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The –ed ending: pronunciation and spelling Irregular verbs

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1 The –ed ending: pronunciation and spelling Irregular verbs
The Simple Past The –ed ending: pronunciation and spelling Irregular verbs © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

2 Simple past: regular verbs
Use: Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind. The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. Form: We add the suffix –ed in + sentences. Example: She played the violin very well last night. We use DID or DIDN’T in ? and – sentences Example: Did you call me yesterday? I didn’t have my mobile on. When answering: Yes, I did. No, I didn’t. In the simple past, the verb does not change for the different subject pronouns. © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

3 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
POSITIVE I played You played He played We played You played They played  NEGATIVE I did not play You did not play He did not play We did not play You did not play They did not play  QUESTION Did I play? Did you play? Did he play? Did we play? Did you play? Did they play? NEGATIVE QUESTION Didn't I play? Didn't you play? Didn't he play? Didn't we play? Didn't you play? Didn't  they play? © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

4 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
The verb to be POSITIVE I was You were He was We were You were They were  NEGATIVE I was not / wasn't You were not / weren't He was not / wasn't We were not / weren't You were not / weren't They were not / weren't   QUESTION Was I? Were you? Was he? Were we? Were you? Were they? NEGATIVE QUESTION Wasn't I? Weren't you? Wasn't he? Weren't we? Weren't you? Weren't they? © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

5 Spelling of the ending -ed
Verbs ending in consonant + y drop the y and add –ied E.g. cry → cried Verbs ending in one –e simply add –d E.g. move → moved One syllable verbs ending in one vowel + one consonant double the final consonant E.g. stop → stopped Except: verbs ending in -y,-w,-x E.g. snow → snowed, play → played, fix → fixed Verbs of two or more syllables ending in one vowel+ one consonant also double the final consonant if the stress is on the last syllable. E.g. prefer → preferred Except: travel → travelled, cancel → cancelled (UK English only) © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

6 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Time expressions Frequency adverbs Yesterday, the day before yesterday… Last night, last week, last month, last year… The last time you called Two days ago, a week ago, 5 years ago… In 1999, in October, in the summer… At 7 o'clock, at midnight, in the evening… For a while, for some time, for a month… Lately, recently © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

7 Pronunciation of the –ed ending
If the verb ends in the sound /t/ or /d/ we pronounce the ending /id/ E.g. fade → faded If the verb ends in a voiceless consonant other than /t/ we pronounce the ending /t/ E.g. laugh → laughed If the verb ends in a voiced consonant other than /d/ or vowel sound we pronounce the ending /d/ E.g. beg → begged, pray → prayed Voiceless consonants: /p/, /s/, /k/, /f/, /t∫/, /∫/, /θ/ Voiced consonants: /b/, /g/, /v/, /z/, //, //, /d /, /l/, /r/, /m/, /n/, // © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

8 Exercise: write the past tense of the following verbs and put them in the correct column.
discover – laugh – destroy – survive – crash – jump visit – change – travel – introduce – need - worry /d/ /t/ /id/ Discovered Destroyed Survived Travelled Worried Changed Laughed Crashed Jumped Introduced Visited Needed © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

9 Irregular verbs: All 3 forms are similar
Base Form Past Simple Form Past Participle Form Phonetic Symbols bet bid bd broadcast brdkst burst b:st cost kst cut kt hit ht hurt h:t let put pt quit kwt set shut  split spl spread spred © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

10 Past Simple and Past Participle are the same
Base Form Past Simple Form Past Participle Form bend bent bring br brought brt build bld built blt buy ba bought bt catch kt caught kt creep krip crept krept deal dl dealt delt © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

11 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
dig dg dug dg feed fi:d fed feel fi:l felt fight fat fought ft find fand found fand flee fli: fled get got got (gotten) gt hang h hung h have hv had hd hear h heard hd hold hld held © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

12 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
keep ki:p kept kneel ni:l knelt nelt lay le laid led lead li:d led leave li:v left lend lent light lat lit lose lu:z lost lst make mek made med mean mi:n meant ment meet mi:t met © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

13 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
pay pe paid ped read ri:d red say se said sed seek si:k sought st sell sel sold sld send sent shine an shone n shoot u:n shot t sit st sat st sleep sli:p slept slide slad slid sld spend spent © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

14 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
spit spt spat spt stand stnd stood std stick stk stuck stk sting st stung st strike strak struck strk sweep swi:p swept swing sw swung sw teach ti:t taught tt tell tel told tld think k thought t understand ndstnd understood ndstd weep wi:p wept win wn won wn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

15 Base Form and Past Simple are the same
beat bi:t beaten bi:tn Base Form and Past Simple are the same become bi:km became bi:kem come km came kem run rn ran rn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

16 All forms are different
arise raiz arose r z arisen rzn awake wek awoke wk awoken w  kn be bi: was/were wz/w: been bi:n begin bgn began bgn begun bgn bite bat bit bt bitten btn blow bl blew blu: blown bln break brek broke brk broken brkn choose tuz chose tz chosen tzn do du did dd done dn draw dr drew dru drawn drn drink drnk drank drnk drunk drnk drive drav drove drv driven drvn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

17 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
eat i:t ate et eaten i:tn fall f fell fel fallen fln fly fla flew flu: flown fln forbid fbd forbade fbed forbidden fbdn forget fget forgot fgt forgotten fgtn forgive fgv forgave fgev forgiven fgvn freeze fri:z froze frz frozen frzn give gv gave gev given gvn go g went gone gn grow gr grew gru: grown grn hide had hid hidden hidn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

18 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
know n knew nju: known nn lie la lay le lain len mistake mstek mistook mstk mistaken mstekn ride rad rode rd ridden rdn ring r rang r rung r rise raz rose rz risen rzn see si: saw s seen si:n sew s sewed sd sewn sn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

19 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
shake ek shook k shaken ekn show  showed d shown n shrink rnk shrank rnk shrunk rnk sink sk sank sk sunk sk sing s sang s sung s speak spi:k spoke spk spoken spkn spring spr sprang spr sprung spr steal sti:l stole stl stolen stln © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

20 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
stink stk stank st stunk st swear swea swore sw sworn swn swim swm swam swm swum swm take tek took tk taken tekn tear tea tore t torn tn throw r threw ru: thrown rn wake wek woke wk woken wkn wear wea wore w worn wn write rat wrote rt written rtn © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008

21 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008
Confusing verbs Lie – lied – lied (mentir) /la/ - /lad/ - /lad/ lying Lie – lay – lain (estar tumbado) /la/ - /le/ - /len/ Lay – laid – laid (poner la mesa) /le / - /led/ - /led/ laying © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008


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