31. Emperor Constantine – 4th Century C.E. I. The Byzantine EmpireA. How it started1. Emperor Constantine – 4th Century C.E.a. Constantinople built – replaced Byzantiumb. Empire divided (originally by Diocletian)--Capitals at Rome and Constantinoplec. Greek, not Latin, became the official language in the th centuryWhywasthisnecessary?The Eastern Empire flourished economically as the western empire faded.
4Emperor Justinian and Theodora B. Justinian & Theodora1. Attempts reconquest of Italya. Ultimately fails…weakens the east militarily & economically2. Rebuilds Constantinoplea. Hagia Sophia3. Legal codification – foundation of later European law “Justinian’s code”Emperor Justinian and Theodora
6C. Defending the Empire1. Center of empire shifts to east – Emperors realized that expanding wasn’t possible…needed to defend the east2. Constant external threatsa. Arab Muslims--Attacks took almost half of Byzantine territory--Were still unable to conquer Constantinopleb. Sassanid Empirec. Hunsd. Germanic tribese. Venice
7D. The End of the Byzantine Empire 1. Beginning in the mid 9th century the Byzantines were prosperous and militarily successful. However, in the 11th century the empire lost lands in Asia and effective control over much of the Balkan peninsula2. Seljuk Turks take most of Asian provinces in Anatolia after defeating the ByzantinesThe Byzantine Empire,
83. The Crusadesa. Call to West for help against Seljuk Turks…agree to use Constantinople as a base for operationsb. 1204, crusaders sack Constantinople during the 4th Crusade--Done at the request of traders from Venice--Eventually Constantinople is brought back under Byzantine control4. Territories lost to Ottoman Turks5. Commerce dominated by Italian city-states of Venice & Genoaa. Hurt the Byzantines economically6. The Black Death in 1300’s weakened the empire7. Constantinople taken by Ottoman Turks in 1453…the end of the Byzantine Empire
11E. Byzantine Society and Politics 1. Emperors resemble Chinese rulersa. Court ritual – rulers have blessing of God…similar to the “mandate of heaven” in classical Chinab. Head of church & state…wasn’t the case in the west2. Imperial Senate…advised the emperor and provided a pool for higher appointments3. Sophisticated bureaucracy – Open to all classesa. Trained in Hellenistic (Greek) knowledge4. Provincial governorsa. Byzantine ambassadors spied on the nations to which they were postedb. Bribes were used to buy off enemies and pay enemies of friendly states to keep those states off-balancec. What does the word “byzantine” mean today? Why?
12a. Government regulated food prices, trade 5. Economic controla. Government regulated food prices, trade--Peasants provided food & most of the taxesb. Silk production – allowed economic expansion--State regulated silk trade (silkworms stolen from China)6. Trade network – Asia (Silk Roads), Russia, Scandinavia, Europe, Africa…location along major trade routesa. Trade concessions to foreignersb. Trade competition with Venice and other Italian city-states7. Arts – Architecture (domed buildings), art (mosaics)What wouldthis be calledtoday?
13F. The Family1. Oldest male dominated the household…patriarchal2. Parents were required by law to find spouses for childrena. Childlessness was viewed by society as a disaster3. Upper-class children were educated, while lower-class children received little to no education4. The primary duty of a woman was to marry, bear children, and run the household5. Marriage contracts agreed upon disposition of property6. Women could inherit and dispose of property in any way they wished7. Upper-class females were secluded and veiled8. Very few women were educated
14G. Christianity Splits – East and West 1. Churches held many different beliefs…could not come to agreementa. Roman Catholicism didn’t like the influence of secular leaders in church affairs2. Patriarch Michaela. 1054, attacks Catholic practices – communion bread, celibacy, church leadership (Pope vs. Patriarch)3. Mutual excommunication leads to final splita. Created Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches4. Orthodox missionaries converted Slavs in Balkans, Ukraine, and Russia5. Saint Cyril developed Cyrillic alphabet for Slavs…almost all Slavic languages, including Russian, use this alphabetVernacular?Saint Cyril
17II. Byzantine Civilization Spreads A. Eastern Europe 1. Catholic vs. Orthodoxa. Ideologies battle for converts2. Catholics “win” in some areasa. Czechs, Hungary, Polandb. Latin dominates3. Jews from western Europea. Come to escape persecution**Spreads through conquest, conversion, trade!****Orthodox Church allowed the use of the vernacular!**
18B. The Kievan Rus’…The Beginning of Russia 1. Slavs…combine with previous settlers--Animistic religion2. Scandinavian merchants trade with the Byzantine empire (6th & 7th Centuries)3. Monarchy forms at Kiev4. Vladimir I ( )a. Converts to Orthodoxyb. Controls church & state
19C. Culture in Kievan Rus’ 1. Influenced by Byzantine patterns Church of the Dormition in Varzuga, RussiaC. Culture in Kievan Rus’1. Influenced by Byzantine patternsa. Rulers powerful in both religious & political matters2. Orthodox influencea. Ornate churches, icons, saints entered Russian cultureb. Monasticism grew in Russia3. Boyars – Land-owning noblesa. Less powerful than nobles in Western Europe12th Century Russian icon…the Archangel Gabriel.
20D. Kievan Decline1. Asian invaders seized territory from the Rus’2. Mongolsa. 13th century, take Russian citiesb. Were allowed to keep traditional culture as long as tribute was paid to the MongolsE. The End of an Era in Eastern Europe1. Mongol invasions usher in new perioda. Russia declined, Byzantines suffered