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Light Infantry Company and Platoon Deliberate Attack References: FM 7-10, FM 7-8, FM 101-5-1, FM 6-71.

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Presentation on theme: "Light Infantry Company and Platoon Deliberate Attack References: FM 7-10, FM 7-8, FM 101-5-1, FM 6-71."— Presentation transcript:


2 Light Infantry Company and Platoon Deliberate Attack References: FM 7-10, FM 7-8, FM , FM 6-71

3 Agenda Doctrinal Overview of the Attack 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack Task Organization SOSR Observed Problems Maintaining Suppressive Fires The “90-Degree COA” Fire Support Planning and Execution Limited Visibility Attacks Force Protection

4 Characteristics of Offensive Operations Concentration Surprise Tempo Audacity FM 100-5, 1993, pp.7-1 thru 7-3

5 Forms of Tactical Offense Movement to Contact Attack Exploitation Pursuit FM 100-5, 1993, pp. 7-3 thru 7-9

6 Typical Tasks for Attacks Main AttackSupporting Attack - Seize- Isolate - Clear- Fix - Destroy- Suppress - Secure FM , 1985, CH 1

7 Forms of Maneuver Infiltration Turning Movement Envelopment Frontal Attack Penetration FM 100-5, 1993, P.7-11

8 Infiltration LU 1

9 Turning Movement

10 Frontal Attack

11 Envelopment

12 Penetration 1.

13 Penetration 2.

14 Penetration 3.

15 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack 1. Reconnoiter and develop a concept 2. Move to the objective 3. Isolate the objective and the selected breach site 4. Attack to secure a foothold 5. Exploit the penetration and seize the decisive point FM 7-10, 1990, pages 4-28 through 4-34

16 AA Attack Position Objective RP Assault Position Chance Contact En Route Obstacles En Route Movement to the Assault Position SP

17 1. Recon the Objective and Develop a Concept Determine PIR and type/level of recon Try to maintain eyes on the objective Task organize based on the concept: Support Breach Assault Reserve (Possibly) 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack

18 2. Move to the Objective Develop routes Decide on movement formations and techniques Determine the order of movement Time the movement to reduce halts Anticipate contact or obstacles en route Engagement and bypass criteria CASEVAC Fire support Synchronize supporting fires Establish adequate control measures

19 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack 3. Isolate the Objective and the Selected Breach Site Establish security Use direct and indirect fires Plan the breaching fundamentals--SOSR Set the conditions Have a means of identifying the breach site Be flexible: Breach based on enemy and terrain

20 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack 4. Attack to Gain a Foothold Execute SOSR Control of fires

21 5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack 5. Exploit the Penetration and Seize the Decisive Point Organize the Assault force into support, breach and assault elements, in case another obstacle is encountered Mass effects of combat power Control fires Plan through to Consolidation and Reorganization

22 Task Organization for a Deliberate Attack Assault element Support element Breach element Possibly a Reserve FM 7-10, 1990, p. 4-29

23 Light Infantry Company Task Organization for Deliberate Attack RESERVE SUPPORT SECURITYSUPPORT BREACH ASSAULTBREACHSUPPORT ISOLATE Point of Breach BREACH, SECURE & Improve lane SEIZE a foothold BREACHASSAULT FIX/ISOLATE/SUPPRESS (To facilitate breach) SEIZE A FOOTHOLD (To allow passage) SEIZE/CLEAR/ DESTROY/SECURE (In order to...) Infantry Platoon M60/M249/M203 FA/Mortars CAS Infantry Plt & Engineer Sqd Smoke Charges Probing Infantry Plt & Engineer Sqd AT4 UNIT TASK and (Purpose) METHOD

24 1. Suppress M60/M249/M203 AT weapons MTRs CAS 1 1 Breach Fundamentals “SOSR” 2 2. Obscure Smoke-- Pots Grenades FA/Mortars M Reduce Obstacle Probing Mark lane 3. Secure Foothold Conduct breach -and- Assault through -or- Control far side 33

25 Observed Problems with Company Attacks at the Company Level Planning process Time management Use of sand table Inclusion of attachments (FO, Engineers, Medics) Graphic control measures Adjacent unit coordination Determining PIR “Where are their machine guns?” Isolating the objective Collecting intelligence from S2 and Scouts Location of FO, mortars and ammo resupply Planning indirect fires Rehearsals with all key leaders Directing and prioritizing rehearsals Signals Engagement/Bypass criteria during movement MEDEVAC plan (Casualty collection points) Water resupply Back briefs

26 Execution Pre-combat inspections MILES zero and test fire Weapons maintenance Rehearsals with wire obstacle Movement and halts Leaders Recon Stealth breach Maintaining suppressive fire AT weapons Marking of lanes and bunkers Location of First Sergeant and XO Fratricide The “90-Degree COA” Observed Problems with Company Attacks at the Company Level

27 Observed Problems with Company Attacks at the Platoon/Squad/Soldier Level Planning Dissemination of information Rehearsals with attachments Rehearsals during limited visibility Contingency planning Pre-combat inspections Assignment of special teams Assault force prepared to breach Marking lead assault element Breach kits (contents and number of)

28 Execution Route reconnaissance and navigation Hand and arm signals Use of cover and concealment Security during movement and at halts Communication with SBF position Crew drills Fire control and distribution Synchronization Signaling Squad and fire team movement Maintaining momentum during assault Communication and reporting Fratricide Consolidation and reorganization Observed Problems with Company Attacks at the Platoon/Squad/Soldier Level

29 Maintaining Suppressive Fires -- Rates of Fire M60 MGBurst RateM249 MGBurst Rate Cyclic550 RPM6-9 rounds as fast as the trigger can be squeezed 850 RPM3-5 rounds as fast a the trigger can be squeezed Rapid200 RPM6-9 rounds with a 1- second pause between bursts 200 RPM3-5 rounds with a 1- second pause between bursts Sustained100 RPM6-9 rounds with a 2- second pause between bursts 85 RPM3-5 rounds with a 3- second pause between bursts Techniques: 1.Begin with the cyclic rate to prevent the enemy from returning accurate fire or displacing, continue with a rapid rate as long as targets are in view, then go to the sustained rate to save ammo. 2.Do the math: Put the correct amount for each rate and time in a separate ammo box 30 seconds cyclic = 275 rounds). 3.Use 4x1 mix of ammo (DODIC A131), not straight ball (A143).

30 -- Barrel Change Requirements Maintaining Suppressive Fires Rate of FireM60 MGM249 MG CyclicEvery 1 minute RapidEvery 2 minutes SustainedEvery 10 minutes Techniques: 1.Using the ammo can technique, each can should have no ammo beyond what will be fired before each barrel change. 2.Gunners must plan changes so that they are staggered. 3.Gunners must pick up the rate of fire if there is a lull during barrel changes and reloading. 4.The AG can use an empty rucksack to carry the spare barrel bag and ammo cans. Pad cans with rags to reduce noise. 5.Misfire! Use Leatherman tool and cleaning rod to clear brass and links.

31 -- Fire Commands -- Weapon Priorities Maintaining Suppressive Fires -- SBF Location Considerations Conduct a good terrain analysis and select a site that: 1.Has adequate cover and concealment 2.Can protect the assault force 3.Is not masked by the assault force’s movement Once this is done, the SBF leader must identify where he wants fires concentrated and the limits of the sectors. METT-T might require the use of multiple SBF positions. Example order to M60 Gunner: “Your priorities will be Bunker #1 followed by Bunker #2; once the maneuver element destroys the bunkers, you will engage 3 to 5 man targets in your secondary sector. However, if a thin-skinned vehicle enters your current sectors, engage it immediately.” “Creeping fires” versus Shift fire Lift fire Use of whistles, tracers, laser designators

32 -- Distribution of Fires Maintaining Suppressive Fires The target area dictates the assignment of: Primary sectors Secondary sectors Priority targets Shift sectors M60 M249 M203 M16 Primary Sector Primary sector left limit Secondary sector left limit Secondary Sector The M60 is closest to the maneuver unit, since its fires are most visible, and all other weapons shoot to its inside. If the M60 goes down, the other weapons shift to its primary sector.

33 The “90-Degree COA” OBJ SBF ASLT Question: “Does the position of the SBF element actually allow it to suppress the enemy overlooking the breach site?” “FIX” OBJ ASLT SBF Answer: Reducing the angle between the SBF element and the assault force can provide better isolation (suppression of enemy weapons and positions overlooking the breach site) and control of fires. “SUPPRESS”

34 Consolidation and Reorganization Reestablishing command and control Manning key weapons, redistributing ammunition and equipment Assessing and reporting the status of personnel, ammunition, supplies, and essential equipment Establishing OPs and overlapping sectors of fire in preparation for a possible enemy counterattack Clearing the objective of casualties and EPWs Once platoons have consolidated on the objective, they begin to reorganize in order to continue the attack. Reorganization involves-- The MTP standard for completion of platoon C&R is 15 minutes

35 Fire Planning and Execution Battle Drills Preparatory Fires Obscuration and Screening Consolidation Hasty Defense Fire Plan Reorganization Quick Fire Planning Agenda CPT Munson and SFC Dougherty (TS) (FA)

36 Use of Battle Drills Battle drills are used to employ a collective action and are rapidly executed without applying a deliberate decision making process. Battle Drill Characteristics Minimal leader orders Sequential actions Trained responses Battle Drills Provide: Key actions performed quickly Smooth transition / reaction from one activity to another Standardized actions Fire Planning and Execution

37 Battle Drill I & II I. React to Contact (Search and Attack or chance contact) = Receiving fire from enemy individual or crew served weapons II. React to Ambush (Near or Far) = Platoon enters kill zone, enemy initiates with casualty producing device and high volume of fire

38 Fire Planning and Execution Battle Drill I ( React To Contact )

39 Fire Planning and Execution Battle Drill I ( Continued )

40 Fire Planning and Execution Battle Drill II React To Ambush - Near

41 Fire Planning and Execution Battle Drill II React To Ambush - Far

42 Fire Planning and Execution Preparatory Fires It is imperative that targets are either confirmed or denied before execution Weigh the benefits versus the drawbacks of shooting preparatory fires. Consider making your mortars direct support to the support force during this operation. Ensure that a specific company, team, or observer is designated to control fires on the objective. One technique is to assign this responsibility to a unit in a support-by-fire position. They are not as actively engaged in staying alive as the company or team FSO in the assault force. Plan FM (voice) and visual (backup) signals for the lifting or shifting of indirect fires on the objective, and rehearse them in detail. FM 6-71

43 Preparatory Fires (Continued) Enforce target refinement cutoff times Articulate the number of elements or size of elements you want engaged during each phase of the operation (engagement criteria) Specify the effects of attack (suppress, neutralize, or destroy) in terms of the enemy target types (attack criteria) When determining fire support coordination measures (FSCM), consider the minimum safe distance (danger close) for each weapon system Plan fires to augment your deception plan Fire Planning and Execution FM 6-71

44 Fire Planning and Execution Obscuration Smoke placed on or near the enemy position to interfere with his observation of the battlefield is called obscuration smoke. Enemy positions with secondary or more than one objective can be isolated from adjacent or flanking support units by obscuration smoke, thus degrading effective defensive fires. Screening Screening smoke is placed within the areas of friendly operation or in areas between friendly and enemy forces to degrade enemy observation and fire. It is primarily intended to conceal movement of friendly forces. FM

45 Fire Planning and Execution Consolidation Platoons and squads move quickly to establish security during the consolidation of an objective. FOs, in conjunction with OPs, are along likely approaches and establish targets with overlapping sectors of fire to create all-round security. Hasty Defense Fire Plan Establish FPF (FPL) Target known enemy locations Target engagement areas Target obstacles Key terrain and TAI’s Target avenues of approach at critical choke points Target withdrawal routes from battle Forward to higher headquarters ASAP

46 Fire Planning and Execution Reorganization FO reestablishes contact / relocates with PL to establish command and control. After PL assesses the platoon’s status (personnel, ammunition, supplies, and essential equipment), FO sends report to company FSE Quick Fire Planning Targets to be engagedDesired effect on targets Order and timing of target engagementDuration of fires H-hourPriority of fires Priority for targetingPriority for execution Time check from commanderEstimated rate of movement Need for target adjustmentObjective and defensive positions Maneuver control measuresFire plan name ObstaclesUnit to fire

47 Limited Visibility Attacks Navigating and movement Identifying and engaging targets Controlling units, soldiers and fires Locating, bypassing or breaching obstacles Identifying friendly and enemy soldiers FM 7-10, 1990, p Difficulties

48 Limited Visibility Attacks Rate of movement and types of formations Lack of NVGs (especially for Engineers) Whether or not to use illumination Target identification and engagement Controlling (Focus, distribute, shift) direct and indirect fires Use of AT-4 Marking breach points and cleared bunkers Locating and treating casualties Considerations

49 Limited Visibility Attacks Tracer fire  -- Used by assault element leaders to mark targets  -- Used by support element leaders to indicate near limit of fires Luminous or glint tape and Chemlights  -- Mark lead assault personnel to prevent fratricide  -- Throw in front of assault element  -- Put on stick or radio antenna and use to mark progress through a trench Weapons restrictions techniques  -- Control status of individual weapons  -- Weapons on semi-automatic  -- No automatic weapons with assault element FM 7-10, 1990, p Fire Control

50 Force Protection Establish Minimum Safe Distances (MSD) based on unit SOPs, registration status, proficiency of supporting units, weather, etc. Establish them for indirect fires, automatic weapons, and explosives. Build it into the plan. Use M60 tripod and T&E Night vision devices Body armor? Eye, hand, and knee protection Water resupply and CASEVAC

51 Questions?

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