2 At the same time as a new style of play was being written in Europe, the beginnings of a new approach to acting itself begins to emergeDuke Georg II ( )Repelled by artificial conventions of mid-19th century staging and actingArgued for unifying artistic directorCompany of actors working as an ensembleRehearsals often lasted for monthsStage picture: avoiding symmetrical groupingsPeriod plays: actors rehearse in costumeCrowd scenes: not in unison, individual words to be learned. Varied postures.No member of cast ever to look at the audienceTook Berlin by storm in 1874; Ibsen saw them in 1876.
3 Meiningen Company, German Meininger Hoftheatertruppe (“Meiningen Court Theatre Troupe”), experimental acting group begun in 1866 and directed by George II, duke of Saxe-Meiningen, and his morganatic wife, the actress Ellen Franz. It was one of the first companies in which the importance of the director was stressed.A wealthy aristocrat and head of a small German principality, Saxe-Meiningen studied art during his youth and in 1866 established his own court theatre group, which he served as producer, director, financial backer, and costume and scenery designer.
4 Inspired by the English theatre—particularly by the work of actor Charles Kean who had toured Berlin in 1859—and the productions of Franz von Dinglelstedt in Weimar, the “Theatre Duke” sought to create a production style that unified the conception, interpretation, and execution of dramatic works. Assisted by the actor Ludwig Chronegk, who conducted it on tour, the duke instituted many reforms, among which were an emphasis upon historical accuracy and authenticity in costumes and sets, the use of steps and platforms to keep the action moving fluidly on many different levels, the division of groups in crowd scenes into organic yet distinct vocal entities, the introduction of long, carefully planned rehearsals (anticipating Konstantin Stanislavsky’s method), and the displacement of stage scenery (paintings) by settings in which the actor became a natural part of his environment. The company’s production design was greatly influenced by the paintings of Wilhelm von Kaulbach, who had been George II’s art instructor. The productions were lavish by the standards of the time and could feature as many as 300 original costumes made of precious materials.
5 The company’s first public performance took place in 1874 at Berlin The company’s first public performance took place in 1874 at Berlin. In 1881 the Meiningen Company went to London, where it presented three plays by Shakespeare and a number of German and non-German classics. Thereafter, the ensemble performed in more than 35 European cities, including Moscow and Brussels. In 1890, feeling that the company had accomplished its objectives, the duke closed it.Its realistic productions profoundly affected the thinking of the Russian director Stanislavsky and the French director André Antoine, the two major proponents of stage realism, and provided the impetus for the further exploration and development of naturalistic theatre, which found its greatest expression and perfection in the work of the Moscow Academic Art Theatre.