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Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns Section 1: The Emancipation Proclamation Section 2: War Affects Society.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns Section 1: The Emancipation Proclamation Section 2: War Affects Society."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns Section 1: The Emancipation Proclamation Section 2: War Affects Society

2 During the Civil War there were many people that insisted Lincoln simply needed to free the slaves. But it wasn ’ t that simple. But it wasn ’ t that simple. There were still 4 slave states in the Union (on the North ’ s side) and he didn ’ t want to lose them to the Confederacy. There were still 4 slave states in the Union (on the North ’ s side) and he didn ’ t want to lose them to the Confederacy. He knew there were many Northerners who opposed complete emancipation for slaves. He knew there were many Northerners who opposed complete emancipation for slaves. By 1862 though he decided he had to do it. By 1862 though he decided he had to do it. freedom

3 On January 1 st, 1863 Lincoln issued: the Emancipation Proclamation This had a huge impact on the public, but… This had a huge impact on the public, but… It didn ’ t really free too many slaves. It didn ’ t really free too many slaves. And it didn ’ t free any slaves in the border states. And it didn ’ t free any slaves in the border states. It was more symbolic than anything. It was more symbolic than anything. It wasn ’ t like people in the South (who considered themselves an independent country) would follow the laws and rules of someone they weren ’ t a part of anymore. It wasn ’ t like people in the South (who considered themselves an independent country) would follow the laws and rules of someone they weren ’ t a part of anymore. Slaves in the South were still slaves in the South. Slaves in the South were still slaves in the South.

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6 African-American soldiers Those willing to fight “will be received into the armed service of the United States.” Those willing to fight “will be received into the armed service of the United States.” Before the Emancipation Proclamation: joining was discouraged. Before the Emancipation Proclamation: joining was discouraged. After: African Americans rushed to join the army. After: African Americans rushed to join the army. By the wars end: 180,000 Union African American soldiers By the wars end: 180,000 Union African American soldiers

7 But it wasn ’ t all great for them They were usually given the worst jobs and were often paid less than white soldiers. They were usually given the worst jobs and were often paid less than white soldiers. Many would even fight for no pay rather than be paid less than an all white regiment. Many would even fight for no pay rather than be paid less than an all white regiment. If caught in battle, were often shot, or taken back to the South and made a slave If caught in battle, were often shot, or taken back to the South and made a slave

8 Maybe one of the most famous African American Regiments: The 54 th Massachusetts One of the 1 st African American regiments in the North. One of the 1 st African American regiments in the North. Best known in war for leading an attack on fort Wagner. Best known in war for leading an attack on fort Wagner. The regiment is best known today from the movie “ Glory. ” The regiment is best known today from the movie “ Glory. ”

9 Veterans of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry at the dedication of the memorial to Robert Gould Shaw and the men of the 54th, May 31, 1897

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11 Both sides had soldiers who were getting tired of the war and tired of all the sacrifices. In the South more than the North. In the South more than the North. Some protest riots even broke out in the South. Some protest riots even broke out in the South. Confederate soldiers began deserting. Confederate soldiers began deserting. In the North those who didn ’ t like Lincoln were sometimes called “ copperheads ” – after the poisonous snake that often attacks without warning. In the North those who didn ’ t like Lincoln were sometimes called “ copperheads ” – after the poisonous snake that often attacks without warning. Lincoln even had some people that protested against him arrested. Lincoln even had some people that protested against him arrested.

12 Getting picked to fight: Both sides were running out of men, so they each had a draft (conscription)– that ’ s usually not too popular in any time. Both sides were running out of men, so they each had a draft (conscription)– that ’ s usually not too popular in any time. Most men were between years old (some others too) Most men were between years old (some others too) Men who owned more than 20 slaves didn ’ t have to fight. Men who owned more than 20 slaves didn ’ t have to fight. You could also hire a substitute if you had enough money ($6,000 in the South). You could also hire a substitute if you had enough money ($6,000 in the South). The North would pay $300 to men who volunteered, so many did that to get the money they wouldn ’ t get if they were drafted. The North would pay $300 to men who volunteered, so many did that to get the money they wouldn ’ t get if they were drafted.

13 The war caused a lot of economic problems (in the South even more than the North) Food shortages were common – many farmers were fighting and many train lines were destroyed. Food shortages were common – many farmers were fighting and many train lines were destroyed. Soldiers need to eat. Soldiers need to eat. Inflation got to be a big problem. Inflation got to be a big problem. (When prices rise a lot faster than money supply) (When prices rise a lot faster than money supply)

14 Inflation: when products / services increase in value very quickly – faster than the money supply. Average 1861 family food bill in the South: $6.65 a month. Average 1861 family food bill in the South: $6.65 a month. Average 1863 family food bill in the South: $68.00 a month. Average 1863 family food bill in the South: $68.00 a month. 9,000% inflation rate in the South from the start to the end of the war (90 times higher). 9,000% inflation rate in the South from the start to the end of the war (90 times higher). They even started to charge people an income tax for the first time They even started to charge people an income tax for the first time Paying the government a percentage of what you make each year

15 Women helped any way they could during the war Plowed fields and ran farms / plantations. Plowed fields and ran farms / plantations. Took jobs in offices and factories when men left to fight. Took jobs in offices and factories when men left to fight. Washed clothes, gathered supplies, cooked food for soldiers. Washed clothes, gathered supplies, cooked food for soldiers. Nursing began to be something women would do – before then it was only a man’s job. Nursing began to be something women would do – before then it was only a man’s job. Some were even spies (Belle Boyd and a woman named Harriet Tubman) Some were even spies (Belle Boyd and a woman named Harriet Tubman)

16 And the soldiers who were captured and put in prison camps had it REAL bad As many as ¼ might die each year (sickness and cold). As many as ¼ might die each year (sickness and cold). The worst in the south was at Andersonville: The worst in the south was at Andersonville: Had 33,000 men (built for 10,000) Had 33,000 men (built for 10,000) Had little shelter from heat or cold – most slept in holes scratched in the dirt. Had little shelter from heat or cold – most slept in holes scratched in the dirt. Drinking water came from the creek (also used as a sewer). Drinking water came from the creek (also used as a sewer). As many as 100 men died each day As many as 100 men died each day About 50,000 men died while in prison camps. About 50,000 men died while in prison camps.

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