Presentation on theme: "Introducing the Jet Age the Boeing 707 Barry Latter January 2015."— Presentation transcript:
Introducing the Jet Age the Boeing 707 Barry Latter January 2015
Brabazon Committee December 1942 Study global aviation needs post war “Airline Committee on International Routes” (Committee of Seventeen Airlines) July 1943 Objective to Maximize support of Air Transport Command
Brabazon Committee conclusions : Type I - large transatlantic airliner serving the high-volume routes like London-New York, seating its passengers in luxury for the 12-hour trip. Type II was a short haul feeder liner intended to replace the Douglas DC-3 and de Havilland Dragon Rapide. Type IIA was a piston-powered aircraft, and the Type IIB would use the new turboprop engine. Type III medium-range aircraft for various routes serving the British Empire. Type IV a jet-powered 100-seat design. The Type IV would be able to replace the Type III outright.
Air Transport Command Composed of many Airlines “Open Skies” philosophy Post War single U.S. flag carrier airline “Chosen Instrument” regulated philosophy
International Civil Aviation Organisation Convened the “Chicago Convention” in December of 1944 Fifty Two nations participated to define the charter of a new body established to guide and develop international civil aviation
TC&W (TWA) AEA (AA) PanAm
War dept Spec for jet bomber. Shairer letter to Cohn SAC formed within USAAF USAF founded LeMay SAC command DeH Comet 1 first flight KC-97 EIS B-47 First flight Getting into the jet business B-47 EIS
Boeing XB-47 first flight December 17, 1947
Vickers Viscount First flight July 16, 1948
DeHavilland Comet 1 first flight July 27, 1949
Boeing XB-52 First flight April 15, 1952
Lockheed L-188 Electra First flight, December 6, 1957
Propeller reduction gear
Jets gained a bad reputation post war! The industry was learning about - Compressibility effects - Metal fatigue - Powered controls/yaw damping - Jet engine handling/surging - Flutter - Take off techniques - Lightning - Cabin Pressurization -Yet Trippe wanted to go for jets out of the box!
First Flight KC135 Rollout KC135 EIS DeH Comet EIS B-52 EIS EIS with PanAm PanAm orders jets
“…All we need for an immediate go ahead is a customer” Wellwood Beall (1949 quote) V-P Engineering and Sales The Boeing Company
John Borger ( ) 1946 appointed Chief Project Engineer PanAm 1963 appointed Chief Engineer PanAm
Boeing Rollout May 14, 1954
Boeing model First flight July 15, 1954 Courtesy The Boeing Company
Trippe’s apartment, Gracie Square, Manhattan Cocktail party for IATA delegates Trippe announces purchase of 45 jets
Courtesy The Boeing Company
October 26, 1958, with Boeing Clipper America (N711PA) with 111 passengers. New York Idlewild to Paris Le Bourget (stopping at Gander to refuel)
Courtesy The Boeing Company
Jet Routes as of October, 1960 Pan Am inaugurated it's first jet service in October, 1958 with Boeing flights across the Atlantic from New York to Paris. two months after the airline took delivery of the first aircraft from Boeing. Two years on, with advent of an updated B-707 model with longer range and more powerful engines, Pan Am was set to dominate global international air travel as the jet fleet expanded, eventually numbering 137 aircraft in the 707 family.
Republic Rainbow Consolidated Vultee CV-37 in PanAm colors
Insert Gledhill image
Maneuvering during wartime ………………1944 British and US were equally concerned about capturing civilian aviation markets after war. In the US, Asst. Secy. of State Adolph Berle pressuring FDR’s administration to face potential problems. Stokeley Morgan became aviation policy advisor – having fallen out with Trippe. He managed Latin American Div. of PanAm for 8 yrs. Relations between RAF and USAAC were not good following arguments about troop transport with Lend- Lease airplanes
Berle persuades USG to convene “Interdepartmental Committee on International Aviation” – Berle chairs! High priority on defining organization for post war air transport. Berle distrusts Trippe! Atlantic Charter defined US and British war aims but advocated open seas, free trade (and essentially, open skies) Implication to Trippe is that USG is out to destroy PanAm monopoly. VP Wallace espoused an international peace keeping air force post war (1943)
Clare Boothe Luce advocates protection of America’s heritage in the civil transport market Trippe and Albert Critchley (MD BOAC) meet secretly in Baltimore and work a postwar quid pro quo to share international market for two national flag carriers. Discovery several weeks later just increases suspicion of Trippe and PanAm Berle’s committee concludes that American foreign aviation is too big a proposition for any single company Air Transport Command has granted international routes to several US domestic airlines. Cat is out of the bag! Hard to put it back in!
Jet accidents 1945 – 1950 Prototypes/ flight test airplanes/experimental Horton Ho229Bachen B-349 Natter Lockheed XP-80 Me 262 Curtiss XF15C MiG I-250 Mitsubishi J8M1 McDonnell XFD-1 Northrop Xp-79B He162 Bell XP-83 Avia DH 108 B-36 Martin XB-48 Gloster E1/44 Saab J.21R Westland Wyvern Douglas Skystreak Attacker XB-49 F-86 Sabre
Notable Jet Airplane Casualties 1945 – 1950 (fatalities, accidents and bail outs) Johannes Steinhoff “Willy” Hoffman Richard Bong ”Pappy” Herbst Geoffrey deHavilland Don Gentile Raymond Wetmore “Wimpy” Wade “Jo” Lancaster “Pappy” Fruin