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The –ed ending: pronunciation and spelling Irregular verbsThe Simple Past The –ed ending: pronunciation and spelling Irregular verbs © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Simple past: regular verbsUse: Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind. The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. Form: We add the suffix –ed in + sentences. Example: She played the violin very well last night. We use DID or DIDN’T in ? and – sentences Example: Did you call me yesterday? I didn’t have my mobile on. When answering: Yes, I did. No, I didn’t. In the simple past, the verb does not change for the different subject pronouns. © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008POSITIVE I played You played He played We played You played They played NEGATIVE I did not play You did not play He did not play We did not play You did not play They did not play QUESTION Did I play? Did you play? Did he play? Did we play? Did you play? Did they play? NEGATIVE QUESTION Didn't I play? Didn't you play? Didn't he play? Didn't we play? Didn't you play? Didn't they play? © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008The verb to be POSITIVE I was You were He was We were You were They were NEGATIVE I was not / wasn't You were not / weren't He was not / wasn't We were not / weren't You were not / weren't They were not / weren't QUESTION Was I? Were you? Was he? Were we? Were you? Were they? NEGATIVE QUESTION Wasn't I? Weren't you? Wasn't he? Weren't we? Weren't you? Weren't they? © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Spelling of the ending -edVerbs ending in consonant + y drop the y and add –ied E.g. cry → cried Verbs ending in one –e simply add –d E.g. move → moved One syllable verbs ending in one vowel + one consonant double the final consonant E.g. stop → stopped Except: verbs ending in -y,-w,-x E.g. snow → snowed, play → played, fix → fixed Verbs of two or more syllables ending in one vowel+ one consonant also double the final consonant if the stress is on the last syllable. E.g. prefer → preferred Except: travel → travelled, cancel → cancelled (UK English only) © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008Time expressions Frequency adverbs Yesterday, the day before yesterday… Last night, last week, last month, last year… The last time you called Two days ago, a week ago, 5 years ago… In 1999, in October, in the summer… At 7 o'clock, at midnight, in the evening… For a while, for some time, for a month… Lately, recently © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Pronunciation of the –ed endingIf the verb ends in the sound /t/ or /d/ we pronounce the ending /id/ E.g. fade → faded If the verb ends in a voiceless consonant other than /t/ we pronounce the ending /t/ E.g. laugh → laughed If the verb ends in a voiced consonant other than /d/ or vowel sound we pronounce the ending /d/ E.g. beg → begged, pray → prayed Voiceless consonants: /p/, /s/, /k/, /f/, /t∫/, /∫/, /θ/ Voiced consonants: /b/, /g/, /v/, /z/, //, //, /d /, /l/, /r/, /m/, /n/, // © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Exercise: write the past tense of the following verbs and put them in the correct column.discover – laugh – destroy – survive – crash – jump visit – change – travel – introduce – need - worry /d/ /t/ /id/ Discovered Destroyed Survived Travelled Worried Changed Laughed Crashed Jumped Introduced Visited Needed © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Irregular verbs: All 3 forms are similarBase Form Past Simple Form Past Participle Form Phonetic Symbols bet bid bd broadcast brdkst burst b:st cost kst cut kt hit ht hurt h:t let put pt quit kwt set shut split spl spread spred © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Past Simple and Past Participle are the sameBase Form Past Simple Form Past Participle Form bend bent bring br brought brt build bld built blt buy ba bought bt catch kt caught kt creep krip crept krept deal dl dealt delt © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008dig dg dug dg feed fi:d fed feel fi:l felt fight fat fought ft find fand found fand flee fli: fled get got got (gotten) gt hang h hung h have hv had hd hear h heard hd hold hld held © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008keep ki:p kept kneel ni:l knelt nelt lay le laid led lead li:d led leave li:v left lend lent light lat lit lose lu:z lost lst make mek made med mean mi:n meant ment meet mi:t met © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008pay pe paid ped read ri:d red say se said sed seek si:k sought st sell sel sold sld send sent shine an shone n shoot u:n shot t sit st sat st sleep sli:p slept slide slad slid sld spend spent © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008spit spt spat spt stand stnd stood std stick stk stuck stk sting st stung st strike strak struck strk sweep swi:p swept swing sw swung sw teach ti:t taught tt tell tel told tld think k thought t understand ndstnd understood ndstd weep wi:p wept win wn won wn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Base Form and Past Simple are the samebeat bi:t beaten bi:tn Base Form and Past Simple are the same become bi:km became bi:kem come km came kem run rn ran rn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
All forms are differentarise raiz arose r z arisen rzn awake wek awoke wk awoken w kn be bi: was/were wz/w: been bi:n begin bgn began bgn begun bgn bite bat bit bt bitten btn blow bl blew blu: blown bln break brek broke brk broken brkn choose tuz chose tz chosen tzn do du did dd done dn draw dr drew dru drawn drn drink drnk drank drnk drunk drnk drive drav drove drv driven drvn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008eat i:t ate et eaten i:tn fall f fell fel fallen fln fly fla flew flu: flown fln forbid fbd forbade fbed forbidden fbdn forget fget forgot fgt forgotten fgtn forgive fgv forgave fgev forgiven fgvn freeze fri:z froze frz frozen frzn give gv gave gev given gvn go g went gone gn grow gr grew gru: grown grn hide had hid hidden hidn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008know n knew nju: known nn lie la lay le lain len mistake mstek mistook mstk mistaken mstekn ride rad rode rd ridden rdn ring r rang r rung r rise raz rose rz risen rzn see si: saw s seen si:n sew s sewed sd sewn sn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008shake ek shook k shaken ekn show showed d shown n shrink rnk shrank rnk shrunk rnk sink sk sank sk sunk sk sing s sang s sung s speak spi:k spoke spk spoken spkn spring spr sprang spr sprung spr steal sti:l stole stl stolen stln © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008stink stk stank st stunk st swear swea swore sw sworn swn swim swm swam swm swum swm take tek took tk taken tekn tear tea tore t torn tn throw r threw ru: thrown rn wake wek woke wk woken wkn wear wea wore w worn wn write rat wrote rt written rtn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008Confusing verbs Lie – lied – lied (mentir) /la/ - /lad/ - /lad/ lying Lie – lay – lain (estar tumbado) /la/ - /le/ - /len/ Lay – laid – laid (poner la mesa) /le / - /led/ - /led/ laying © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
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