Presentation on theme: "CHARTING A COMPANY’S DIRECTION: VISION AND MISSION, OBJECTIVES, AND STRATEGY Chapter 2 MGT 4380."— Presentation transcript:
1CHARTING A COMPANY’S DIRECTION: VISION AND MISSION, OBJECTIVES, AND STRATEGY Chapter 2MGT 4380
2Strategic Management Process Developing a strategic vision, mission, and valuesSetting objectivesCrafting a strategyImplementing and executing the chosen strategyMonitoring developments, evaluating performance, and initiating corrective adjustments
4Factors Shaping Strategic Decisions External ConsiderationsWhat are the industry’s economic characteristics?How strong are the competitive forces at play?What forces are driving change in the industry?What market positions do rivals occupy and what moves are they likely to make next?What are the key factors for future competitive success?What are the company’s external opportunities?
5Factors Shaping Strategic Decisions Internal ConsiderationsHow well is the present strategy working?What are the company’s competitively valuable resources, capabilities, and internal weaknesses?Are the company’s prices and costs competitive?Is the company competitively stronger or weaker than key rivals?
6Stage 1: Developing a Strategic Vision, a Mission, and Core Values A strategic vision concerns a firm’s future business path—“where we are going”Markets to be pursuedFuture product/ market/customer/ technology focusThe mission statement of a firm focuses on its present business purpose—“who we are and what we do”Current product and service offeringsCustomer needs being served
7Strategic VisionIt’s top management’s views about the firm’s direction and future product-market-customer- technology focusProvides a panoramic view of “where we are going”Is distinctive and specific to a particular organizationAvoids use of innocuous uninspiring language that could apply to most any firmDefinitively states how the company’s leaders intend to position the firm beyond where it is today
8Strategic VisionTABLE Characteristics of Effectively Worded Vision StatementsGraphicPaints a picture of the kind of company that management is trying to create and the market position(s) the company is striving to stake out.DirectionalIs forward looking; describes the strategic course that management has charted and the kinds of product-market-customer-technology changes that will help the company prepare for the future.FocusedIs specific enough to provide managers with guidance in making decisions and allocating resources.FlexibleIs not so focused that it makes it difficult for management to adjust to changing circumstances in markets, customer preferences, or technology.FeasibleIs within the realm of what the company can reasonably expect to achieve.DesirableIndicates why the directional path makes good business sense.Easy to communicateIs explainable in 5 to 10 minutes and, ideally, can be reduced to a simple, memorable “slogan”
9Strategic VisionTABLE 2.3 – Common Shortcomings of Company Vision StatementsVague or incompleteShort on specifics about where the company is headed or what thecompany is doing to prepare for the future.Not forward lookingDoesn’t indicate whether or how management intends to alter the company’s current product-market-customer-technology focus.Too broadSo all-inclusive that the company could head in most any direction, pursue most any opportunity, or enter most any business.Bland or uninspiringLacks the power to motivate company personnel or inspire shareholderconfidence about the company’s direction.Not distinctiveProvides no unique company identity; could apply to firms in any of several industries (including rivals operating in the same market arena).Too reliant on superlativesDoesn’t say anything specific about the company’s strategiccourse beyond the pursuit of such distinctions as being a recognized leader, a global or worldwide leader, or the first choice of customers.
11The Importance of Communicating the Strategic Vision An engaging, inspirational visionChallenges and motivates the workforceArticulates a compelling case for “where we are going and why”Evokes positive support and excitementArouses a committed organizational effort to move in a common direction
12Expressing the Essence of the Vision in a Slogan NikeTo bring innovation and inspiration to every athlete in the worldThe Mayo ClinicThe best care to every patient every dayGreenpeaceTo halt environmental abuse and promote environmental solutions.
13Why a Sound, Well-Communicated Strategic Vision Matters It crystallizes senior executives’ own views about the firm’s long-term direction.It reduces the risk of rudderless decision making by management at all levels.It is a tool for winning the support of employees to help make the vision a reality.It provides a beacon for lower-level managers in forming departmental missions.It helps an organization prepare for the future.
14Changing Strategic Visions Periodically, firms are required to change their strategic visionA change in vision is required when it becomes evident to management that the industry has changed in a significant way that renders the company’s current vision obsolete
15Mission StatementsIdeally, a company mission statement is sufficiently descriptive to:Identify the company’s products or services.Specify the buyer needs it seeks to satisfy.Specify the customer groups or markets it is endeavoring to serve.Specify its approach to pleasing customers.Give the company its own identity.
16Mission Statements Mission of Nike: “To bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world.”Mission of Duke Energy:“Our purpose is to create superior value for our customers, employees, communities and investors through the production, conversion, delivery and sale of energy and energy services.”
17Vision, Mission, & Profit Firms sometimes state that their mission is to simply earn a profit.Profit is the obvious intent of every commercial enterprise.Profit is not “who we are and what we do.”Profit is more correctly an objective and a result of what a firm does.
18Core ConceptA firm’s values are the beliefs, traits, and behavioral norms that the firm’s personnel are expected to display in conducting the firm’s business and pursuing its strategic vision and mission.
19Stage 2: Setting Objectives Why set objectives?To convert the strategic vision into specific performance targetsTo create yardsticks to track progress and measure performanceObjectives should:Be well-stated (clearly worded)Be challenging, yet achievable in order to stretch the organization to perform at its full potentialBe quantifiable (measurable)Contain a specific deadline for achievementObjectives are an organization’s performance targets—the results management wants to achieve.
20Stage 2: Setting Objectives What Kinds of Objectives to SetFinancial objectivesCommunicate management’s targets for financial performanceAre lagging indicators that reflect the results of past decisions and organizational activitiesExamples: revenue growth, profitability, and return on investment
21Stage 2: Setting Objectives What Kinds of Objectives to SetStrategic objectivesAre related to a firm’s marketing standing and competitive vitalityAre leading indicators of a firm’s future financial performance and business prospects.If achieved, indicate that a firm’s future financial performance will be better than its current or past performance.Examples: market share, new customers, geographical expansion
22Stage 2: Setting Objectives An approach to performance measurement that incorporates multiple types of measures, financial and non-financial, into a single “balanced” measure.While there is no uniform method for creating a balanced scorecard, the measures that are used should incorporate the interests and contributions of all important stakeholders.Kaplan & Norton’s Model: (1) financial, (2) customer, (3) internal business practices, and (4) learning and growth (expansion)Triple Bottom Line (3 P’s): People (Social), Planet (Environmental), and Profits (Economic)
23Example Objectives General Motors Reduce the percentage of automobiles using internal combustion engines through the development of hybrids, range-extended electric vehicles, and hydrogen fuel cell electric engines.Reduce automotive structural costs to benchmark levels of 23% of revenue by from 34% in 2005.Reduce annual U.S. labor costs by an additional $5 billion by 2011.
24Example Objectives The Home Depot Be the number one destination for professional contractors.Improve in-stock positions so customers can find and buy exactly what they need.Deliver differentiated customer service and the know-how that our customers have come to expect.Repurchase $22.5 billion of outstanding shares during 2008.Open 55 new stores with 5 store relocations in 2008.
25Short-Term v. Long-Term Objectives Short-Term ObjectivesTargets to be achieved soon (< 2 years)Milestones or stair steps for reaching long-range performanceLong-Term ObjectivesTargets to be achieved within 3 to 5 yearsLong-term objectives outweigh short-term objectives
26Stage 3: Crafting a Strategy Crafting a strategy means asking:How to attract and please customersHow to compete against rivalsHow to position the firm in the marketplace and capitalize on attractive opportunities to grow the businessHow best to respond to changing economic and market conditionsHow to manage each functional piece of the businessHow to achieve the firm’s performance targets
27Stage 3: Crafting a Strategy A firm’s strategy is a collection of initiatives undertaken by managers at all levels in the organizational hierarchyCrafting strategy is a collaborative effort that:Involves managers from various levels of the organizationIs rarely something only high-level executives engage inRequires choosing among the various strategic alternatives
28Stage 3: Crafting a Strategy Corporate strategy establishes an overall game plan for managing a set of businesses in a diversified, multi- business firmOrchestrated by the CEO and other senior executivesEstablishes an overall game plan for managing a set of businesses in a diversified, multi-business companyTypically thought of in terms of overarching strategic decisions (e.g., concentration strategies, diversification strategies, vertical integration, etc.)
29Stage 3: Crafting a Strategy Business strategy is primarily concerned with strengthening the firm’s market position and building competitive advantage in a single business company or a single business unit of a diversified multibusiness corporationOrchestrated by the mid- to upper-level managersPrimarily concerned with building competitive advantage in a single business unit of a diversified companyTypically thought of in terms of low-cost v. differentiation v. focus strategies (e.g., Wal-Mart = broad low-cost; Simms = focused differentiation)
30Stage 3: Crafting a Strategy Corporate strategyAddresses the questions of how to capture cross-business synergies, what businesses to hold or divest, which new markets to enter, and how to best enter new markets—by acquisition, creation of a strategic alliance, or through internal development.Business strategyIs primarily concerned with building competitive advantage in a single business unit of a diversified company or strengthening the market position of a nondiversified single business company.Functional-area strategiesAre concerned with the strategies specifically related to particular functions or processes within a business (marketing strategy, production strategy, finance strategy, customer service strategy, product development strategy, and human resources strategy).Operating strategiesAre relatively narrow strategic initiatives and approaches of limited scope for managing key operating units (plants, distribution centers, geographic units) and specific operating activities such as materials purchasing or Internet sales.
32Stage 4: Implementing and Executing the Chosen Strategy Managing the strategy execution process involves:Staffing the organization to provide needed skills and expertise.Allocating ample resources to activities critical to good strategy execution.Ensuring that policies and procedures facilitate rather than impede effective execution.Installing information and operating systems that enable personnel to perform essential activities.
33Stage 4: Implementing and Executing the Chosen Strategy Managing the strategy execution process involves (continued):Pushing for continuous improvement in how value chain activities are performed.Tying rewards and incentives directly to the achievement of performance objectives.Creating a company culture and work climate conducive to successful strategy execution.Exerting the internal leadership needed to propel implementation forward.
34Stage 5: Evaluating Performance and Initiating Corrective Adjustments Triggering change as needed:Monitoring new external developmentsEvaluating the firm’s progressMaking corrective adjustmentsManaging strategy is an ongoing process, not an every-now-and-then taskA firm’s vision, objectives, strategy, and approach to strategy execution are never final
35Leading the Strategic Management Process The Strategic Management Process calls for six managerial actions:Making sure the company has a good strategic planStay on top of what is happening (MBWA)Putting constructive pressure on organizational units to achieve good resultsPushing corrective actions to improve both the firm’s strategy and how well it is being executedLeading the development of better competitive capabilitiesDisplaying ethical integrity and leading social responsibility initiatives
36Making Sure a Firm Has a Good Strategic Plan Responsibility of CEOEffectively communicate the vision, objectives, and major strategy componentsExercise due diligence in reviewing lower-level strategies for consistency with higher-level strategies
37Corporate Governance: The Role of the Board Of Directors The Role of the Board Of Directors in the Strategy- Making, Strategy-Executing Process:Oversee the firm’s financial accounting and reporting practices.Diligently critique and oversee the company’s direction, strategy, and business approaches.Evaluate the caliber of senior executives’ strategy-making and strategy-executing skills.Institute a compensation plan for top executives that rewards them for actions and results that serve shareholder interests.
38Strong Boards Lead to Good Corporate Governance A Strong, Independent Board of Directors:Is well informed about the company’s performanceGuides and judges the CEO and other top executivesHas the courage to curb management actions it believes are inappropriate or unduly riskyCertifies to shareholders that the CEO is doing what the board expectsProvides insight and advice to managementIs intensely involved in debating the pros and cons of key decisions and actions
39Initiating Corrective Actions to Improve Strategy and Execution The leadership challenge of making corrective adjustments is twofold:Deciding when adjustments are neededDeciding what adjustments to makeLeader’s responsibility is to step forward and push corrective actions
40Leading the Development of Better Competitive Capabilities Lead efforts to strengthen existing competitive capabilitiesAnticipate changes in customer-market requirementsProactively build new competencies and capabilities that hold promise for building an enduring competitive edge