Presentation on theme: "Hermeneutics The Study of Bible Interpretation. Bible Facts It’s a big book! 66 books – 39 OT, 27 NT Written over a period of 2,000 years Written on 3."— Presentation transcript:
Bible Facts It’s a big book! 66 books – 39 OT, 27 NT Written over a period of 2,000 years Written on 3 different continents (Asia, Africa, Europe) By vastly different people of vastly different cultures, traditions, and worldviews Written in different languages (Hebrew, Greek, Aramaic – plus their individual dialects, slang and idioms) So, how can we understand it?
What is the smallest unit of the bible? 1.Verse —Introduced in 13 th Century AD by the Bishop of Canterbury 2.Chapter —Introduced in the 15 th Century AD by Robert Etienne 3.Book
Three Principles of Bible Interpretation: 1. Thematic Interpretation 2. Testamental Differentiation 3. Hapax Interpretation
Thematic Interpretation Principle: ONE TOPIC at a time in ONE BOOK at a time
MATTHEWJOHNROMANS1 TIMOTHYHEBREWSJAMES What does Matthew teach me about Faith? What does John teach me about Faith? What does Romans teach me about Faith? What does Paul teach me in his letter to Timothy? What does Hebrews teach me about Faith? What does James teach me about Faith? Faith = CHILDLIKE FAITH in a benevolent God who wants to take care of us (The birth story, Mt 6:25-33, Beatitudes, Mt 7:7, all the healing stories) Faith is RELATIONAL – a love story flowing from, and inspiring our faith (John 3:16, Father- Son, “no longer servants, but ‘friends’”- John 15:15) Faith is a JUSTIFYING Faith. A legal contract; because you put your faith in Him, you are justified. (Rom 1:17, 2:13, 3:20; 23-26, 4:3; 13; 22-24, 6:14, 9:16, 10:17) Faith is RIGHT DOCTRINE – proper teaching, proper belief. (1 Tim 1:3-4, 2:3, 4:16, 6:20 Faith is HOPE – a kind of leap of faith. (Heb 1:14-15, 2:9, 3:1-6, 3:14, 6:19, 10:35, 11:1, 40, 12:1-4) Faith is ACTION – Entirely different from all the others. (James 1:22, 27, 2:8, 10, 14, 18-19, 24, 3:13, 4:17, 5:20) Study of Faith; Thematic Approach
Three Principles of Bible Interpretation 1. Thematic Interpretation One topic at a time in ONE book at a time 2. Testamental Differentiation 3. Hapax Interpretation
Rule of Thematic Interpretation: Avoid cross referencing. NEVER cross reference verse to verse across different books. Any verse or any part of the bible must be interpreted within the meaning it has in the book where it is located, not isolated from the context of the book!
Three Principles of Bible Interpretation 1. Thematic Interpretation One topic at a time in ONE book at a time 2. Testamental Differentiation Understanding the differences between the OT and the NT 3. Hapax Interpretation
2. Testamental Differentiation Definition: Understanding the vast difference between Old Testament and the New Testament Open to the page between Malachi and Matthew. This ONE page represents: 5 centuries - intertestamental period The period in between the Hebrew World, and the Greco-Roman World A VASTLY different culture, people, language, religions, traditions, values
OT is the NT concealed – (community of preparation) NT is the OT revealed – (community of fulfillment) Hebrews 1:1 “In the past God spoke to our ancestors through the prophets at many times and in various ways, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom also he made the universe. 3 The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word.”
Testamental Differentiation Rule: You cannot base a doctrine on the fragmentary and partial revelation of God – The NT has the LAST WORD of what God was wanting to communicate to us over the centuries. We go to Christ. When you formulate doctrine, you go to the fullness of truth, not the fragmentary.
Matthew 5:17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.”
Galatians 3:10 “All who rely on observing the law are under a curse, for it is written, ‘Cursed is everyone who does not continue to do everything written in the Book of the Law.’”
Romans 3:20-21 “Therefore no one shall be declared righteous in His sight by observing the Law; rather, through the law we become conscious of sin. But now a righteousness from God, apart from the Law has been made know to which the Law and the Prophets testify.”
2 Corinthians 3:13-16 “But their minds were made dull, for to this day the same veil remains when the old covenant is read. It has not been removed, because only in Christ is it taken away. Even to this day, when Moses is read, a veil covers their hearts.”
Testamental Differentiation Rule: You cannot base a doctrine on fragmentary and partial revelation of God from the OT – The NT has the LAST WORD of what God was wanting to communicate to us over the centuries. We go to Christ. When you formulate doctrine, you go to the fullness of truth, not the fragmentary.
Three Principles of Bible Interpretation 1. Thematic Interpretation Principle One topic at a time in ONE book at a time; Never cross reference verse-to-verse. Totality is in the BOOK. 2. Testamental Differentiation Principle Understand the vast difference between the testaments. Can’t base doctrine on the OT. 3. Hapax Interpretation Principle Don’t build a doctrine on a single scripture for an idea appearing only once in a document
Definition of HAPAX: A word or concept occurring only once in a document, for which there is no reference for comparison to neither define it nor to substantiate it.
Some Hapaxes found in the NT: 1.“Baptism of the Dead” (1 Cor. 15:29) 2.“Women will be saved through childbearing” (1 Tim. 2:15) 3.Women should cover their heads/Men should not cover their heads (1 Cor. 11:6-7)
Hapax Rule You cannot base an entire doctrine on a Hapax. If a word or concept appears only once, where there is no reference to it elsewhere, and it is inconclusive as to the meaning in an ancient text (across time and cultures that we know not enough about), we cannot base an entire doctrine on it. LEAVE IT ALONE.
Three Principles of Bible Interpretation 1. Thematic Interpretation One topic at a time in ONE book at a time 2. Testamental Differentiation Can’t build a doctrine on the fragmentary revelation of God; We turn to Christ, the fulfillment of all revelation. 3. Hapax Interpretation Can’t build a doctrine on a single scripture that appears only once
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