Presentation on theme: "Research Findings of the International Resilience Project Presented By: Michael Ungar, Ph.D. With contributions from members of the International Resilience."— Presentation transcript:
Research Findings of the International Resilience Project Presented By: Michael Ungar, Ph.D. With contributions from members of the International Resilience Project School of Social Work, Dalhousie University 6414 Coburg Rd., Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 2A7 www.resilienceproject.org firstname.lastname@example.org
Sasha (from Winnipeg) “The guidance counsellor right now at my school was my teacher last year and at the time I had an eight month old son and it was really hard for me to get to school and to do well and stuff. I had a big attitude when I came. And one day I decided I wasn’t going to come to school no more and I told my teacher, Pat, and she just said that everything was going to be okay if I made it okay and that she would help me everyday to get to school. She would pick me up. She would phone me. She would give me bus tickets. She bought my son a sled and she just told me it was going to be okay. And I came and I did it and I finished the whole year... if she wasn’t there I would have just probably dropped out.”
Akili (from Tanzania) “I am not independent as I still depend on my mother. Previously I was depending on my father and my mother but since I got pregnant my father deserted me and he doesn’t like to see me... I depend on my mother for everything…. The main protector of my life is myself and it is not proper to disturb my mother. I feel as I made a mistake of getting pregnant before the right time, I have to take care of myself... My mother is helping me to get employed so that I can live a good life... If I have money I think I can solve my problems. I have no money because I am not running any business….My goals are to have a job or a business which will let me rent my own room, where I can live with my child, so that I can depend on my own instead of depending on my mother.”
Two Problems Challenge to account for the culture and context in which resilience occurs Culture-bound arbitrariness in the selection of what is a “positive outcome”
Studying Resilience across Cultures and Contexts The International Resilience Project ( www.resilienceproject.org ) 14 sites on five continents Mixed and Integrated methods
The International Resilience Project Southern Canada (3 sites) Sheshatshiu, Labrador United States Colombia Gambia South Africa Russia Israel Palestine India China Tanzania
An “Iterative” Design Team met in Halifax (March 2003 and June 2005) We developed: An integrated qualitative and quantitative methodology that we then piloted in all 14 sites
Methodology Findings are based on (quantitatively): Pilot study development and validation of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM)-a 58-item measure with an additional 15 site specific questions Youth responded on a 5-point Likert scale from “Not at all” to “A lot” Analysis of findings from administration of the CYRM to 1451 children globally (694 males = 47.9%; 757 females = 52.1%) adolescents (mean age = 16 years, S.D.= 2.653)
Site specific sample questions Gambia Do you trust your parents to choose the person you will marry? Does your parents’ security depend on your income?
Site specific sample questions Russia Does your family’s economic and social background influence your peers’ attitudes toward you? Sheshatshiu Do you have any knowledge in suicide intervention?
Methodology Findings are based on (qualitatively): Collection of 89 individual interviews and/or life histories from youth in 14 research sites Observations of youth and five focus groups with adults Field notes of the study’s iterative design process
Seeking convergence Qualitative and quantitative approaches occur simultaneously Results shared between team members Flexible and emergent development of both qualitative and quantitative tools (advisory committees, focus groups, dialogical reciprocity with participants-youth and elders) Variability is encouraged in administration of CYRM, (questions may be added) Toolbox of qualitative techniques adaptable to each site and shared between sites
Resilience is… Resilience is both an individual’s capacity to navigate to health resources and a condition of the individual’s family, community and culture to provide these resources in culturally meaningful ways.
Resilience as Navigation Resilience is the process of navigation towards what youth need to survive and thrive
Resilience as Negotiation Resilience is the process of negotiation for resources with those who control them
Unpacking the definition Resilience is a description of an individual’s capacity to successfully navigate and negotiate in culturally and contextually relevant ways It is also a description of how a community’s social ecology meets an individual’s needs
So… Across cultures and contexts…how similar and how different are young people’s patterns of navigation and negotiation?
CYRM Means by Site and Total Sample (Mean 3.35 on a 5-point Scale, *p<0.05) Southern Canada 3.30 Sheshatshiu 2.76* United States 3.68* Colombia 3.23 Gambia 3.62* South Africa 3.34 Russia 3.44* Israel 3.39 Palestine 3.30 India 3.36 China 3.35 Tanzania 3.31
LESSON ONE: There are both global and culturally and contextually specific aspects to young people’s lives that contribute to their resilience.
BUT... How aspects of resilience manifest themselves in young people’s lives depends on the specific culture and context in which resilience is realized. (What has been our experience?)
Nested Ecological Model Minority World (Western) MODEL 1 Majority World (Non-Western) Girls MODEL 2 Boys High Social Cohesion MODEL 3 Low Social Cohesion MODEL 4 Progression of the Factor Analysis
LESSON TWO: Aspects of children’s lives that contribute to resilience are related to one another in patterns that reflect a child’s culture and context.
BUT... How do we make sense of these culturally and contextually specific patterns?
LESSON THREE: Youth seek resilience by resolving all seven tensions in ways that fit with their culture and context
Three Lessons Resilience has both global and culturally- specific aspects Aspects of children’s lives that contribute to resilience are related to one another in patterns that reflect a child’s culture and context Resilient youth resolve the seven tensions in ways that fit with their culture and context
Implications: Children’s navigations for health resources and… Children’s negotiations for what they need from health care providers and caregivers… To nurture and sustain resilience… Are influenced by the child’s culture and context
Implication #1 ‘Don’t believe everything you read’ Local knowledge may be the same or different from global concepts about resilience ‘Ask more, tell less’ A game of “Mirrors” Example: The Innu child and her definition of education
Implication #2 ‘All aspects of resilience are not created equal’ Context determines influence Interventions need to be sensitive to which aspect of resilience, in a specific context, will have the greatest impact on a particular group of children or families The $1,000,000 question: Akili vs. Sasha
Implication #3 ‘Pathways to resilience are many and splendoured things’ Interventions must address (in one way or another) all seven tensions Example: An Iranian immigrant