Brabazon Committee December 1942 Study global aviation needs post war “Airline Committee on International Routes” (Committee of Seventeen Airlines) July 1943 Objective to Maximize support of Air Transport Command
Brabazon Committee conclusions : Type I - large transatlantic airliner serving the high-volume routes like London-New York, seating its passengers in luxury for the 12-hour trip. Type II was a short haul feeder liner intended to replace the Douglas DC-3 and de Havilland Dragon Rapide. Type IIA was a piston-powered aircraft, and the Type IIB would use the new turboprop engine. Type III medium-range aircraft for various routes serving the British Empire. Type IV a jet-powered 100-seat design. The Type IV would be able to replace the Type III outright.
Air Transport Command Composed of many Airlines “Open Skies” philosophy Post War single U.S. flag carrier airline “Chosen Instrument” regulated philosophy
International Civil Aviation Organisation Convened the “Chicago Convention” in December of 1944 Fifty Two nations participated to define the charter of a new body established to guide and develop international civil aviation
194419521948 War dept Spec for jet bomber. Shairer letter to Cohn SAC formed within USAAF USAF founded LeMay SAC command DeH Comet 1 first flight KC-97 EIS B-47 First flight Getting into the jet business B-47 EIS
Jets gained a bad reputation post war! The industry was learning about - Compressibility effects - Metal fatigue - Powered controls/yaw damping - Jet engine handling/surging - Flutter - Take off techniques - Lightning - Cabin Pressurization -Yet Trippe wanted to go for jets out of the box!
19521959195419561958 367-80 First Flight KC135 Rollout KC135 EIS DeH Comet EIS B-52 EIS 707-121 EIS with PanAm PanAm orders jets
“…All we need for an immediate go ahead is a customer” Wellwood Beall (1949 quote) V-P Engineering and Sales The Boeing Company
John Borger (1913-2011) 1946 appointed Chief Project Engineer PanAm 1963 appointed Chief Engineer PanAm
Jet Routes as of October, 1960 Pan Am inaugurated it's first jet service in October, 1958 with Boeing 707-121 flights across the Atlantic from New York to Paris. two months after the airline took delivery of the first aircraft from Boeing. Two years on, with advent of an updated B-707 model with longer range and more powerful engines, Pan Am was set to dominate global international air travel as the jet fleet expanded, eventually numbering 137 aircraft in the 707 family.
Maneuvering during wartime ………………1944 British and US were equally concerned about capturing civilian aviation markets after war. In the US, Asst. Secy. of State Adolph Berle pressuring FDR’s administration to face potential problems. Stokeley Morgan became aviation policy advisor – having fallen out with Trippe. He managed Latin American Div. of PanAm for 8 yrs. Relations between RAF and USAAC were not good following arguments about troop transport with Lend- Lease airplanes
Berle persuades USG to convene “Interdepartmental Committee on International Aviation” – Berle chairs! High priority on defining organization for post war air transport. Berle distrusts Trippe! Atlantic Charter defined US and British war aims but advocated open seas, free trade (and essentially, open skies) Implication to Trippe is that USG is out to destroy PanAm monopoly. VP Wallace espoused an international peace keeping air force post war (1943)
Clare Boothe Luce advocates protection of America’s heritage in the civil transport market Trippe and Albert Critchley (MD BOAC) meet secretly in Baltimore and work a postwar quid pro quo to share international market for two national flag carriers. Discovery several weeks later just increases suspicion of Trippe and PanAm Berle’s committee concludes that American foreign aviation is too big a proposition for any single company Air Transport Command has granted international routes to several US domestic airlines. Cat is out of the bag! Hard to put it back in!