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Light Infantry Company and Platoon Deliberate Attack

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1 Light Infantry Company and Platoon Deliberate Attack
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Light Infantry Company and Platoon Deliberate Attack Acknowledgement: POC: CPT Mark Laflamme, IN (501) Produced with much help from CPT Jesus Chong IN, CPT Carlos Munson and SFC Kevin Dougherty FA, and the USAIS (Infantry Officer Advanced Course) web site. Presented to the 2d Battalion on 10 Jan 2001. A great deal of the information was also taken from the following articles: Support by Fire--The Key to the Light Infantry Attack, by CPT Fred Johnson, Infantry Magazine, page 45, Sep-Oct 1994 Support-by-Fire Positions, by CPT Chris Toner and CPT Josh Williams, Infantry Magazine, page 39, Jan-Apr 1998 The Light Infantry Attack—Letting Go of the 90-Degree COA, by MAJ Kevin Dougherty, Infantry Magazine, page 35, Jul-Aug 1995 Platoon Attack—Role of the Platoon Sergeant and the Platoon Leader, by MAJ Keith Antonia, Infantry Magazine, page 33, Jul-Aug 1995 Internal Support by Fire in the Deliberate Attack, by CPT Glen Connor, Infantry Magazine, page 44, Sep-Oct 1995 Team and Squad Movement—Firepower versus Speed, by CPT Mark Green, Infantry Magazine, page 37, Jan-Feb 1993 Range Cards in the Deliberate Attack, by CPT Chester Char and 1SG Dewayne Chapman, Infantry Magazine, page 33, Sep-Oct 1992 Dismounted Mechanized Infantry in the Deliberate Attack, by CPT David Batchelor, Infantry Magazine, page 33, Jul-Aug 1996 The Art of Land Navigation—GPS Has Not Made Planning Obsolete, by LTC Raymond Millen, Infantry Magazine, page 36, Jan-Apr 2000 References: FM 7-10, FM 7-8, FM , FM 6-71 2nd Battalion (TS) (IN) PATHWAY

2 Agenda Doctrinal Overview of the Attack
5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack Task Organization SOSR Observed Problems Maintaining Suppressive Fires The “90-Degree COA” Fire Support Planning and Execution Limited Visibility Attacks Force Protection

3 Characteristics of Offensive Operations
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Characteristics of Offensive Operations FM 100-5, 1993, pp.7-1 thru 7-3 Concentration Surprise Tempo Audacity Concentration: Focusing combat power at decisive points and times to achieve decisive results. Surprise: Striking the enemy at a time, at a place, or in a manner for which he is unprepared. Tempo: Promotes surprise, keeps the enemy off balance, contributes to security of the attacking force Audacity: The willingness to risk bold action to achieve positive results. PATHWAY

4 Forms of Tactical Offense
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Forms of Tactical Offense FM 100-5, 1993, pp. 7-3 thru 7-9 Movement to Contact Attack Exploitation Pursuit 1. Movement to Contact: Offensive operation used to gain and maintain contact with the enemy. (The greater amount of available information on the enemy makes it different from a hasty attack) 2. Attack: Discuss Hasty versus Deliberate. Hasty: Company makes contact with the enemy and immediately deploys, suppresses, and finishes the enemy. This can be part of a Search and Attack. Deliberate: Requires more preparation time and detailed reconnaissance. 3. Exploitation: When the company maximizes its successes after forcing the enemy to retreat. 4. Pursuit: The objective of the pursuit is the total destruction of enemy forces. PATHWAY

5 Typical Tasks for Attacks
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Typical Tasks for Attacks FM , 1985, CH 1 Main Attack Supporting Attack - Seize - Isolate - Clear - Fix - Destroy - Suppress - Secure NOTE: Produce a sample company mission statement here to discuss task and purpose. PATHWAY

6 Forms of Maneuver Infiltration Turning Movement Envelopment
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Forms of Maneuver FM 100-5, 1993, P.7-11 Infiltration Turning Movement Envelopment Frontal Attack Penetration PATHWAY

7 Infiltration PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017
LU 1 This is a means of reaching the enemy’s rear without fighting through prepared defenses. PATHWAY

8 Turning Movement PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017
Type of envelopment in which the attacker attempts to avoid the defenses entirely. He seeks to secure key terrain deep in the enemy rear along his lines of communication. Faced with a major threat to his rear the enemy is turned out of his defenses and forced to attack rearward. PATHWAY

9 Frontal Attack PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017
Strikes the enemy across a wide front and over the most direct approaches. This is the least desirable form of maneuver. It is the simplest form of maneuver, and is useful for overwhelming weak defenses, security outposts, or disorganized enemy forces. This is often the best form of maneuver for an attack or meeting engagement in which speed and simplicity are key. PATHWAY

10 Envelopment PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017
Avoids the enemy’s front. The commander fixes the enemy’s attention forward with a supporting attack and then maneuvers his main effort to strike at the enemy’s flanks and rear. PATHWAY

11 Penetration 1. PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017
Used when enemy flanks are not assailable and when time does not permit some other form of maneuver. Its purpose is to rupture enemy defenses on a narrow front and thereby create both assailable flanks and access to the enemy’s rear. Conducted as part of a larger unit. Commander usually focuses combat power at the point of penetration. The commander first isolates the point of penetration with indirect fires. PATHWAY

12 Penetration 2. PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017
The commander then directs a platoon with engineer augmentation to create a breach while the remaining elements suppress the enemy and secure the penetration point. PATHWAY

13 Penetration 3. PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017
After successfully breaching the enemy’s defenses, the commander directs his platoons to attack subsequent objectives. The platoons may be directed to secure the penetration point or expand the penetration point by attacking the defenders in the flanks. PATHWAY

14 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
FM 7-10, 1990, pages 4-28 through 4-34 1. Reconnoiter and develop a concept 2. Move to the objective 3. Isolate the objective and the selected breach site 4. Attack to secure a foothold 5. Exploit the penetration and seize the decisive point

15 Chance Contact En Route
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Assault Position Movement to the Assault Position RP Objective Obstacles En Route Chance Contact En Route Chance Contact En Route The platoon leader's plan must address actions on chance contact. The lead squad executes the battle drill to react to contact. The platoon leader makes an assessment and reports. The platoon may fight through, fix, and bypass the enemy, or establish a hasty defense. Obstacles En Route If the platoon encounters an obstacle that it cannot bypass, it attempts a breach. Platoon must stealthily breach the obstacle and move through to objective. Leaders must consider resources for multiple breaches and marking. Inform class that they will now discuss considerations as the platoon moves from the AA to the OBJ. The platoon must remain undetected. If detected early, the platoon concentrates direct and indirect fires, establishes a base of fire, and maneuvers to regain the initiative. AA to LD: The platoon moves forward from the assembly area under company control. Overwatch element at LD. Leaders plan for passage of lines (POL). The platoon attempts to cross the LD without halting in an attack position. LD to Assault or Support Position: The platoon moves using the appropriate technique. It may move them together for security, or along separate routes to their respective positions, for speed. The base-of-fire element must be in place and ready before the assault element continues beyond the assault position. Attack Position SP AA PATHWAY

16 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack 1. Recon the Objective and Develop a Concept Determine PIR and type/level of recon Try to maintain eyes on the objective Task organize based on the concept: Support Breach Assault Reserve (Possibly) This is NOT the Leaders Recon. This recon is conducted before the company crosses the LD. What are we looking for? Crew-served weapons and other positions (bunkers and trenches) C2 locations Vehicles Level of preparation Gaps in the defense and other potential weaknesses How will we do the recon? Task organize a recon patrol with leaders of the assault, support, and breach elements Establish surveillance on the objective (LP/OP with commo) Secure the ORP Check with S2/Scouts for any intelligence Leave clear instructions (5-point contingency plan) if CO goes along Bring enough water and at least a Combat Lifesaver with CLS bag Ensure radio and PLGR are working and bring extra batteries Will need NODs if returning after dark Consider marking the route on the return trip PATHWAY

17 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack 2. Move to the Objective Develop routes Decide on movement formations and techniques Determine the order of movement Time the movement to reduce halts Anticipate contact or obstacles en route Engagement and bypass criteria CASEVAC Fire support Synchronize supporting fires Establish adequate control measures The movement from the AA to the LD is timed so that movement to and across the LD is continuous. Cross the LD at the time specified, or request an extension if running late. A patrol can be sent ahead to mark and time the movement to the LD. OOM: Can send the support element across the LD first and set up an overwatch position for the rest of the company. Move mortars forward to a firing position near the LD for maximum coverage. Avoid stopping in the Attack position unless early or told to hold; then post security and wait. From the LD to the Assault position, use cover, concealment, smoke and supporting fire. The antiarmor section can provide overwatch, and displace as the company moves to provide continuous support. The antiarmor section can also carry extra mortar ammo and water. If hit by indirect fires en route, move quickly from the impact area. If there is enemy contact short of the objective (chance contact), return fire at once. The FO of the platoon in contact calls for indirect fire. Depending on the place and type of resistance and the company plan, may bypass an enemy location if it will not affect the mission. Report location of bypassed enemy to higher. If a position can’t be bypassed, the platoon in contact and the CO must take prompt and aggressive action. The PL executes a battle drill to destroy the enemy. The CO makes a quick estimate of the situation and issues a FRAGO. He must coordinate actions and fires to hit the enemy with full combat power, instead of committing platoons piecemeal. The CO maneuvers to assault the flanks or rear to destroy or suppress the enemy, then continues the mission. Obstacles en route are either bypassed or breached without losing momentum. Engineers are positioned forward to provide rapid assessment of the obstacle. Location of obstacles are reported to higher. If the company support element will be used, it should be positioned before the assault element reaches the assault position. Specific instructions are issued to the support element regarding their actions if compromised in order to prevent desynchronization of the attack. A covert breach is the preferred method, but suppressive direct and indirect fires should impact at the same time. PATHWAY

18 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack 3. Isolate the Objective and the Selected Breach Site Establish security Use direct and indirect fires Plan the breaching fundamentals--SOSR Set the conditions Have a means of identifying the breach site Be flexible: Breach based on enemy and terrain The company may begin the isolation during the leader’s recon by positioning security elements to prevent enemy movement into or out of the objective area. These units must understand what actions they are supposed to take (LP/OP, personnel or antiarmor ambush). They will usually just observe and report until the company is deployed for the assault, then begin active measures. Once isolation of the objective area is complete, the CO focuses on isolation of the breach point or the point of attack. This is to prevent enemy reinforcement at the breach site and to suppress enemy weapons and positions observing the breach point. This is the responsibility of the support element. The CO masses all available combat power at the initial penetration or breach point, and uses indirect fires to suppress/obscure and isolate adjacent enemy positions from the breach site. PATHWAY

19 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack 4. Attack to Gain a Foothold Execute SOSR Control of fires The breach is normally the company’s initial main effort. The breach element penetrates or bypasses the enemy’s protective obstacles, gains a foothold through the obstacle or in the trench line, and creates a gap large enough for the assault element to pass through. The unit must be prepared to execute SOSR. In planning, the following should be considered: The breach element moves forward by cover and concealed routes. A covert breach reduces the time that the breach and assault elements are exposed to enemy fire. If this is not possible, the breach element moves under the suppressive fires of the support element. Penetration is made along a narrow front. The concept is to make a narrow penetration in the enemy defenses and then expand it enough to allow rapid passage of the assault element. Two breach sites can be used if they are mutually supporting and do not result in a lack of concentration or a piecemeal assault. If only one breach site is used, an alternate site should be selected as a contingency. Each weapon in the support element should be assigned a specific target or sector of responsibility. Initially, the SBF element establishes fire superiority with a maximum volume of fire. When indirect fires are shifted, the support element increases the rate of fire to maintain superiority. The SBF element normally occupies one position to simplify control. It may have to be split, however, to prevent masking of fires by the breach/assault element. Also, the support element usually has to reposition once the assault element begins clearing the objective. They may follow the assault element through the breach or reposition closer to the objective. PATHWAY

20 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack 5. Exploit the Penetration and Seize the Decisive Point Organize the Assault force into support, breach and assault elements, in case another obstacle is encountered Mass effects of combat power Control fires Plan through to Consolidation and Reorganization After the breach is open, the assault element conducts the main attack. It passes rapidly through the breach, supported by fires from the support and breach elements. The assault for must be prepared to complete the breach, if the breach force fails, or to breach a subsequent obstacle. Planning considerations: Reduce the enemy as quickly as possible. If you can capture or destroy enemy C2 and key positions/weapons, the enemy may surrender or abandon the position. If there is key terrain, this may be the decisive point for the assault element. The assault element is also organized into support, assault, and breach elements. Breaching may have to be repeated as more obstacles or bunkers are encountered. A reserve provides flexibility during the attack, and is committed to exploit success and continue the attack, or to repulse counterattacks during consolidation and reorganization. Once the assault starts, the CO adjusts the plan to exploit any weakness found during the attack. If things get out of control, he notifies his superior, and may have to hold in place until other companies can maneuver to support him. In moving from the assault position, platoons select their formation based on the terrain and situation. When the assault element moves through the breach, they maintain dispersion and assault through as fire teams. How they will position themselves on the far side is predetermined and rehearsed. The CO moves where he can best observe and control the situation. Support element fires are shifted and lifted when they endanger advancing soldiers. Assaulting soldiers clear enemy positions, search and secure prisoners, and move quickly to the limit of advance. Then they take up hasty fighting positions and continue to engage withdrawing enemy. When the objective is secure, the fire element, mortars, and company trains are brought forward. Once the objective is seized, the company consolidates and reorganizes. PATHWAY

21 Task Organization for a Deliberate Attack
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Task Organization for a Deliberate Attack FM 7-10, 1990, p. 4-29 Assault element Support element Breach element Possibly a Reserve PATHWAY

22 FIX/ISOLATE/SUPPRESS (To facilitate breach)
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Light Infantry Company Task Organization for Deliberate Attack RESERVE SUPPORT SECURITY BREACH ASSAULT ISOLATE Point of Breach BREACH, SECURE & Improve lane SEIZE a foothold UNIT NOTE: Ask for examples of tasks for the reserve— Be prepared to reinforce the assault Be prepared to conduct a secondary breach TASK and (Purpose) FIX/ISOLATE/SUPPRESS (To facilitate breach) SEIZE A FOOTHOLD (To allow passage) SEIZE/CLEAR/ DESTROY/SECURE (In order to...) Infantry Platoon M60/M249/M203 FA/Mortars CAS Infantry Plt & Engineer Sqd Smoke Charges Probing Infantry Plt & Engineer Sqd AT4 METHOD PATHWAY

23 Breach Fundamentals “SOSR” 1. Suppress M60/M249/M203 AT weapons MTRs
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Breach Fundamentals “SOSR” 1. Suppress M60/M249/M203 AT weapons MTRs CAS 1 2 2. Obscure Smoke-- Pots Grenades FA/Mortars M203 3. Secure Foothold Conduct breach -and- Assault through -or- Control far side 3 FM 7-10, pg 4-31 The breach element moves forward by covered and concealed routes. If possible, the breach should be covert to reduce the time the breach and assault elements are exposed to enemy fire. If this is not possible or if the breach attempt is compromised, the breach element moves under the suppressive fires of the support element. The breach force generally suffers the majority of the casualties in a deliberate attack. Suppress: Here we are talking about local isolation of the breach site to protect the engineers/infantry actually breaching the wire. Obscure: If smoke is dropped or thrown, allow enough time for the smoke to build up before attempting the breach. (Observer Controllers can use smoke pots on the objective to simulate artillery-delivered smoke) Secure Foothold: The platoon assault force should also be prepared to conduct the breach, if the primary breach element fails. Communication between the elements in critical. The far side of the breach is secured by seizing the terrain or destroying the enemy that can engage the breach site. Reduce Obstacle and/or widen and mark the lane, and assist with passage of the assault elements. The breach site is usually also the company casualty collection point (CCP). Signals and markings must be understood by all. 4 4. Reduce Obstacle Probing Mark lane PATHWAY

24 Observed Problems with Company Attacks
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Observed Problems with Company Attacks at the Company Level Planning process Time management Use of sand table Inclusion of attachments (FO, Engineers, Medics) Graphic control measures Adjacent unit coordination Determining PIR “Where are their machine guns?” Isolating the objective Collecting intelligence from S2 and Scouts Location of FO, mortars and ammo resupply Planning indirect fires Rehearsals with all key leaders Directing and prioritizing rehearsals Signals Engagement/Bypass criteria during movement MEDEVAC plan (Casualty collection points) Water resupply Back briefs NOTE: Use these slides to get the audience to speak from experience on problems they have seen. PATHWAY

25 Observed Problems with Company Attacks
at the Company Level Execution Pre-combat inspections MILES zero and test fire Weapons maintenance Rehearsals with wire obstacle Movement and halts Leaders Recon Stealth breach Maintaining suppressive fire AT weapons Marking of lanes and bunkers Location of First Sergeant and XO Fratricide The “90-Degree COA”

26 Observed Problems with Company Attacks
at the Platoon/Squad/Soldier Level Planning Dissemination of information Rehearsals with attachments Rehearsals during limited visibility Contingency planning Pre-combat inspections Assignment of special teams Assault force prepared to breach Marking lead assault element Breach kits (contents and number of)

27 Observed Problems with Company Attacks
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Observed Problems with Company Attacks at the Platoon/Squad/Soldier Level Execution Route reconnaissance and navigation Hand and arm signals Use of cover and concealment Security during movement and at halts Communication with SBF position Crew drills Fire control and distribution Synchronization Signaling Squad and fire team movement Maintaining momentum during assault Communication and reporting Fratricide Consolidation and reorganization Discuss: Use of whistles for signalling Rehearse battle drill “Knock out Bunker” Rehearse lining up for the assault after crossing the wire—who goes where PATHWAY

28 Maintaining Suppressive Fires
-- Rates of Fire M60 MG Burst Rate M249 MG Cyclic 550 RPM 6-9 rounds as fast as the trigger can be squeezed 850 RPM 3-5 rounds as fast a the trigger can be squeezed Rapid 200 RPM 6-9 rounds with a 1-second pause between bursts 3-5 rounds with a 1-second pause between bursts Sustained 100 RPM 6-9 rounds with a 2- second pause between bursts 85 RPM 3-5 rounds with a 3- second pause between bursts Techniques: Begin with the cyclic rate to prevent the enemy from returning accurate fire or displacing, continue with a rapid rate as long as targets are in view, then go to the sustained rate to save ammo. Do the math: Put the correct amount for each rate and time in a separate ammo box 30 seconds cyclic = 275 rounds). Use 4x1 mix of ammo (DODIC A131), not straight ball (A143).

29 Maintaining Suppressive Fires
-- Barrel Change Requirements Rate of Fire M60 MG M249 MG Cyclic Every 1 minute Rapid Every 2 minutes Sustained Every 10 minutes Techniques: Using the ammo can technique, each can should have no ammo beyond what will be fired before each barrel change. Gunners must plan changes so that they are staggered. Gunners must pick up the rate of fire if there is a lull during barrel changes and reloading. The AG can use an empty rucksack to carry the spare barrel bag and ammo cans. Pad cans with rags to reduce noise. Misfire! Use Leatherman tool and cleaning rod to clear brass and links.

30 Maintaining Suppressive Fires
-- SBF Location Considerations Conduct a good terrain analysis and select a site that: Has adequate cover and concealment Can protect the assault force Is not masked by the assault force’s movement Once this is done, the SBF leader must identify where he wants fires concentrated and the limits of the sectors. METT-T might require the use of multiple SBF positions. -- Weapon Priorities Example order to M60 Gunner: “Your priorities will be Bunker #1 followed by Bunker #2; once the maneuver element destroys the bunkers, you will engage 3 to 5 man targets in your secondary sector. However, if a thin-skinned vehicle enters your current sectors, engage it immediately.” -- Fire Commands “Creeping fires” versus Shift fire Lift fire Use of whistles, tracers, laser designators

31 Maintaining Suppressive Fires
-- Distribution of Fires The target area dictates the assignment of: Primary sectors Secondary sectors Priority targets Shift sectors Primary Sector Secondary Sector Primary sector left limit The M60 is closest to the maneuver unit, since its fires are most visible, and all other weapons shoot to its inside. If the M60 goes down, the other weapons shift to its primary sector. Secondary sector left limit M60 M203 M249 M16

32 The “90-Degree COA” “FIX” “SUPPRESS” OBJ SBF ASLT Question:
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 The “90-Degree COA” OBJ SBF ASLT Question: “Does the position of the SBF element actually allow it to suppress the enemy overlooking the breach site?” “FIX” OBJ ASLT SBF Answer: Reducing the angle between the SBF element and the assault force can provide better isolation (suppression of enemy weapons and positions overlooking the breach site) and control of fires. “SUPPRESS” While not specified in any manual, the “school solution” for locating the SBF position is to put it at right angles to the proposed breach site (90-degree offset). One rational is that it allows for a longer period of suppression before finally lifting fires. However, it may not produce the intended result of actually suppressing the enemy positions overlooking the breach site. The emphasis should be on the suppressing the enemy at the breach. Firing on the enemy on the side or back of the objective may be effective in fixing them (preventing them from displacing to where the breach is), but most of the time the enemy will want to fight from their prepared positions. If those enemy positions don’t have a line of sight on the breach, the only thing the SBF element is suppressing are fires initiated by, and directed TOWARDS THEMSELVES! In summary, reducing the angle can better mass all available combat power at the initial penetration or breach point and provide more effective suppression (FM 7-10, page 4-31 and 4-34). Technique: If the local security force for the breach site is positioned on the opposite side of the breach from the support by fire position, the company may be able to achieve fires that crisscross the objective in front of the breach. PATHWAY

33 Consolidation and Reorganization
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Consolidation and Reorganization Once platoons have consolidated on the objective, they begin to reorganize in order to continue the attack. Reorganization involves-- Reestablishing command and control Manning key weapons, redistributing ammunition and equipment Assessing and reporting the status of personnel, ammunition, supplies, and essential equipment Establishing OPs and overlapping sectors of fire in preparation for a possible enemy counterattack Clearing the objective of casualties and EPWs The First Sergeant should be at the Casualty Collection Point, which should be brought into the company perimeter or, if still at the wire, must have a security force to protect it. Technique: During C&R, the platoon sergeant gets the assessment of combat effectiveness reports and sends enemy information to the company command post. This will free up the platoon leader to evaluate observations and fields of fire, cover and concealment, obstacles and movement, key terrain, and avenues of approach (OCOKA), potential enemy sniper or forward observer positions, position key weapons, confirm the fire support plan, and ensure that the squads’ sectors of fire are tied in. After this is done, the platoon sergeant briefs the platoon leader on ACE and intelligence and can also help the platoon leader position key weapons. The MTP standard for completion of platoon C&R is 15 minutes PATHWAY

34 Fire Planning and Execution
Agenda Battle Drills Preparatory Fires Obscuration and Screening Consolidation Hasty Defense Fire Plan Reorganization Quick Fire Planning CPT Munson and SFC Dougherty 3-393 (TS) (FA)

35 Fire Planning and Execution
Use of Battle Drills Battle drills are used to employ a collective action and are rapidly executed without applying a deliberate decision making process. Battle Drill Characteristics Minimal leader orders Sequential actions Trained responses Battle Drills Provide: Key actions performed quickly Smooth transition / reaction from one activity to another Standardized actions

36 Fire Planning and Execution
Battle Drill I & II I. React to Contact (Search and Attack or chance contact) = Receiving fire from enemy individual or crew served weapons II. React to Ambush (Near or Far) = Platoon enters kill zone, enemy initiates with casualty producing device and high volume of fire

37 Battle Drill I ( React To Contact )
Fire Planning and Execution Battle Drill I ( React To Contact )

38 Battle Drill I ( Continued )
Fire Planning and Execution Battle Drill I ( Continued )

39 Battle Drill II React To Ambush - Near
Fire Planning and Execution Battle Drill II React To Ambush - Near

40 Battle Drill II React To Ambush - Far
Fire Planning and Execution Battle Drill II React To Ambush - Far

41 Fire Planning and Execution
FM 6-71 Preparatory Fires It is imperative that targets are either confirmed or denied before execution Weigh the benefits versus the drawbacks of shooting preparatory fires. Consider making your mortars direct support to the support force during this operation. Ensure that a specific company, team, or observer is designated to control fires on the objective. One technique is to assign this responsibility to a unit in a support-by-fire position. They are not as actively engaged in staying alive as the company or team FSO in the assault force. Plan FM (voice) and visual (backup) signals for the lifting or shifting of indirect fires on the objective, and rehearse them in detail.

42 Fire Planning and Execution
FM 6-71 Preparatory Fires (Continued) Enforce target refinement cutoff times • Articulate the number of elements or size of elements you want engaged during each phase of the operation (engagement criteria) Specify the effects of attack (suppress, neutralize, or destroy) in terms of the enemy target types (attack criteria) When determining fire support coordination measures (FSCM), consider the minimum safe distance (danger close) for each weapon system Plan fires to augment your deception plan

43 Fire Planning and Execution
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Fire Planning and Execution FM Obscuration Smoke placed on or near the enemy position to interfere with his observation of the battlefield is called obscuration smoke. Enemy positions with secondary or more than one objective can be isolated from adjacent or flanking support units by obscuration smoke, thus degrading effective defensive fires. Screening Screening smoke is placed within the areas of friendly operation or in areas between friendly and enemy forces to degrade enemy observation and fire. It is primarily intended to conceal movement of friendly forces. Obscuration is OFFENSIVE. Screening is DEFENSIVE. A good place for the FO and his radio is in the Support by Fire position. PATHWAY

44 Fire Planning and Execution
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Fire Planning and Execution Consolidation Platoons and squads move quickly to establish security during the consolidation of an objective. FOs, in conjunction with OPs, are along likely approaches and establish targets with overlapping sectors of fire to create all-round security. Hasty Defense Fire Plan Establish FPF (FPL) Target known enemy locations Target engagement areas Target obstacles Key terrain and TAI’s Target avenues of approach at critical choke points Target withdrawal routes from battle Forward to higher headquarters ASAP Final protective fire (FPF): An immediately available prearranged barrier of fire designed to impede enemy movement across defensive lines or areas. Final protective line (FPL): A line of fire selected where an enemy assault is to be checked by interlocking fires from all available weapons and obstacles. PATHWAY

45 Fire Planning and Execution
Reorganization FO reestablishes contact / relocates with PL to establish command and control. After PL assesses the platoon’s status (personnel, ammunition, supplies, and essential equipment), FO sends report to company FSE Quick Fire Planning Targets to be engaged Desired effect on targets Order and timing of target engagement Duration of fires H-hour Priority of fires Priority for targeting Priority for execution Time check from commander Estimated rate of movement Need for target adjustment Objective and defensive positions Maneuver control measures Fire plan name Obstacles Unit to fire

46 Limited Visibility Attacks
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Limited Visibility Attacks FM 7-10, 1990, p. 4-36 Difficulties Navigating and movement Identifying and engaging targets Controlling units, soldiers and fires Locating, bypassing or breaching obstacles Identifying friendly and enemy soldiers Infantry companies attack during limited visibility to: Achieve surprise Avoid heavy losses Cause panic Exploit success and maintain momentum Keep pressure on the enemy PATHWAY

47 Limited Visibility Attacks
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Limited Visibility Attacks Considerations Rate of movement and types of formations Lack of NVGs (especially for Engineers) Whether or not to use illumination Target identification and engagement Controlling (Focus, distribute, shift) direct and indirect fires Use of AT-4 Marking breach points and cleared bunkers Locating and treating casualties Some planning considerations: Feints and deceptions are more effective (so are false enemy positions) Infiltration by a small element can be very effective in supporting the main attack Covert breaches more likely to be successful Main attack may be able to infiltrate in and fight its way out Normally, we conduct nonilluminated attacks to leverage our technology, but must always plan illumination in case the enemy use it, and to support consolidation and reorganization. Daytime recon of the objective is essential. Illuminated attacks are used where the enemy has NVGs, speed is essential, and there is little intelligence on the enemy. PATHWAY

48 Limited Visibility Attacks
PRIMARY INSTRUCTOR 8 April 2017 Limited Visibility Attacks Fire Control FM 7-10, 1990, p. 4-38 Tracer fire -- Used by assault element leaders to mark targets -- Used by support element leaders to indicate near limit of fires Luminous or glint tape and Chemlights -- Mark lead assault personnel to prevent fratricide -- Throw in front of assault element -- Put on stick or radio antenna and use to mark progress through a trench Weapons restrictions techniques -- Control status of individual weapons -- Weapons on semi-automatic -- No automatic weapons with assault element Some units may have PAC-4 laser aiming lights. All soldiers naturally shoot high at night. Walk fires towards the target. PATHWAY

49 Force Protection Establish Minimum Safe Distances (MSD) based on unit SOPs, registration status, proficiency of supporting units, weather, etc. Establish them for indirect fires, automatic weapons, and explosives. Build it into the plan. Use M60 tripod and T&E Night vision devices Body armor? Eye, hand, and knee protection Water resupply and CASEVAC

50 Questions? 2nd Battalion (TS) (IN)

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