Presentation on theme: "The Louisiana Purchase. Background Cont. After the U.S won its independence from Britain in 1783 a major concern became unrestricted access to the Mississippi."— Presentation transcript:
Background Cont. After the U.S won its independence from Britain in 1783 a major concern became unrestricted access to the Mississippi River. Settlers were moving west Spanish control of both sides of the Mississippi below Natchez.
Background Cont. Secret pact signed between Napoleon and the king of Spain to cede to France the Louisiana territory including New Orleans in exchange for a Spanish kingdom in Italy.
LOUISIANNA PURCHASE 1803 Stretching from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian border, was the enormous Louisiana territory. In 1802 - USA wasn’t allowed to use port of New Orleans (France said no) USA wanted small access to eastern part of sea port for trade of its agricultural products through the Gulf of Mexico
Anger Frontier settlers and farmers were angry with the new situation and talked of starting a revolt
Jefferson’s Situation Jefferson was a pacifist and against war Louisiana in France’s possession was a real threat. (France was interested in a New World Expansion) The United States was not strong enough to defeat Napoleon’s armies alone so it would have to seek allies. (Jefferson didn’t want to entangle the USA in any alliances with foreign countries..isolationism = self reliance (“Jeffersonian America”)
Jefferson’s Solution In 1803 Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to join Robert Livingston the permanent Paris minister. They were instructed to purchase New Orleans and as much land to the east of it at the maximum of $10 million
Need for $$. France in war with Britain (very costly) Slave uprising in Hispanola (Domican Republic today) France needed to get $$ quick and avoid a total loss
Napoleon’s Decision Napoleon suddenly decided to sell all of Louisiana and abandon his dream of a New World empire. By selling the Louisiana Territory to the United States Napoleon hoped they would one day become a military and naval power that could prevent British expansion in the New World.
Negotiations When the American ministers were asked for a price for the whole Louisiana Territory (they went there just looking to buy New Orleans so they had a port to trade), they were surprised and began to negotiate a treaty Treaties were signed on April 30, 1803 ceding Louisiana to the U.S. for $15 million. (Doubles the size of the USA in one treaty)
Jefferson's Reaction Jefferson was shocked when the news of the bargain reached American soil. The ministers had bought a wilderness to get a city.
Jefferson’s Wrestling Strict constructionist He saw no reference in the Constitution for incorporating a large expanse of land into the Union with thousands of inhabitants. Democratic visionary He thought the large area would form the “empire of liberty” which would ensure the American democratic experiment’s survival.
Approval The US Gov’t approved the transition promptly. Americans were not going to debate constitutionality of an issue when 828,000 mi 2 were about to be added at approximately 3 cents per acre.
Exploration Jefferson wanted to explore the new territory. Sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore in 1804-1806
Short term Effects By approving the Louisiana Purchase Jefferson had avoided possible war with France and an entangling alliance with Britain. Purchase ended European expansion in North America for the most part. Boosted national unity.