Presentation on theme: "Work Zone Safety- Company Perspective"— Presentation transcript:
1Work Zone Safety- Company Perspective Chris TackeSafety ConsultantMontana Department of Transportation
2What this presentation covers Work zone DataTemporary Traffic Control (TTC)- common problemsHazards of road construction and how to fix themMethods/tools used to protect roadway workers and users
3IntroductionWorkers in construction, utilities, or public works jobs on both highways or city streets are at risk of fatal or serious debilitating injuries.The work is in congested areas with exposure to high traffic volumes and speeds, as well as under conditions of low lighting, low visibility, and inclement weather.The work is routinely near both moving construction vehicles and passing motor vehicle traffic.
4How are roadway workers at risk? Workers in the roadway are at risk of injury from a varietyof general traffic vehicles entering the work zone:Courtesy of Washington State Dept. of TransportationDrunk driversSleepy or impaired driversImpatient, reckless driversDrivers using cell phones; other inattentive driversLaw enforcement and emergency vehiclesDisabled vehicles pulling in and parkingLost drivers looking for directionsThis attenuator truck was rear ended at 63 mph by an inattentive driver, despite workers’ attempts to get the driver’s attention.Two workers were hurt and the driver received minor injuries.The driver pled guilty to reckless endangerment of a road-way worker.
5How are workers on foot at risk? Flaggers and other Workers On Foot* are exposed to therisk of being struck if they are not visible to motorists or equipment operators.Driver’s view passing by a work zone under overcast/rainy conditions...Do you see the flagger?* Workers On Foot refers to any pedestrian worker on the ground in the work zone
6How are equipment operators at risk? Workers who operate construction vehicles or motorized equipment risk injury due to rollovers, collisions, beingcaught between or struck by operating equipment.Overturned compactor on loose soil
7Some Facts to think about During peak construction season, Approximately 20% of our nation’s highway system is under construction with more than 3,000 work zonesApproximately 12 billion vehicles miles of travel a year will be through active work zonesMotorist can expect to encounter an active workzone 1 out of every 100 miles driven on the nations highway systemMore than 40,000 people are injured each year as a result of crashes in work zonesOne work zone fatality every 8 hours- 3 per dayOne work zone injury every 9 minutes-160 per daySource: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse
8OSHA Standards on Work Zones 29 CFR 1926 Subpart G(g)(1) Construction areas shall be posted with legible traffic signs at points of hazard(2) All Traffic control signs or devices used for protection of construction workers shall conform to Part VI of the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)(a) FlaggersSignaling by flagger and the use of flaggers, including warning garments worn by flagger shall conform to Part VI of the MUTCD
9Temporary Traffic Control (TTC) The primary function of Temporary Traffic Control (TTC) is to provide for the reasonably safe and effective movement of road users through or around TTC zones while reasonably protecting road users, workers, responders to traffic incidents, and equipment.The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) defines thestandards used by road managers nationwide to install and maintain trafficcontrol devices on all streets and highways. The MUTCD is published by theFederal Highway Administration (FHWA), incorporated by the Department ofTransportation (DOT) and referenced by the Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA).The MUTCD sets minimum standards, provides guidance and ensures uniformityof traffic control devices across the nation. The use of uniform traffic controldevices (messages, location, size, shapes, and colors) helps reduce crashes andcongestion, and improves the efficiency of the surface transportation system. Theinformation contained in the MUTCD is the result of years of practical experienceand research. This effort ensures that traffic control devices are visible,recognizable, understandable, and necessary. The MUTCD is a dynamicdocument that changes with time to address contemporary safety andoperational issues.
10Basic Consideration for TTC Fulfill a specific needCommand AttentionConvey a clear and simple meaningCommand respect of the road userGive adequate time for proper responseSign spacing is dependent on speed of roadway and type of roadway
13Advanced Warning Area1. The advance warning area is the section where road users are informed aboutthe upcoming work zone or incident area. The advance warning area may varyfrom a single sign or high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lightson a vehicle to a series of signs in advance of the work zone activity area.
14Issues: Advanced Warning Area One step down: example 70 mph – 45 mph Sign order – Road Work first sign.Speed Limit Step DownOne step down: example 70 mph – 45 mphTwo step down signs if speed limit difference is 30 mph or greater.
18Transition Area2. The transition area is that section where road users are redirected out of theirnormal path. Transition areas usually involve strategic use of tapers. Tapers arecreated by using a series of channelizing devices and/or pavement markings tomove traffic out of or into the normal path.
20Activity Area3. The activity area is the section where the work activity takes place. It iscomprised of the work space, the traffic space, and the buffer space. The workspace is that portion of the highway closed to road users and set aside forworkers, equipment, and material. Work spaces are usually delineated for roadusers by channelizing devices or, to exclude vehicles and pedestrians, bytemporary barriers. Buffer spaces may be positioned either longitudinally orlaterally with respect to the direction of road user flow.
21Issues: Activity Area 500 feet before and after work zone. Begin/End Work Zone Signs500 feet before and after work zone.Device Spacing – 2 x speed limitProper Speed Limit for activitiesLongitudinal Buffer SpaceNo vehicles, equipment, or materials
22Termination Area4. The termination area shall be used to return road users to their normal path.The termination area shall extend from the downstream end of the work area tothe last temporary traffic control device such as END ROAD WORK signs, ifposted
23Issues: Termination Area End Work Zone (if within 500 feet) or End Road Work signEnd of work zone speed limit signsWork occurring outside temporary traffic control zone
27NIOSH FACE ReportFATALITY ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL EVALUATION (FACE) PROGRAM
28Internal Traffic Control Plan (ITCP) The purpose of an internal traffic control plan is to develop strategies to controlthe flow of construction workers, vehicles and equipment inside the work zone.To reduce the hazard associated with backing construction vehicles andequipment, an ITCP can be developed to minimize the backing of all constructionvehicles and equipment on site. This can be accomplished by taking intoconsideration the tasks to be performed and how the vehicles can safelynavigate through the construction site to complete these tasks while backing aslittle as possible. The ITCP should also address workers on foot by creatingwalkways for these workers that are clear of backing construction vehicles andequipment. In addition, some areas within a construction work zone might haveto be defined as areas that are prohibited for workers on foot. When possible, set up the job-sites so equipment and materials flow inone single direction so as to minimize the need to back up. Establish “No On-Foot Worker Zones” and communicate to all workers thepolicies regarding back-up alarms, spotters, swing radius and otherbarricade protection. Use a signal person. Operators should get out of their vehicles and walk to the rear to look forpeople, objects and/or confirm clearances. Warn near-by workers who might be in the way. Near-by, on-foot workers must pay attention to the equipment and watch itcome to a complete stop.
29Working Around Vehicles/Heavy Equipment Vehicle and Heavy Equipment Blind SpotsA blind spot (or blind area) is the area around a vehicle or piece of construction equipment that is not visible to the operator, either by direct line-of-sight or indirectly by use of internal and external mirrors.This compact wheeled loader, with its bucket raised, is approaching the work site and no one is watching.
30Blind Spots or AreasExample: this mapping diagram shows the blind areas around a Ford F-800 dump truck.8 ft in front and 16 ft in rear are the most hazardous areas.The driver side door area is the only zone within 8 feet of the dump truck that is safely visible.
31Blind Areas: Getting struck or run over HAZARDS:● Running over or striking pedestrians● Smashing site materials and tools● Striking other equipment or vehicles● Rollover on steep slopes● Contact with utilities“Roadway Construction Worker Dies From Crushing Injuries When Backed Over by aDump Truck”Figure in white shows where the worker was standing when he was run over. The driver did not see the victim.
32Operator’s view from inside a motor grader cab Vehicle Blind SpotsThe problem is that pedestrian or ground workersOften need to be near moving equipment and vehiclesto perform their work.Construction equipment is typically large and has an enclosed cab, which can make the blind areas around this equipment very large and hard to see.The bigger the equipment the larger the blind spots or hazardous areas for pedestrians and ground workers.Operator’s view from inside a motor grader cab
33Vehicle Blind SpotsTruck drivers and equipment operators sit high above the ground and cannot see pedestrian workers crossing close to front of them.Obstructions in a driver’sLINE of SIGHT might be:MirrorsCab arrangementsDoor and window postStacks and air cleanersBug shield or other ornamentationsBox, tank, and otherequipment configurationsDriver's field of view inside of a tanker truck. Can you see the workers in front of and directly to the right of bug shield? (circle)
34Vehicle Blind SpotsTools/Attachments on vehicles can create greater blind spots, reduce visibility, or swings that increases the risk to workers being struck or pinned.Watch out for heavy equipment moving with raised bucketsBe ready for possible sudden movements of booms or changes in direction of equipment operationKnow equipment swing radius(how far can it reach, move or rotate)
35Vehicle Blind Spots: How can you protect yourself when working near heavy equipment?Do not cross directly in front of or immediately behind large heavy equipment or trucks where the operator sits higher in the vehicle.Communicate with an operator (verbally and/or by eye contact) before entering any area near heavy equipment or large trucks.If you have to stand near parked equipment or trucks, stand in front or on operator side so if equipment comes into use, the operator can see you and you can see them.Courtesy of Construction Safety Association of Ontario
36Operating Dump Trucks in Reverse If employees are in the backing zone or it is reasonable to expect that employees will enter the backing zone behind a dump truck, then ensure that:The vehicle has an operable automatic reverse signal alarmwhich is audible above surrounding noise level; andANDAn observer who signals when it isSAFE to back up or stopCourtesy of Construction Safety Association of Ontario
37Other Methods/Tools to Protect roadway workers/user
41SummaryEnsure TTC is set up properly and according to MUTCD guidelines.Reassess your TTC oftenEnsure ITCP is in place and communicated to all employeesEnsure employees understand vehicle blind spotsKeep backing of vehicles to a minimum