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Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS being in the bulls eye Responsive Universities Universities in the future,

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Presentation on theme: "Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS being in the bulls eye Responsive Universities Universities in the future,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS being in the bulls eye Responsive Universities Universities in the future, coherence of the TRIPLE HELIX

2 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Globalization ”The bulls eye” Knowledge societies – increased demand Fiscal austerity – budget constraints

3 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Composition of the global market for goods

4 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Global hubs of technological innovation Source: Hillner (2000) and UNDP (2001)

5 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Some European countries, ad especially the Caribbean and Africa, face significant emigration rates of their elites (sometimes exceeding 50%) Source: OECD, Trends in International Migrations 2004

6 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Cross-border higher education and international mobility: trends and issues

7 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS International mobility of students  OECD countries receive about 85-90% of all foreign students in the world, i.e. 1.8 million students in 2002  The majority (57%) of foreign students within the OECD area come from non-OECD countries  5 countries received 77% of all foreign students in the OECD area in 2002: United States (33%), United Kingdom (13%), Germany (12%), Australia (10%), France (9%)

8 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS The international market for higher education Source: OECD Education at a glance 2005

9 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS The international market for higher education Source: OECD Education at a glance 2005

10 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Trends in international mobility of students and cross-border education

11 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Growth of Foreign Students: 1990 to 2002 (1990=100) Source: OECD

12 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS International mobility of academics  United States  international scholars in 2003: an increase by 40% since 1994  Foreign scholars were estimated to represent 30 to 40% of total university researchers  Europe  No systematic evidence, but the academic mobility through the EU Socrates programme has increased by 71% between 1997 and 2000 (to scholars) Source: OECD & Institute of International Education (IIE)

13 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS International mobility of programmes and institutions  Programme and institution mobility is still limited in scale but grows rapidly, especially in the Asia-Pacific region  37% of all international students enrolled in Australian institutions studied from their country in 2001 (against 26% in 1996)  Singapore: more undergraduate students accessed a foreign programme from Singapore than studied abroad in 2000  China: 9-fold increase in foreign programmes between 1995 and 2003

14 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Foreign Students in Australia by mode of study ( )

15 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Origin of foreign students in America & Europe (2001) OECD receiving countries in North America EuropeOECD From Africa20%77%12% From N. America 55%38%7% From S. America 54%42%4% From Asia47%29%42% From Europe15%81%34% From Oceania29%19%1% From WORLD33%54% Source: OECD

16 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Rationales and policies to internationalisation: the capacity building agenda

17 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Rationales and drivers of cross-border higher education  Disappearance of distance (new technologies, decrease in costs of travel and communication)  Globalisation and labour market opportunities  Unmet demand in some emerging countries and need to increase their stock of human capital  Need to attract highly skilled people in the context of ageing societies and increasingly knowledge- based economies

18 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS EXPORT stragegiesIMPORT strategies Capacity building Revenue generation Skilled migration Intensity of economic rationales Mutual understanding

19 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Cross-border education and brain drain/gain

20 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Cross-border education and brain drain/gain  Increasing competition for highly skilled people  75% of Chinese students who studied abroad between 1978 and 1999 failed to return  USA: 25% of temporary visa holders were formerly enrolled in US universities (27% of all medical doctors educated abroad)

21 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Stay rates of 1996 PhD holders in the USA in 2001 Source: Oak Ridge Associated Universities

22 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Percentage of highly educated expatriates in OECD countries by region of origin North America: 4,9% / South and Central America: 9,7% / Caribbean: 5,7% Source: OECD Migration database

23 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Costs and benefits of skilled migration for the sending countries  Costs:  Loss on investment (if they have financed the schooling)  Loss of qualified human capital (and thus productivity)  Benefits:  Investment from their diaspora  Remittances from their diaspora  Business links enabling the sending country to participate in international networks  Permanent and temporary migration are two different cases

24 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS The challenge Universities in the triple helix A -- teaching B -- research C -- knowledge transfer

25 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Public funding of higher education (A) Indexed development in selected taximeters for HE in Denmark * * Source: FL *1999 and 2001 are calculated VTU information and includes graduation bonus. Deflated using net-price index Law, economics ect. Danish, history ect. Medicine Comp sci, physics Chem, biology ect. Odontology Language, culture ect. Engineering Pharmacology Veterinarian Math, statistics

26 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Public funding of research (B) * * * Source: CFA 2002 mio. kr. ScienceTechHealthAgri and VetSocialHum

27 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Financing knowledge transfer (C) public and private funds for  Stimulating demand (targetted incentives, insertion, matching ….)  Meeting demand for pay (contract research, consultancies, grants to special projects ….)  Organizing supply (TTO, external service units ….)  Exploitation of intellectual property (University Press, legalizing IP ….)  Public – private structural partnerships (foundations, science parks, incubators, project hotels, innovation camps etc.)

28 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Globalization, ”Barcelona 2010”, and the universities - where do we stand

29 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Research funding by sector

30 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Financing research in Denmark

31 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS The largest research enterprises in 2003

32 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Getting to Barcelona 2010 in Billion DKK

33 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS

34 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS …..and how to get there

35 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS New framework for universities in Denmark  ? New University Act (2007) and inclusion of national laboratories?  Self-governing institutions with external Boards  ? Further increase in autonomy and accountability?  Development contracts with the Government New management structure with the Rector being CEO-like  ?Internal Danish ”Bologna Process” and accreditation?

36 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS New funding compact for universities  Public funding for teaching follows productivity (quality and quantity- new taximeter) - A  Public funding for research, 55% direct, 45% in competition including overhead (60%) - B  Funding of demand and supply in knowledge transfer system (proof of concept, innovation, ventures…) – C Each funding element needs to aim at full cost financing and at large, multi-year grants or contracts

37 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS New quality assurance system to support responsiveness, flexibility and mobility Quality assurance and accreditation, recognition of foreign degrees, and recognition of professional qualifications become increasingly interlinked  Consolidation of Bologna – bachelor, master, PhD  Recognition of foreign degrees  facilitates the reception of foreign students with former education  facilitates the return of domestic students with foreign degrees

38 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector Sorø, 16. maj, 2006 THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS Universities in the bulls eye thanks for the invitation


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