Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Valerian:Efficacy in Stress/Anxiety Reduction and as a Sleep Aide.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Valerian:Efficacy in Stress/Anxiety Reduction and as a Sleep Aide."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Valerian:Efficacy in Stress/Anxiety Reduction and as a Sleep Aide

3 Valerian and Stress/Anxiety Reduction Why should valerian work to reduce stress and anxiety? Why should valerian work to reduce stress and anxiety? Valerian contains several compounds that act to effectively relax the Central Nervous System (CNS) Valerian contains several compounds that act to effectively relax the Central Nervous System (CNS) Flavanoids such as valepotriates, valereneic acid, and glutamine are purported to increase realease and decrease the uptake of GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid), a neurotransmitter in the CNS. Flavanoids such as valepotriates, valereneic acid, and glutamine are purported to increase realease and decrease the uptake of GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid), a neurotransmitter in the CNS. GABA acts to relieve anxiety, promoting a “cool, calm” attitude GABA acts to relieve anxiety, promoting a “cool, calm” attitude Why should valerian work to reduce stress and anxiety? Why should valerian work to reduce stress and anxiety? Valerian contains several compounds that act to effectively relax the Central Nervous System (CNS) Valerian contains several compounds that act to effectively relax the Central Nervous System (CNS) Flavanoids such as valepotriates, valereneic acid, and glutamine are purported to increase realease and decrease the uptake of GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid), a neurotransmitter in the CNS. Flavanoids such as valepotriates, valereneic acid, and glutamine are purported to increase realease and decrease the uptake of GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid), a neurotransmitter in the CNS. GABA acts to relieve anxiety, promoting a “cool, calm” attitude GABA acts to relieve anxiety, promoting a “cool, calm” attitude

4 Case Studies Supporting Valerian Department of Psychology, University of Surrey Department of Psychology, University of Surrey Psychopharmacology Research Group Psychopharmacology Research Group Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Parana Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Parana Department of Psychology, University of Surrey Department of Psychology, University of Surrey Psychopharmacology Research Group Psychopharmacology Research Group Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Parana Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Parana

5 Case Study on Healthy Volunteers 54 participants, separated into three groups 54 participants, separated into three groups 18 subjects taking valerian for 7 days 18 subjects taking valerian for 7 days 18 subjects taking kava for 7 days 18 subjects taking kava for 7 days 18 subjects as a control 18 subjects as a control Two mental stress tests were given one week apart Two mental stress tests were given one week apart One test before valerian and one after the week One test before valerian and one after the week Heart rate, and Blood Pressure were recorded. Heart rate, and Blood Pressure were recorded. 54 participants, separated into three groups 54 participants, separated into three groups 18 subjects taking valerian for 7 days 18 subjects taking valerian for 7 days 18 subjects taking kava for 7 days 18 subjects taking kava for 7 days 18 subjects as a control 18 subjects as a control Two mental stress tests were given one week apart Two mental stress tests were given one week apart One test before valerian and one after the week One test before valerian and one after the week Heart rate, and Blood Pressure were recorded. Heart rate, and Blood Pressure were recorded.

6 Did it Work? Comparing Test One and Test Two in Valerian Group Comparing Test One and Test Two in Valerian Group Systolic Blood pressure decreased Systolic Blood pressure decreased Heart rate in relation to mental stress was said to decrease Heart rate in relation to mental stress was said to decrease Subjects stated feeling less pressure during test two Subjects stated feeling less pressure during test two This study proposes that Valerian may benefit health by reducing physiological harm caused from stress This study proposes that Valerian may benefit health by reducing physiological harm caused from stress Comparing Test One and Test Two in Valerian Group Comparing Test One and Test Two in Valerian Group Systolic Blood pressure decreased Systolic Blood pressure decreased Heart rate in relation to mental stress was said to decrease Heart rate in relation to mental stress was said to decrease Subjects stated feeling less pressure during test two Subjects stated feeling less pressure during test two This study proposes that Valerian may benefit health by reducing physiological harm caused from stress This study proposes that Valerian may benefit health by reducing physiological harm caused from stress

7 Study Problems Subjects reported feeling less pressure during Test two but… Subjects reported feeling less pressure during Test two but… It was their second time taking the test It was their second time taking the test The study did not report if there was any change in the Test’s form The study did not report if there was any change in the Test’s form This may not have only influence the pressure the individuals felt but also the physiological results This may not have only influence the pressure the individuals felt but also the physiological results Subjects reported feeling less pressure during Test two but… Subjects reported feeling less pressure during Test two but… It was their second time taking the test It was their second time taking the test The study did not report if there was any change in the Test’s form The study did not report if there was any change in the Test’s form This may not have only influence the pressure the individuals felt but also the physiological results This may not have only influence the pressure the individuals felt but also the physiological results

8 Study on Stress Patients Nineteen subjects suffering from stressed- induced insomnia Nineteen subjects suffering from stressed- induced insomnia First, subjects received six weeks of kava First, subjects received six weeks of kava Then a two week ‘wash-out’ period Then a two week ‘wash-out’ period Subjects then received 600mg of valerian daily for another six weeks Subjects then received 600mg of valerian daily for another six weeks Another ‘washout’ period Another ‘washout’ period Followed by six more weeks of both valerian and kava Followed by six more weeks of both valerian and kava Results were measured in relation to social, life, and personal situations Results were measured in relation to social, life, and personal situations Nineteen subjects suffering from stressed- induced insomnia Nineteen subjects suffering from stressed- induced insomnia First, subjects received six weeks of kava First, subjects received six weeks of kava Then a two week ‘wash-out’ period Then a two week ‘wash-out’ period Subjects then received 600mg of valerian daily for another six weeks Subjects then received 600mg of valerian daily for another six weeks Another ‘washout’ period Another ‘washout’ period Followed by six more weeks of both valerian and kava Followed by six more weeks of both valerian and kava Results were measured in relation to social, life, and personal situations Results were measured in relation to social, life, and personal situations

9 Did it Work? The study reported that the result of taking each compound by itself resulted in a lowering in the level of the subject’s overall stress. The study reported that the result of taking each compound by itself resulted in a lowering in the level of the subject’s overall stress. The study declared that this experiment showed promising results for further research The study declared that this experiment showed promising results for further research The study reported that the result of taking each compound by itself resulted in a lowering in the level of the subject’s overall stress. The study reported that the result of taking each compound by itself resulted in a lowering in the level of the subject’s overall stress. The study declared that this experiment showed promising results for further research The study declared that this experiment showed promising results for further research

10 Study Problems This studies sample size wasn’t very big This studies sample size wasn’t very big There was no control in this experiment There was no control in this experiment There wasn’t much information on how the subject’s life, personal, and social event stress level were measured. There wasn’t much information on how the subject’s life, personal, and social event stress level were measured. This studies sample size wasn’t very big This studies sample size wasn’t very big There was no control in this experiment There was no control in this experiment There wasn’t much information on how the subject’s life, personal, and social event stress level were measured. There wasn’t much information on how the subject’s life, personal, and social event stress level were measured.

11 Study with Anxiety Patients This study had 36 outpatient subjects who were diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder This study had 36 outpatient subjects who were diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder There was a two week wash-out period There was a two week wash-out period Subjects were randomly put into one of three treatments for a four week period Subjects were randomly put into one of three treatments for a four week period Valepotriates mg per day Valepotriates mg per day Diazepam- 6.5 mg per day Diazepam- 6.5 mg per day Placebo group Placebo group The study was described as having a, “parallel, double-blind, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled design” The study was described as having a, “parallel, double-blind, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled design” This study had 36 outpatient subjects who were diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder This study had 36 outpatient subjects who were diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder There was a two week wash-out period There was a two week wash-out period Subjects were randomly put into one of three treatments for a four week period Subjects were randomly put into one of three treatments for a four week period Valepotriates mg per day Valepotriates mg per day Diazepam- 6.5 mg per day Diazepam- 6.5 mg per day Placebo group Placebo group The study was described as having a, “parallel, double-blind, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled design” The study was described as having a, “parallel, double-blind, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled design”

12 Did it Work? All three groups showed a significant decrease in the Hamilton anxiety inventory All three groups showed a significant decrease in the Hamilton anxiety inventory The overall result was that there is a possibility that the valepotriates may have an effect on stress, and further studies are warranted The overall result was that there is a possibility that the valepotriates may have an effect on stress, and further studies are warranted All three groups showed a significant decrease in the Hamilton anxiety inventory All three groups showed a significant decrease in the Hamilton anxiety inventory The overall result was that there is a possibility that the valepotriates may have an effect on stress, and further studies are warranted The overall result was that there is a possibility that the valepotriates may have an effect on stress, and further studies are warranted

13 Study Problems One main source of question was that the results state that there was a significant decrease in the total Hamilton anxiety scores represented all three groups, including the placebo group One main source of question was that the results state that there was a significant decrease in the total Hamilton anxiety scores represented all three groups, including the placebo group This suggests other, possibly psychological, factors could have played a role in the results This suggests other, possibly psychological, factors could have played a role in the results One main source of question was that the results state that there was a significant decrease in the total Hamilton anxiety scores represented all three groups, including the placebo group One main source of question was that the results state that there was a significant decrease in the total Hamilton anxiety scores represented all three groups, including the placebo group This suggests other, possibly psychological, factors could have played a role in the results This suggests other, possibly psychological, factors could have played a role in the results

14 Valerian: Efficacy as a Sleep Aide

15 Methods Placebo controlled, single-blinded study Placebo controlled, single-blinded study Gathered 7 days of baseline information regarding sleep quality Gathered 7 days of baseline information regarding sleep quality Followed by 7 days of supplementation (The BLUE pill): taken approximately a half-hour before subjects went to sleep Followed by 7 days of supplementation (The BLUE pill): taken approximately a half-hour before subjects went to sleep Results were gathered utilizing a “Sleep Survey” to measure any effects the supplement may have had. Results were gathered utilizing a “Sleep Survey” to measure any effects the supplement may have had. Placebo controlled, single-blinded study Placebo controlled, single-blinded study Gathered 7 days of baseline information regarding sleep quality Gathered 7 days of baseline information regarding sleep quality Followed by 7 days of supplementation (The BLUE pill): taken approximately a half-hour before subjects went to sleep Followed by 7 days of supplementation (The BLUE pill): taken approximately a half-hour before subjects went to sleep Results were gathered utilizing a “Sleep Survey” to measure any effects the supplement may have had. Results were gathered utilizing a “Sleep Survey” to measure any effects the supplement may have had.

16 Results

17 Results Continued For questions 1-9: No major differences between supplementation period and baseline period For questions 1-9: No major differences between supplementation period and baseline period Question 10: Feel “physically” awake during the day? Question 10: Feel “physically” awake during the day? -Appears to be a difference between supplementation period -Appears to be a difference between supplementation period and baseline period. and baseline period. -Value was lower for the supplementation period -Value was lower for the supplementation period - Most likely due to one subject taking a codeine cough - Most likely due to one subject taking a codeine cough medicine during supplementation period medicine during supplementation period *no adverse side effects reported by subjects taking the supplement For questions 1-9: No major differences between supplementation period and baseline period For questions 1-9: No major differences between supplementation period and baseline period Question 10: Feel “physically” awake during the day? Question 10: Feel “physically” awake during the day? -Appears to be a difference between supplementation period -Appears to be a difference between supplementation period and baseline period. and baseline period. -Value was lower for the supplementation period -Value was lower for the supplementation period - Most likely due to one subject taking a codeine cough - Most likely due to one subject taking a codeine cough medicine during supplementation period medicine during supplementation period *no adverse side effects reported by subjects taking the supplement

18 Even More Results For the next graph, we changed the scoring system used in the survey so that a recorded score of 5 is “desirable” for each question. Example: For the next graph, we changed the scoring system used in the survey so that a recorded score of 5 is “desirable” for each question. Example: So, we did this for all the questions, therefore, the “ideal” night’s sleep score adds up to 50 For the next graph, we changed the scoring system used in the survey so that a recorded score of 5 is “desirable” for each question. Example: For the next graph, we changed the scoring system used in the survey so that a recorded score of 5 is “desirable” for each question. Example: So, we did this for all the questions, therefore, the “ideal” night’s sleep score adds up to 50 No54Somewhat32Yes1 Have trouble falling asleep Wake up during the night and have difficulty getting back to sleep Wake up too early in the morning and have difficulty getting back to sleep Feel excessively sleepy during the day

19 Last Results Slide, I Promise!

20 Conclusions There was no day to day change in overall sleep quality during the supplementation period. There was no day to day change in overall sleep quality during the supplementation period. There was no difference in the average scores reported on the survey between the supplementation period and baseline period (the one question where they did differ can be explained by a subject using codeine) There was no difference in the average scores reported on the survey between the supplementation period and baseline period (the one question where they did differ can be explained by a subject using codeine) Therefore, we conclude that whatever we did have (valerian or placebo) did not work to improve sleep quality. Therefore, we conclude that whatever we did have (valerian or placebo) did not work to improve sleep quality. There was no day to day change in overall sleep quality during the supplementation period. There was no day to day change in overall sleep quality during the supplementation period. There was no difference in the average scores reported on the survey between the supplementation period and baseline period (the one question where they did differ can be explained by a subject using codeine) There was no difference in the average scores reported on the survey between the supplementation period and baseline period (the one question where they did differ can be explained by a subject using codeine) Therefore, we conclude that whatever we did have (valerian or placebo) did not work to improve sleep quality. Therefore, we conclude that whatever we did have (valerian or placebo) did not work to improve sleep quality.

21 Limitations There are several confounding variables that could very likely have had an impact on our results. These would include: Having a cold or illness, these can often make us tired, such as mono, or effect our sleep pattern and mood Taking other drugs or dietary supplements could possible decrease the absorption rate of the pill, some people could even be on prescription sleep aids or sedatives that would change the result of our supplement. We did not control the time we went to bed, the time we awoke, and how long we slept. Many of us could have had an early class or work and regardless of how good the sleep was, it just wasn’t enough hours The population was not randomly chosen. College kids are known for outrageous sleeping patterns and irregular schedules. Our bodies are not adjusted to a certain schedule,so any kind of activity could alter our response The dosage was also small, and the trial time was limited. An ideal study would have been four to six weeks long to allow our bodies to adjust to the drug, and each person would get a dose that would be proportionate to their body size. Physical activity, other sedatives or stimulants could have altered the effect of the drug since exercise is known for increasing hormones that keep you awake and drinking alcohol puts many people to sleep There are several confounding variables that could very likely have had an impact on our results. These would include: Having a cold or illness, these can often make us tired, such as mono, or effect our sleep pattern and mood Taking other drugs or dietary supplements could possible decrease the absorption rate of the pill, some people could even be on prescription sleep aids or sedatives that would change the result of our supplement. We did not control the time we went to bed, the time we awoke, and how long we slept. Many of us could have had an early class or work and regardless of how good the sleep was, it just wasn’t enough hours The population was not randomly chosen. College kids are known for outrageous sleeping patterns and irregular schedules. Our bodies are not adjusted to a certain schedule,so any kind of activity could alter our response The dosage was also small, and the trial time was limited. An ideal study would have been four to six weeks long to allow our bodies to adjust to the drug, and each person would get a dose that would be proportionate to their body size. Physical activity, other sedatives or stimulants could have altered the effect of the drug since exercise is known for increasing hormones that keep you awake and drinking alcohol puts many people to sleep

22 Suggestions for Future Research Make a baseline for what was “a long time” to get to sleep, and what was short. For some people, not falling asleep in ten minutes is long for them while for others it may be at least an hour. Another good question would be how long it took to get out of bed in the morning, and how many total hours of sleep each person got. Being able to compare how many hours a person got before and during use of the supplement would make a much clearer case. Also, each time a person takes a nap, that alters their sleep schedule and can have a huge effect on how they feel and answer the survey at the end of the day. An additional question on the survey of many naps, and for how long would greatly improve the validity of the study. The most obvious change we could make though would be for each participant to keep a journal before and during the supplement use, recording their food intake, activity patterns and other medications or supplements being used. There are so many confounding variables that could effect the results, a journal would be a good start to monitoring each participant individually. Make a baseline for what was “a long time” to get to sleep, and what was short. For some people, not falling asleep in ten minutes is long for them while for others it may be at least an hour. Another good question would be how long it took to get out of bed in the morning, and how many total hours of sleep each person got. Being able to compare how many hours a person got before and during use of the supplement would make a much clearer case. Also, each time a person takes a nap, that alters their sleep schedule and can have a huge effect on how they feel and answer the survey at the end of the day. An additional question on the survey of many naps, and for how long would greatly improve the validity of the study. The most obvious change we could make though would be for each participant to keep a journal before and during the supplement use, recording their food intake, activity patterns and other medications or supplements being used. There are so many confounding variables that could effect the results, a journal would be a good start to monitoring each participant individually.

23 Thanks for Listening!


Download ppt "Valerian:Efficacy in Stress/Anxiety Reduction and as a Sleep Aide."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google