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Hot Spots of Crime and Crime Prevention David Weisburd George Mason University Hebrew University 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Hot Spots of Crime and Crime Prevention David Weisburd George Mason University Hebrew University 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hot Spots of Crime and Crime Prevention David Weisburd George Mason University Hebrew University 1

2 Conventional Criminology: Who Done It? 2

3 New Area of Criminology that Asks: Where Done It? 3

4 Different from Community Based Crime Prevention 4

5 The Criminology of Place and Hot Spots of Crime: Micro Geographic Units of Analysis The Street Segment (Sherman and Weisburd, 1995) Cluster-- Street Segments (Weisburd et al., 2006) Oak St. Maple St. Spruce St. 10 th Ave. 11th Ave. 12 th Ave.

6 Where I am Going… The logic model for place based prevention The logic model for place based prevention The law of crime concentration The law of crime concentration Bad places and not bad neighborhoods Bad places and not bad neighborhoods Specific traits couple crime to place Specific traits couple crime to place Place based prevention works! Place based prevention works! Strong scientific evidence that Hot Spots Policing is effective Strong scientific evidence that Hot Spots Policing is effective Crime does not simply move around the corner Crime does not simply move around the corner The promise of social prevention The promise of social prevention 6

7 WEISBURD, DAVID, IN PRESS, THE LAW OF CRIME CONCENTRATION AND THE CRIMINOLOGY OF PLACE. CRIMINOLOGY, IN PRESS. The Law of Crime Concentration at Places 7

8 The Law of Crime Concentration in Larger Cities 8 David Weisburd (In press) The law of crime concentration and the criminology of place. Criminology

9 The Law of Crime Concentration in Small Less Urbanized Cities 9 David Weisburd (In press) The law of crime concentration and the criminology of place. Criminology

10 The Law of Crime Concentration over Time (and Crime Incidents)

11 Is it the same places? Is it the same places? 11 Weisburd, David, Shawn Bushway, Cynthia Lum, and Sue-Ming Yang. (2004). Trajectories of Crime at Places: A Longitudinal Study of Street Segments in the City of Seattle. Criminology, 42(2),

12 HOT SPOTS OF CRIME AND NOT “BAD COMMUNITIES” 12

13 Hot spots are Spread Throughout the City Landscape 13 Weisburd, David, Nancy Morris and Elizabeth Groff. (2009). Hot Spots of Juvenile Crime. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 25:

14 Juvenile Crime Hot Spots 14 Weisburd, David, Nancy Morris and Elizabeth Groff. (2009). Hot Spots of Juvenile Crime. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25:

15 Street by Street Variability: Much of the Action of the Crime Problem Would be Lost by Studying Communities 15 Weisburd, Groff and Yang (In Press, Oxford University Press). The Criminology of Place: Street Segments and Our Understanding of the Crime Problem Street Segments and Our Understanding of the Crime Problem

16 SPECIFIC TRAITS COUPLE CRIME TO PLACE 16

17 Juvenile Activity Spaces, Unsupervised Socializing, and Juvenile Crime Hot Spots 17 Weisburd, David, Nancy Morris and Elizabeth Groff. (2009). Hot Spots of Juvenile Crime. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 25:

18 What Couples Crime to Place? 18

19 Crime Opportunities and Social Disorganization Variable* Odds RatioStandardized Coefficient Employees 1.075*** Residents1.241*** High Risk Juveniles2.218*** Property value0.704*** Physical Disorder25.634*** Arterial Road10.870*** Collective Efficacy.041*** n = 24,023; B = beginning value; C = change variable * p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001 Cox and Snell Pseudo R 2 =.632; Nagelkerke Pseudo R 2 =.684 *Other street segment-level variables in the model: Percent of residents on housing assistance, number of truant juveniles, racial heterogeneity, urbanization, mixed land use, street segment length, bus stops, percent vacant land, street lighting, presence of police & fire stations, spatial lag variables, and eight variables related to changes over time. 19

20 THERE IS STRONG EVIDENCE THAT HOT SPOTS POLICING WORKS 20

21 Isn’t It Obvious?…. “The police do not prevent crime. This is one of the best-kept secrets of modern life. Experts know it, the police know it, but the public does not know it. Yet the police pretend that they are society’s best defense against crime This is a myth.” —Bayley (1994:3) “..no evidence exists that augmentation of police forces or equipment, differential patrol strategies, or differential intensities of surveillance have an effect on crime rates.” —Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990:270) 21

22 The Minneapolis Hot Spots Experiment (1990) The first major study to show the potential crime prevention benefits of place based policing. The first major study to show the potential crime prevention benefits of place based policing. Large experimental field study: Large experimental field study: 110 crime hot spots randomly allocated to treatment and control conditions. 110 crime hot spots randomly allocated to treatment and control conditions. Treatment sites were expected to received between 2-3 times the preventive patrol as control sites. Treatment sites were expected to received between 2-3 times the preventive patrol as control sites. 22 Sherman, Lawrence and David Weisburd. (1995). General Deterrent Effects of Police Patrol in Crime ‘Hot Spots’: A Randomized Study. Justice Quarterly, 12(4),

23 Crime Calls 23

24 Hot Spots Policing Trials In a Campbell review Braga, Papachristos, and Hureau (2012) identifies 25 experimental and quasi experimental studies. In a Campbell review Braga, Papachristos, and Hureau (2012) identifies 25 experimental and quasi experimental studies. 21 of 25 tests show statistically significant crime prevention benefits. 21 of 25 tests show statistically significant crime prevention benefits. 10 experiments—all showed significant effects 10 experiments—all showed significant effects There is an overall significant effect size in a meta analysis. There is an overall significant effect size in a meta analysis.

25 BUT DOESN’T CRIME JUST MOVE AROUND THE CORNER? 25

26 The Police Foundation Displacement and Diffusion Study: A Direct Study 26 Weisburd, David, Laura Wyckoff, Justin Ready, John E. Eck, Joshua C. Hinkle, and Frank Gajewski. (2006) Does Crime Just Move Around the Corner? A Controlled Study of Spatial Displacement and Diffusion of Crime Control Benefits Criminology 44(3),

27 Results 27

28 Deterrence without Displacement (Braga et al. 2012) 28

29 Reasons for Resistance to Spatial Displacement Crime is coupled to place! Crime is coupled to place! The same opportunities do not necessarily exist in areas nearby. The same opportunities do not necessarily exist in areas nearby. Criminals are coupled to place! Criminals are coupled to place! One respondent arrested at the drug crime site, for example, explained that it is difficult to move because the “money won’t be the same,” that he “would have to start from scratch,” and that it “takes time to build up customers.” One respondent arrested at the drug crime site, for example, explained that it is difficult to move because the “money won’t be the same,” that he “would have to start from scratch,” and that it “takes time to build up customers.” Another said: “you really can’t deal in areas you aren’t living in, it ain’t your turf. That’s how people get themselves killed.” Another said: “you really can’t deal in areas you aren’t living in, it ain’t your turf. That’s how people get themselves killed.” “I walked over (to the graveyard cemetery) and I didn’t think I’d make money. It was unfamiliar to me. I didn’t know the guys (clients). On Cornelison you recognize the guys. I know from being out there every day (on Cornelison), the cars, the faces. It’s different. In my area, I know the people. Up on 'the hill' -- I don’t really know the people at that end of town” (Brisgone, 2004: 199). “I walked over (to the graveyard cemetery) and I didn’t think I’d make money. It was unfamiliar to me. I didn’t know the guys (clients). On Cornelison you recognize the guys. I know from being out there every day (on Cornelison), the cars, the faces. It’s different. In my area, I know the people. Up on 'the hill' -- I don’t really know the people at that end of town” (Brisgone, 2004: 199).

30 National Academy of Sciences “...studies that focused police resources on crime hot spots provide the strongest collective evidence of police effectiveness that is now available. On the basis of a series of randomized experimental studies, we conclude that the practice described as hot-spots policing is effective in reducing crime and disorder and can achieve these reductions without significant displacement of crime control benefits. Indeed, the research evidence suggests that the diffusion of crime control benefits to areas surrounding treated hot spots is stronger than any displacement outcome.” “...studies that focused police resources on crime hot spots provide the strongest collective evidence of police effectiveness that is now available. On the basis of a series of randomized experimental studies, we conclude that the practice described as hot-spots policing is effective in reducing crime and disorder and can achieve these reductions without significant displacement of crime control benefits. Indeed, the research evidence suggests that the diffusion of crime control benefits to areas surrounding treated hot spots is stronger than any displacement outcome.” National Research Council (2004:250) National Research Council (2004:250) 30 studies that focused police resources on crime hot spots provide the strongest collective evidence of police effectiveness that is now available. On the basis of a series of randomized experimental studies, we conclude that the practice described as hot-spots policing is effective in reducing crime and disorder and can achieve these reductions without significant displacement of crime control benefits. Indeed, the research evidence suggests that the diffusion of crime control benefits to areas surrounding treated hot spots is stronger than any displacement outcome.

31 The Potential for Social Prevention At Crime Hot Spots New opportunities for crime prevention! 31

32 Social Risk Factors for Crime Waves We saw earlier that both social disorganization and opportunity factors were related to being a crime hot spots. We saw earlier that both social disorganization and opportunity factors were related to being a crime hot spots. Weisburd et al. (2014) also found that a series of factors that reflected social disorganization and weak informal social controls at street segments were related to crime increases in Seattle: Weisburd et al. (2014) also found that a series of factors that reflected social disorganization and weak informal social controls at street segments were related to crime increases in Seattle: Decreasing Property Values; Increased Housing Assistance; Increased Racial Heterogeneity; Increased Physical Disorder; More Truant Juveniles; Fewer “Active Voters” (“Collective Efficacy”) Decreasing Property Values; Increased Housing Assistance; Increased Racial Heterogeneity; Increased Physical Disorder; More Truant Juveniles; Fewer “Active Voters” (“Collective Efficacy”) 32

33 Evidence of the Importance of Collective Efficacy in an NIH Prospective Longitudinal Study of Crime Hot Spots

34 Changing the Scale of Social Interventions for Crime Prevention Focus on crime hot spots provides an opportunity to “lower the scale” of social interventions, and accordingly to make such interventions relevant to crime prevention practitioners. Focus on crime hot spots provides an opportunity to “lower the scale” of social interventions, and accordingly to make such interventions relevant to crime prevention practitioners. It is one thing to attempt change in the social conditions of an entire neighborhood or city. It is another to try to ameliorate problems on specific blocks. It is one thing to attempt change in the social conditions of an entire neighborhood or city. It is another to try to ameliorate problems on specific blocks. Perhaps it is time to consider providing economic aid to problematic street blocks and not to neighborhoods overall. Perhaps it is time to consider providing economic aid to problematic street blocks and not to neighborhoods overall. It may be time to think of increasing collective efficacy on specific streets, and not in whole neighborhoods. It may be time to think of increasing collective efficacy on specific streets, and not in whole neighborhoods. 34

35 Increasing Collective Efficacy Can police be used to increase collective efficacy at street segments? The Brooklyn Park Collective Efficacy at Hot Spots Experiment. 35

36 The Pittsburgh Housing Renewal in Hot Spots Project In Pittsburgh we are working with a non- profit land development company on a project that seeks to reduce crime by improving slum housing. In Pittsburgh we are working with a non- profit land development company on a project that seeks to reduce crime by improving slum housing. The purpose is not to change the neighborhood, but to improve hot spot streets. The purpose is not to change the neighborhood, but to improve hot spot streets. 36

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