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© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 The Simple Past The –ed ending: pronunciation and spelling Irregular verbs
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 Simple past: regular verbs Use: Use: Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind. The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. Form: Form: We add the suffix –ed in + sentences. Example: She played the violin very well last night. We use DID or DIDN’T in ? and – sentences Example: Did you call me yesterday? I didn’t have my mobile on. When answering: Yes, I did. No, I didn’t. In the simple past, the verb does not change for the different subject pronouns.
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 POSITIVE I played You played He played We played You played They played NEGATIVE I did not play You did not play He did not play We did not play You did not play They did not play QUESTION Did I play? Did you play? Did he play? Did we play? Did you play? Did they play? NEGATIVE QUESTION Didn't I play? Didn't you play? Didn't he play? Didn't we play? Didn't you play? Didn't they play?
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 The verb to be POSITIVE I was You were He was We were You were They were NEGATIVE I was not / wasn't You were not / weren't He was not / wasn't We were not / weren't You were not / weren't They were not / weren't QUESTION Was I? Were you? Was he? Were we? Were you? Were they? NEGATIVE QUESTION Wasn't I? Weren't you? Wasn't he? Weren't we? Weren't you? Weren't they?
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 Spelling of the ending -ed Verbs ending in consonant + y drop the y and add –ied E.g. cry → cried Verbs ending in one –e simply add –d E.g. move → moved One syllable verbs ending in one vowel + one consonant double the final consonant E.g. stop → stopped Except: verbs ending in -y,-w,-x E.g. snow → snowed, play → played, fix → fixed Verbs of two or more syllables ending in one vowel+ one consonant also double the final consonant if the stress is on the last syllable. E.g. prefer → preferred Except: travel → travelled, cancel → cancelled (UK English only)
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 Time expressions Frequency adverbs Yesterday, the day before yesterday… Last night, last week, last month, last year… The last time you called Two days ago, a week ago, 5 years ago… In 1999, in October, in the summer… At 7 o'clock, at midnight, in the evening… For a while, for some time, for a month… Lately, recently
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 Pronunciation of the –ed ending If the verb ends in the sound /t/ or /d/ we pronounce the ending /id/ E.g. fade → faded If the verb ends in a voiceless consonant other than /t/ we pronounce the ending /t/ E.g. laugh → laughed If the verb ends in a voiced consonant other than /d/ or vowel sound we pronounce the ending /d/ E.g. beg → begged, pray → prayed Voiceless consonants: /p/, /s/, /k/, /f/, /t ∫ /, / ∫ /, / θ / Voiced consonants: /b/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / /, / /, / d /, /l/, /r/, /m/, /n/, / /
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 Exercise: write the past tense of the following verbs and put them in the correct column. Visited Needed Discovered Destroyed Survived Travelled Worried Changed Laughed Crashed Jumped Introduced /d//t//id/ discover – laugh – destroy – survive – crash – jump visit – change – travel – introduce – need - worry
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 Irregular verbs: All 3 forms are similar Base FormPast Simple Form Past Participle Form Phonetic Symbols bet bid bdbd broadcast br dk st burst b :st cost k st cut ktkt hit htht hurt h :t let put ptpt quit kw t set shut split spl spread spred
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 Past Simple and Past Participle are the same Base Form Past Simple Form Past Participle Form bend bent bringbr brought br t buildb ldbuilt b lt buyba bought b t catchktkt caught k t creepkri pcrept krept deald ldealt delt
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 digdgdgdug dgdg feedfi:dfed feelfi:lfelt fightfa tfought f t findfa ndfound fa nd fleefli:fled get gotgot (gotten)gtgt hangh hung h havehvhvhad hdhd hearh heard h d holdh ldheld
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 keepki:pkept kneelni:lknelt nelt layle laid le d leadli:dled leaveli:vleft lendlent lightla tlit loselu:zlost l st makeme kmade me d meanmi:nmeant ment meetmi:tmet
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 paype paid pe d readri:dread red sayse said sed seeksi:ksought s t sellselsold s ld send sent shine ananshone n shoot u:nshot t sitststsat stst sleepsli:pslept slidesla dslid s ld spend spent
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 spitsp tspat sp t standst ndstood st d stickst kstuck st k stingst stung st strikestra kstruck str k sweepswi:pswept swingsw swung sw teachti:t taught t t tellteltold t ld think kthought t understand nd st nd understood nd st d weepwi:pwept winwnwnwon wnwn
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 Base Form and Past Simple are the same beatbi:tbeatbi:tbeatenbi:t n becomebi:k m becamebi:ke m becomebi:k m comekmkmcameke mcomekmkm runrnrnranrnrnrunrnrn
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 All forms are different arise raizarose r z arisen rznrzn awake we kawoke w kawoken w k n bebi:was/werew z/w : beenbi:n beginbgnbgnbeganbgnbgnbegunbgnbgn biteba tbitbtbtbittenbtnbtn blowbl blewblu:blownbl n breakbre kbrokebr kbrokenbr k n choosetuztuzchoset zchosent z n dodu diddddddonedndn drawdr drewdru drawndr n drinkdr nkdrankdr nkdrunkdr nk drivedra vdrovedr vdrivendr v n
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 eati:tateeteteateni:t n fallf fellfelfallenf l n flyfla flewflu:flownfl n forbidfbdfbdforbadef be d forbiddenfbdnfbdn forgetf getforgotfgtfgtforgottenfgtnfgtn forgivefgvfgvforgavef ge v forgivenfgvnfgvn freezefri:zfrozefr zfrozenfr z n givegvgvgavege vgivengvngvn gog went gonegngn growgr grewgru:growngr n hideha dhid hiddenhid n
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 known knewnju:knownn n liela layle lainle n mistakem ste k mistookm st k mistakenm ste k n ridera droder driddenrdnrdn ringr rangr rungr risera zroser zrisenrznrzn seesi:saws seensi:n sews seweds dsewns n
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 shake ekekshook kshaken eknekn show showed dshown n shrink r nkshrank r nkshrunk r nk sinks ksanks ksunks k sings sangs sungs speakspi:kspokesp kspokensp k n springspr sprangspr sprungspr stealsti:lstolest lstolenst l n
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 stinkst kstankst stunkst swearswea sworesw swornsw n swimsw mswamsw mswumsw m takete ktooktktktakente k n teartea toret tornt n throw r threw ru:thrown r n wakewe kwokew kwokenw k n wearwea worew wornw n writera twroter twrittenrtnrtn
© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2008 Confusing verbs Lie – lied – lied(mentir) /la / - /la d/ - /la d/ lying Lie – lay – lain(estar tumbado) /la / - /le / - /le n/ lying Lay – laid – laid(poner la mesa) /le / - /le d/ - /le d/ laying
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