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Operations Analysis Division, USMC

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1 Operations Analysis Division, USMC
USMC ENHANCED COMPANY OPERATIONS (ECO) Analytical Support to the Emerging Concept of Operations Michael P. Bailey Technical Director Operations Analysis Division, USMC Quantico, VA

2 USMC ENHANCED COMPANY OPERATIONS (ECO) Analytical Support to the Emerging Concept of Operations
Michael P. Bailey Beast, Knob, (Fresh)Meat, Rat, Peeper, Grasshopper, Sunshine, FNG, Pup, Rookie, Nube, Greenbean, Sprout, Awake

3 OUTLINE Explaining ECO ECO Scenario Ongoing and Recent Studies

4 Enhanced Company Operations
“An approach to the operational art that maximizes the tactical flexibility offered by true decentralized mission accomplishment, consistent with commander’s intent and facilitated by improved command and control, intelligence, logistics, and fires capabilities.” - A Concept for Enhanced Company Operations CMC: 28 Aug 2008 Sometimes the most difficult thing we have to do in this business is recognize that success today is not necessarily a recipe for success tomorrow. Marines have done extraordinarily well in OIF and OEF. But, if we are entirely honest, I think you’d agree that sometimes it’s as much in spite of the “system” as it is because of it. ECO recognizes an operational imperative and, frankly, is beginning to tell us that many aspects of DOTMLPF need serious scrutiny. Doctrine is dated; the T/O and T/E of the company might be, as well – maybe the same is true for the battalion FMFM 6-4 shows a platoon frontage of 450m. Platoons today cover what three Marine Divisions did on Iwo Jima – or even what battalions did in OIF 1. Can we really expect a commander who has no staff to coordinate battlefield functions over an AO the size of a small state? It is incumbent on the Combat Development Process to recognize and turn quickly on emerging operational imperatives – and in so doing, drive changes to Doctrine, Organization etc. necessary to support them. Enhanced Company Operations is already doing that – and will continue to do so for a couple of more years.

5 POWER TO THE EDGE Enhanced Company Operations
CLOC: Company-level Operations Cell CLIC: Company-level Intelligence Cell Scout Section Controllers of Indirect Fires (Air, Surface-to-Surface, Naval) In order to… distribute forces safely, re-aggregate to reinforce increase the area of responsibility of the Rifle Company increase the mi2/Marine

6 Rifle Company Table of Organization
1st Platoon 2d Platoon 3d Platoon This is the parade ground view of a rifle company per 1013G. As mentioned earlier – solid organization, but very thin on the HQ side. If you had any rifle company in the operating forces actually assemble in this manner – they would look similar to this, but none would be exactly like this, even if they had every man they rate. The HQ section would average around a dozen Marines, maybe one or two platoons would have guides, and most squads would be less than 13 Why = Pull Ups – Pull ups to the company, battalion, regiment, camp guard, FAPs, etc. The rifle company often ends up being the bill payer for insufficient T/Os at higher levels. Marines are not, usually, pulled up haphazardly – each one is a fight, but the fights are constant and more often than not lost – for the overall good of the larger unit as a whole. Mortar Section MG Section Assault Section Weapons Platoon HQ Section

7 Enhanced Rifle Company
1st Platoon 2d Platoon 3d Platoon Mortar Section MG Section - This is the parade deck view of the model. Scout Section Weapons Platoon HQ Section

8 Enhanced Rifle Company
1st Platoon 2d Platoon 3d Platoon Mortar Section MG Section - This is the parade deck view of the model. Scout Section Weapons Platoon HQ Section

Country B is a cruel dictatorship portion of Country B’s military splits off (insurgents) occupies RedZone declares separate state Country B attacks with 2 x BN NW A-sters are sympathetic to the insurgency Country A’s govt wants the insurgents routed, reestablished governance of RedZone Country A convinces USA to Send in the Marines RedZone COUNTRY B COUNTRY A FAKEWATER SEA US see particular value in a relationship with Bunduri Port facilities for naval basing in Indian Ocean Mineral deposits for economic development East African ally in GWOT US has been training Bunduri Armed Forces (BAF) over last several years BAF has limited/antiquated equipment and poor training Limited capability to project forces and to protect borders BAF heavily deployed to N to deal with Bunduri Liberation Front (Socialist Group) GULF OF NOTREALLY 25miles ESG: LHA, LPD, LSD, CG, DDG, SSN, MEU(SOC)

10 BLT 1/1 12 x CH-46 4 x CH-53 4 x AH-1W 3 x UH-1N 6 x AV-8B
2 x KC-130 on tether MEU(SOC) ACE Seabased (Rein) (Rein) artillery battery truck det. tanks amphibians engineer det. recon det. infantry company

11 MEU(SOC) Mission Phases Ship-to-Objective Maneuver
To the Seabase 75nmi MEU(SOC) Mission Phases Ship-to-Objective Maneuver Air Surface (limited) Clear in zones to press enemy forces across the border Stabilize Border Region Close Border Establish ISR Zones Provide Security Enable Locals Protect the Refugee Camps IO Campaign (-) Population Centers 50,000 or greater 25,000-50,000 10,000-25,000 0-10,000

ORGANIZATION Operates in 4-5 man teams, capable of operating up to Platoon (50 pers). Can mass a single Co. ( pers) EQUIPMENT C4I capacity VHF squad radios Cell Phone primary comms (reliable) Landline alternate comms (unreliable) Commercial Satellite Internet COTS encryption

13 Known Insurgent Vehicle
CURRENT EN SIT OVERLAY ? ? Known Insurgent Vehicle ? w ? Established Roadblock w w Recruitment (Willing) Mortar Engagement ? Light Air Defense Weapon ? MASS Mass Demonstration MASS ?

14 Studying ECO from various angles…

15 Marine Advanced Unit, Infantry (MAUI)
Background Question(s) Establish baseline simulation capability for small unit operations in urban environments Model using IWARS (USArmy, Natick Soldier System Center) McKenna terrain box small arms’ effects human performance agent-based logic Can we calibrate a simulation for effectiveness of squad-sized forces in urban environment, across a variety of circumstances? Can we make statements about simple but effective rules about distributing/aggregating? Quantify the value of the ECO Enhancements? Status Simulation challenging, partially successful Human performance being calibrated with live experiments Partners: USArmy, USNavy, Old Dominion University

16 Tactical Mobility for Smaller Scale MAGTF Operations in the Future
Background Question(s) ECO CONOPS being developed in an environment of flux in tactical vehicle Programs MRAP Armoring Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) Internally Transported Vehicle (MV-22) What are the performance-driving characteristics for various tactical vehicle alternatives for ECO? What are the impacts on strategic mobility? amphibious operations? general purpose forces? Status Ongoing meta-analysis Options being tested in Afghanistan JLTV AoA (USArmy lead) MAGTF RBE Threat/End State Sea Base? SSMAGTF Area of Effectiveness Communications Use TRANSCOM? SSMAGTF Area of Effectiveness

17 Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV’s)
Background Question(s) DARPA and USMC science and technology projects developing unmanned ground vehicles Unmanned Challenge I, II, III Marine Expeditionary Rifle Squad (MERS): Squad as a System What is a reasonable role for UGV’s in supporting distributed small units? What are important breakpoints in range, capacity, speed? Status Squad Sustainability Developing ECO planning factors for supply and support Network simulation Live experimentation Branching into Cargo Unmanned Aerial System (Cargo UAS) Squad Comms Squad Survivability Squad Mobility Squad Lethality ? Given: That the Squad as a System is the correct way to think about acquisition decisions for infantry equipment

18 Future Squad Power Needs
Background Question(s) Growth of battery-powered devices in current operation Enhanced units add target location and designation, more comm, cameras, other intel and recon devices What is the projected future demand for power in a squad under ECO? Quantify the benefits of standardization of powerpacks? Can equipment density be a burden? Status Power requirements are elusive Density question requires simulation with human performance, long scenario duration Power questions co-mingle with supply requirements questions

19 Air Cargo Delivery in Support of ECO
Background Question(s) Joint Precision Air Delivery System (JPADS) Not-so-precise air delivery Helicopter-based resupply Trucks in convoys What are requirements for air delivery in an ECO scenario? capacity frequency precision Status Merging with other logistical support questions Precision delivery key enabler in Afghanistan

20 C4ISR Modeling and Analysis
Background Question(s) Satellite Tool Kit provides ability to integrate and visualize operational plans in 3D Robust ability to model and analyze C4ISR capabilities OAD providing analytic support to MEB for current ops planning What are the ISR coverage gaps? How will terrain effect comm links? What joint ISR assets should we request to support current ops? Status Study started Feb 09 OAD currently provided pre-deployment analysis to MEB Deployed STK-trained analyst with reach-back support

21 Anti-Armor System Mix Study
Background Question(s) USMC transitioning to Predator anti-armor weapon Current operations – AA weapons used for other purposes What are the overall anti-armor requirements for an Enhanced Company? How often is the true anti-armor capability required? Quantify effectiveness of mixes Force structure and weapons systems in the MAGTF based in the 2025 timeframe. Status Using static capability assessment Just underway


23 Weapons Platoon Overview
Summary of Changes : Weapons Platoon Assault Section Leader billet is lost Assault section personnel and weapons placed under Rifle Platoons Scout Section formed under Weapons Platoon 13 total personnel Weapons Platoon Sergeant Billet (0369/GySgt) becomes the Scout Section Leader billet Scout Section Leader formally trained and certified to serve as a Joint Tactical Air Controller (JTAC) Machine Gun Section is reduced to 4 guns / 2 squads – teams are changed from 3 to 4 Marines (squads from 7 to 9 Marines) Weapons Platoon changes considerably. GS MG section from 22 to 19 but total number of 0331s in the unit increases from 21 to 36

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