Oral and] Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to (A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking: RS (i) verbs (irregular verbs); SS (ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper); SS (iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive, including purpose: sleeping bag, frying pan) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., fast, faster, fastest); SS (iv) adverbs (e.g., frequency: usually, sometimes; intensity: almost, a lot); SS (v) prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details; SS (vi) reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves); SS (vii) correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor); SS (viii) use time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion; SS (B) use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence; RS (C) use complete simple & compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement. SS

10 4 th Released Samples (8) In the early days Girl Scouts sold only original sandwich, chocolate mint, and shortbread cookies. (9) There are many interesting flavors available, including lemon, peanut butter, and caramel. ? Samantha needs to add a transition word or phrase to help her readers move from sentence 8 to sentence 9. Which transition could BEST be added to the beginning of sentence 9? A After all B Today C At first D Then

11 4 th Released Samples (19) Her mother helped her. (20) Jennifer sold cookies every day, rain or shine, throughout the cookie season. ? What is the BEST way to combine sentences 19 and 20? A Her mother helped her sell cookies every day, rain or shine, throughout the cookie season for Jennifer. B Before her mother helped her, Jennifer sold cookies every day, rain or shine, throughout the cookie season. C Her mother helped her, Jennifer sold cookies every day, rain or shine, throughout the cookie season. D With her mother’s help, Jennifer sold cookies every day, rain or shine, throughout the cookie season.

12 4 th Released Samples (15) The light from my headlamp shown that we were in an enormous room. ?What change, if any, should be made in sentence 15? A Change shown to showed B Change that to something C Change were to was D Make no change

13 4 th Released Samples (19) Dad suggested that we sit on a rock. (20) And turn off our headlamps. ?What is the correct way to write sentences 19 and 20? A Dad suggested that we sit on a rock, we turned off our headlamps. B Dad suggested that we sit on a rock and turn off our headlamps. C Dad suggesting that we sit on a rock and turn off our headlamps. D Sentences 19 and 20 are correct in the paper.

14 4 th Released Samples (29) Slowly we began to crawl. (30) We traveled the same path, but this time I felt different. ?What is the correct way to write sentences 29 and 30? A Slowly we began to crawl, we traveled the same path, but this time I felt different. B Slowly we began to crawl. Traveling the same path, but feeling different this time. C Slowly we began to crawl, and travel the same path. But feeling different this time. D Sentences 29 and 30 are correct in the paper.

15 7th (Oral and] Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to (A) identify, use, and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking: RS (i) verbs (perfect and progressive tenses) and participles; SS (ii) appositive phrases; SS (iii) adverbial and adjectival phrases and clauses; SS (iv) conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consequently, furthermore, indeed); SS (v) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement; SS (vi) relative pronouns (e.g., whose, that, which); SS (vii) subordinating conjunctions (e.g., because, since); SS (viii) transitions for sentence to sentence or paragraph to paragraph coherence; SS (B) write complex sentences and differentiate between main versus subordinate clauses; SS (C) use a variety of complete sentences (e.g., simple, compound, complex) that include: properly placed modifiers; correctly identified antecedents; parallel structures; and consistent tenses. RS

16 7 th Released Samples (4) A famous basketball player carried the Chinese flag named Yao Ming. ? What is the BEST way to revise sentence 4? A A famous basketball player named Yao Ming carried the Chinese flag. B The famous basketball player who carried the Chinese flag, he was named Yao Ming. C A famous basketball player carried the Chinese flag he was named Yao Ming. D A famous basketball player carried the Chinese flag. Who was named Yao Ming.

17 7 th Released Samples (17) He led these schoolmates in songs because rescuers worked to free them from the wreckage. ? The word because does not appropriately connect the two clauses in sentence 17. Which word should replace the word because? A if B while C although D where

18 7 th Released Samples (27) Lin Hao is known as a hero all over the world. ? Which transition word or phrase could BEST be added to the beginning of sentence 27 to help conclude this paper? A Now B Later C In comparison D Furthermore

19 7 th Released Samples (3) They don’t usually let humans get very close to them and they travel in places too dense for wildlife photographers to go. ?What change, if any, should be made in sentence 3? AInsert a comma after them B Delete and C Change places too dense to places to dense D No change should be made.

20 7 th Released Samples (7) His cinematographers wasn’t having much luck getting footage of the big cats. ?What change, if any, should be made in sentence 7? A Change wasn’t having to weren’t having B Change much luck to no luck C Insert a comma after luck D Make no change

21 7 th Released Samples (8) One day, while watching some elephants at the campsite, Downer has an idea. ? What change should be made in sentence 8? A Change while watching to he was watching B Delete the comma after campsite C Change has to had D Change idea to ideal

22 7 th Released Samples (22) Curious monkeys reached out for the tusk-cams deer stood still and allowed the cameras to film them. ? What is the correct way to write sentence 22? ACurious monkeys reached out for the tusk-cams. Deer standing still and allowing the cameras to film them. B Curious monkeys reached out for the tusk-cams, deer stood still and allowed the cameras to film them. C Curious monkeys reached out for the tusk-cams. While deer stood still and allowed the cameras to film them. D Curious monkeys reached out for the tusk-cams, while deer stood still and allowed the cameras to film them.

23 Focusing on grammar’s power to make movies in our readers’ minds Grammar: “a power derived from images” Ideas Image Grammar (Harry Noden)

24 Brushstrokes = Artistic Sentences  Painting with Participles Absolutes Appositives Adjectives Shifted Out of Order Action Verbs  Passage (excerpt from HOLES)

25 English I [Oral and] Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when [speaking and] writing. Students are expected to (A)use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, [and speaking]: RS (i) more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles); SS (ii) restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; SS (iii) reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another); SS (C) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex). RS

26 English I Released Samples (10) Shultz charged the battery. (11) He then discovered the video along with several photos. ? Sentences 10 and 11 are choppy and ineffective. What is the best way to revise these sentences? A Shultz charged the battery, while then discovering the video along with several photos. BAfter charging the battery, Shultz discovered the video along with several photos. C While charging the battery, Shultz then discovered the video along with several photos. D Shultz charged the battery because he discovered the video along with several photos.

27 English I Released Samples (14) Shultz posted it on an Internet scuba site. ?Sentence 14 is unclear because it contains an indefinite reference. Tasha can clarify the meaning of this sentence by changing it to — A the dive B the camera C the photo D them

28 English I Released Samples (passage) (13) One of the photos on the camera showed two men preparing for a scuba dive. (14) Shultz posted it on an Internet scuba site. (15) Visitors to the site determined that the photo had been taken in Aruba, a Dutch island off the coast of Venezuela. (16) Armed with this information, Shultz then posted family photos from the camera on an Aruban website. (17) Right away, an Aruban woman contacted him and said that she recognized the children in some of the photos. (18) The camera belonged to Dick de Bruin, a sergeant in the Royal Dutch Navy. (19) De Bruin had lost the camera while he was working in the waters off the coast of Aruba. (20) When De Bruin and his diving partner had realized that the camera was gone, they had joked that it would probably be found somewhere in Costa Rica or Panama.

29 English I Released Samples (question) ?Tasha wants to improve the transition between the third paragraph (sentences 13–17) and the fourth paragraph (sentences 18–20). Which sentence could best follow sentence 17 and help improve this transition? AAs soon as the woman identified the children’s family, the mystery was solved. B She wasn’t certain but thought she might know who they were. C Months before, they had been in the area with the Royal Dutch Navy. D As a matter of fact, some are calling this woman a hero.

30 English I Released Samples (9) The first step fast-food companies must take are to start providing more balanced options. ? What change, if any, should be made in sentence 9? A Change are to is B Change providing to provided C Change balanced to balansed D No change should be made in sentence 9.

31 English I Released Samples (13) The fast-food industry should also post nutritional information more clearer so that customers can make informed choices. ? What change, if any, needs to be made in sentence 13? A Change post to have posted B Change clearer to clearly C Change so that to then D No change needs to be made in this sentence.

32 English I Released Samples (15) And while I believe that what someone eats is a matter of personal choice and not something that society should control. (16) People need information if they are going to make wise decisions. ?What is the correct way to rewrite sentences 15 and 16? A And while I believe that what someone eats is a matter of personal choice, it is not something that society should control. Because people need information if they are going to make wise decisions. B And I believe that what someone eats is a matter of personal choice, it is not something that society should control, people need information if they are going to make wise decisions. CAnd while I believe that what someone eats is a matter of personal choice and not something that society should control, people need information if they are going to make wise decisions. D Sentences 15 and 16 are written correctly in the paper.

33 English I Released Samples (18) In fact, one New York City study found this, 27 percent of fast-food customers used information about calorie counts to make their choices. ?What is the correct way to write sentence 18? A In fact, one New York City study found that 27 percent of fast-food customers. They used information about calorie counts to make their choices. B In fact, one New York City study found that 27 percent of fast-food customers using information about calorie counts to make their choices. C In fact, one New York City study found something. That 27 percent of fast-food customers used information about calorie counts to make their choices. DIn fact, one New York City study found that 27 percent of fast-food customers used information about calorie counts to make their choices.

34 English II [Oral and] Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when [speaking and] writing. Students are expected to (A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, [and speaking]: RS (i) more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles); SS (ii) restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; SS (iii) reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another); SS (C) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex). RS

35 English II Released Samples (15) From the ad alone you’ll never know or be sure how good the shoes really are. ?What is the most effective revision to make in sentence 15? A From the ad alone you’ll never know how good the shoes really are, you can’t be sure. BFrom the ad alone you’ll never know how good the shoes really are. C From the ad alone you’ll never know how good for sure the shoes really are. D No revision is needed in this sentence.

36 English II Released Samples (4) But the new band director was determined to change things, his name was Mr. Parker. ?What is the correct way to write sentence 4? A But the new band director who was determined to change things had a name of Mr. Parker. BBut the new band director, Mr. Parker, was determined to change things. C But the new band director was determined to change things, named Mr. Parker. D The sentence is written correctly in the paper.

37 English II Released Samples (7) When he heard about the opening for a new band director at our school he couldn’t help investigating. (12) He was there to turn us into a respectable band, and nothing—not even a bunch of lazy, flippant teenagers— was going to stop them. (18) At first there was a lot of grumbling, and a few students were even tempted to quit, after a while, though, we found ourselves somehow rising to Mr. Parker’s expectations.

38 English III [Oral and] Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when [speaking and] writing. Students are expected to (A) use and understand the function of different types of clauses and phrases (e.g., adjectival, noun, adverbial clauses and phrases); SS (B) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex). RS

39 English III Released Samples (4) Rifles held high, thousands of soldiers waded onto the beach that day in the face of ferocious German resistance. (5) This, overall, is the story of just one of those soldiers, a 21-year-old Scotsman named Bill Millin. ?Maggie would like to use a more effective transition in sentence 5. Which of these words could best replace overall in this sentence? A accordingly B however C furthermore D likewise

40 English III Released Samples (16) Three times, they said, the piper walked up and down the beach at the edge of the sea. (17) He played his instrument as fresh waves of troops came ashore. ?What is the most effective way to combine sentences 16 & 17? A Three times, they said, the piper walked up and down the beach at the edge of the sea, who played his instrument as fresh waves of troops came ashore. B Three times, they said, the piper walked up and down the beach at the edge of the sea, playing his instrument as fresh waves of troops came ashore. C Three times, they said, the piper played his instrument as fresh waves of troops came ashore and walked up and down the beach at the edge of the sea. D Three times, they said, the piper walked up and down the beach at the edge of the sea, he played his instrument as fresh waves of troops came ashore.

41 English III Released Samples (8) Hammurabi wasn’t the first ruler to establish a system of laws, but by inscribing his code in stone. (9) He left modern archaeologists with one of the best- preserved legal documents from ancient times. ?What is the best way to correct sentences 8 and 9? A Hammurabi wasn’t the first ruler to establish a system of laws, however, by inscribing his code in stone, he left modern archaeologists with one of the best- preserved legal documents from ancient times. B Hammurabi wasn’t the first ruler to establish a system of laws, but by inscribing his code in stone, he left modern archaeologists. With one of the best- preserved legal documents from ancient times. C Hammurabi wasn’t the first ruler to establish a system of laws, but by inscribing his code in stone, he left modern archaeologists with one of the best- preserved legal documents from ancient times. D Sentences 8 and 9 are correct as they are written.

42 English III Released Samples (23) The code shows us that Babylonia was a harsh world of inequality and bias, justice was handed out according to social station and gender. ?What is the correct way to write sentence 23? A The code shows us that Babylonia was a harsh world of inequality and bias. Where justice was handed out according to social station and gender. B The code showing us that Babylonia was a harsh world of inequality and bias with justice handed out according to social station and gender. C The code shows us this, Babylonia was a harsh world of inequality and bias, and justice was handed out according to social station and gender. D The code shows us that Babylonia was a harsh world of inequality and bias and that justice was handed out according to social station and gender.

43 English III Released Samples (25) When Millin died in August 2010, news sources around the world posted obituaries. ?Maggie would like to strengthen the closing of this paper by including additional details in sentence 25. Which revision of sentence 25 would help bring this paper to the most effective conclusion? A When Millin died in August 2010, news sources around the world posted obituaries to tell the world that he had died. B When Millin died in August 2010, news sources around the world posted obituaries about his wonderful life and family. C When Millin died in August 2010, news sources around the world posted obituaries remembering and honoring the man known as the Piper of D-day. D When Millin died in August 2010, news sources around the world posted obituaries that told all about the D-day invasion that ended World War II.

44 Resources: Anderson, Jeff. 2007. Everyday Editing. Stenhouse. ---, 2005. Mechanically Inclined: Building Grammar, Usage, and Style into Writer's Workshop. Stenhouse. Burke, Jim. 2008. The English Teacher’s Companion. Heinemann. Campbell, Cathy. 2008. The Giggly Guide to Grammar. Discover Writing Press. Carroll, Joyce Armstrong and Edward Wilson. 2010. Brushing Up on Grammar. Libraries Unlimited. Carroll, Joyce Armstrong. 2011. Ratiocination. Absey & Co. Fogarty, Mignon. 2008. Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. Holt Paperbacks. ---, 2011. Grammar Girl’s 101 Misused Words You’ll Never Confuse Again. St. Martin’s. Gallagher, Kelly. 2011. Write Like This. Stenhouse. Knapp, Peter and Megan Watkins. 2005. Genre, Text, Grammar. University of New South Wales Press Ltd. Noden, Harry. 2011. Image Grammar: Using Grammatical Structures to Teach, 2 nd Ed.. Boynton/Cook, Pub. ---. 2011. Image Grammar: Second Edition: Teaching Grammar as Part of the Writing Process. Heinemann. Petersen, David. 2007. Reading English News on the Internet. Lulu.Com. (new edition: 2011). Sebranek, Patrick, Dave Kemper, Verne Meyer and Gretchen Bernabei. 2012. Texas Write Source. Grades 2-12. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Tchudi, Susan and Stephen Tchudi. 1999. The English Language Arts Handbook. Boynton/Cook Publishers. Terban, Marvin. 1993. Checking Your Grammar. Scholastic Inc. Thurman, Susan. 2003. The Only Grammar Book You’ll Ever Need. Avon. MA: Adams Media. Weaver, Constance. 1996. Teaching Grammar in Context. Boynton/Cook Publishers, Inc. Windsor, Lucinda. 2000. Grammar in Story. (2 books). Absey & Co. Woods, Geraldine. 2010. English Grammar for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.


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