3Why Agriculture?Hunter-gatherer lifestyle provides ample food with minimal effort and ample leisureCultivation may be more dependableAgriculture leads to:Greater population densitySocial StratificationUrbanization
4Prerequisites for Agriculture Most plants have no use as foodMediterranean climate beneficialSeeds can survive long dry spellsPerfect for storageSelective breedingSelf-fertilizationWind pollination and animal dispersal means uncontrollable offspringSingle mutations of desirable traits (Almonds vs. Oaks)
5Animal DomesticationTaming = training a specific animal to behave as desiredDomestication = changes in animal genes to permanently instill desirable traitsDo we really care if a rabbit is tame or domesticated?Ability to tolerate human proximityDominance Hierarchy that humans can co-opt
6Obstacles to Animal Domestication Inability to tolerate human proximity (gazelles)Chronically bad temperament (zebras)Dangerous (bears)No dominance hierarchy (deer)Extremely territorialHerds are territorial and won’t mixWon’t mate in captivity (cheetahs)
7Animal Domestication Self-Domestication Humans create a modified environment around habitationsHumans gather food and vital nutrients like saltUnconscious selection for low fear factorHormonal changes: more frequent mating, mottled coats, juvenile features, floppy earsHave we ever deliberately domesticated any animal?
8Ancient metallurgyAncient metals: Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Hg, Fe, plus Sn and Zn in alloysHow discovered?Campfire Theory - not hot enoughPigments? PossiblyNeed heat for a long time, plus lack of oxygen, plus experimentingBest bet: Pottery kilns
9Bronze and Iron Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin Where did the tin come from?How was the alloy discovered?Iron: Not better than bronze, but cheaper
10Pre-Greek Accomplishments ArchitectureStone cutting, dressing, sculptingArchesPost-and-LintelCorbelledCircular (only in Old World, except for Inuit igloo)Truss-unknown until Middle Ages-requires timber
12Greek Technology and Science Major traditionsIonian--mercantile, experimental.Pythagorean-mathematical but mysticalAthenian schools: Plato, Aristotle, Socrates,Emphasis on logic, deduction, idealization"Golden Age" - Pericles ca. 450 B.C.Hellenistic - exported during and after Alexander the Great (d. 323 B.C.)
14Good Guys and Bad Guys? Ionians speak most clearly to us today, but- Science often has a faith in whole numbers that Pythagoras would recognizeScientists idealize all the time. Plato would find much familiarWhere would science be without logic and deduction?It wasn’t Aristotle’s fault that people put him on a pedestal
15Why the Greeks never developed modern science They weren’t trying to become us!It wasn’t clear that meticulous observation of nature would lead anywhereThey were asking different questions, e.g., why is there cause and effect?They had all the elements but nobody ever synthesized them.
16The EtruscansFairly sophisticated people, with expertise in iron working and extensive trade contacts.Link between the Greeks and the Romans.A couple of tidbits from the Etruscans: the letter F and the "Roman" numerals V, L and D.For several centuries Rome was ruled by the Etruscans, but the Romans overthrew the Etruscans and eventually absorbed them.