Presentation on theme: "BY: PAULINA BAŃKA ROMAN RELIGION. HOW A TYPICAL ROMAN WORSHIPED THE GODS The service of the gods was a daily duty They participated in festivals, offered."— Presentation transcript:
HOW A TYPICAL ROMAN WORSHIPED THE GODS The service of the gods was a daily duty They participated in festivals, offered sacrifices and offerings, and created family religious practices in the home Animals like bulls, sheep, and pigs were killed as sacrifices to keep Gods happy A Roman did not have to worship gods if he didn't want to, but he might anger his fellow citizens Unlike Christianity, (where God is worshiped out of love and trust) the Romans worshiped their gods out of fear
DOMESTIC LARES Lares- guardian gods/goddesses in ancient roman religion They observe, protect, and influence everything that happens within the boundaries of their location Traditional Roman households owned at least one protective Lares- figure, housed in a shrine along with any other favored gods/goddesses Their statues were placed at the table during family meals and banquets They were witnesses at important family occasions such as marriages, births, and adoptions Care to domestic Lares included offerings of spelt wheat, grain- garlands, honey cakes, honeycombs, grapes, first fruits, wine and incense They could be served at any time Any food that fell to the floor during house banquets was theirs On important occasions, wealthier households may have offered their own Lares a pig
ROMAN HOLIDAYS Adonia: In July; During this festival a household's female member would climb onto the roof of the house and plant the "Garden of Adonis”. For eight days, the women would tend to the plants, and then neglect. After the plants had died the women would mourn for them Agonalia: On January 1st & 9 th ; During this festival the Romans gave dates, figs, and honey sealed in white jars to the god Janus. Such gifts, and also money, would be given to family members as well. Amburbium: In February; This ritual was held in Rome to clean and purify the city and everything in it. Caristia: On February 22; It was held to honor Concordia. During this festival family members would gather in the home and feast together and then make offerings to the household gods and settle arguments. Faunalia: In December, a rural festival held in honor of Faunus that involved eating, drinking, dancing, and sacrifices. Februalia: End of February; During this festival Rome was purified by its citizens by making sacrifices to the dead. Festival of Bacchus: On March 16 – 17 th ; This festival was held to honor Bacchus in order to convince the god to give a good grape harvest later that year. It was originally a Greek festival.
ROMAN PRIESTS Private worship: The head of every family was considered its priest The children were his assistants in carrying out the worship of the gods Public worship The two most important colleges for priests were the Augures and the Collegium Pontificum. Augures were priests who had been elected for life. Only they had the authority to read and interpret signs from the gods. Although they could not predict the future, Augures would discover whether the gods were happy with a particular plan, such as a battle. To do this, they would watch natural occurrences, such as lightning or birds in flight.
GODS OF PUBLIC WORSHIP Temple of Zeus at Aizanoi (for Zeus) Dougga Capitol (for Juppiter, Juno, and Minerva) Garni Temple (for Helios) Pantheon (for all gods)
ROMAN AFTERLIFE Romans believed in the immortality of the soul: When one died, they were met by Mercury, the messenger god and taken to the river Styx, that flowed nine times around the underworld. There, they paid the ferryman, Charon, a fee to cross the river where they were met and judged by Minos, Aenaeus, and Rhadymanthas. In order to prepare the deceased for the afterlife, the ancient Romans buried their loved ones with a variety of artifacts. The most important was the placing of a coin on the body with which the soul would pay Charon, the ferryman, for passage across the river Styx. Other objects entombed with the deceased could include food, cosmetics, and jewelry. The tomb was usually decorated with images of the deceased. Very important that their loved ones have a proper burial- if they did not they would be denied entrance into the underworld and spend eternity in a torture-like existence.
CULTS THAT BECAME POPULAR DURING THE ROMAN EMPIRE Mithraism Christianity Gnosticism Manicheanism Islam
ROMAN SUPERSTITIONS Stones, trees, springs, caves, lakes, swamps, mountains, animals, and furniture were all deemed to be hosts to spirits Children were told stories of nasty creatures who'd come to eat them if they weren't good. Some houses were visited by ghosts (If the house had been the scene of a crime or a murder) Nobody would dare to live there and few would even go near the place. One could stop oneself from having unpleasant thoughts by moistening a finger with saliva and rubbing it across the skin behind the ear. Nightmares were generally seen as omens of bad luck. A bad dream might be reason enough for a lawyer to ask that his case be adjourned.
RELATING TO MODERN RELIGION To the Romans, the service of the gods was a daily duty In Christianity (and other religions) some people pray every day and night to whomever or whatever they believe in.