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A Review for ENGL 0310 McGraw-Hill Handbook pp. 478-494.

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Presentation on theme: "A Review for ENGL 0310 McGraw-Hill Handbook pp. 478-494."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Review for ENGL 0310 McGraw-Hill Handbook pp

2 Parts of Speech In English, there are only eight parts of speech. That means that every sentence you read—and write—is composed of only eight categories of words.

3 Parts of Speech Verbs Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections

4 Verbs & Nouns Noun name people, places, things and ideas. Verbs report action or state of being. These are the basic building blocks of sentences. No sentence can stand alone without at least one of each.

5 Nouns name people, places, things and ideas. People (Beyoncé, singers, American) Places (city, swamp, Houston) Things (chair, brain, Iphone) Ideas (charisma, stupidity, Buddhism)

6 Common and Proper Nouns Proper nouns name specific people, places and things (Beyoncé, Houston, Iphone, Buddhism). Proper nouns are always capitalized.

7 Identify the nouns in the sentence below. Following World War I, the nation witnessed an unprecedented explosion of African-American fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, social commentary, and political activism. MHH 487

8 Nouns Following World War I, the nation witnessed an unprecedented explosion of African-American fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, social commentary, and political activism.

9 Nouns Following World War I, the nation witnessed an unprecedented explosion of African-American fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, social commentary, and political activism.

10 Nouns Following World War I, the nation witnessed an unprecedented explosion of African-American fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, social commentary, and political activism.

11 Nouns Following World War I, the nation witnessed an unprecedented explosion of African-American fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, social commentary, and political activism.

12 Nouns Following World War I, the nation witnessed an unprecedented explosion of African-American fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, social commentary, and political activism.

13 Nouns Following World War I, the nation witnessed an unprecedented explosion of African-American fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, social commentary, and political activism.

14 Nouns Following World War I, the nation witnessed an unprecedented explosion of African-American fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, social commentary, and political activism.

15 Nouns Following World War I, the nation witnessed an unprecedented explosion of African-American fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, social commentary, and political activism.

16 Nouns Following World War I, the nation witnessed an unprecedented explosion of African-American fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, social commentary, and political activism.

17 Nouns Following World War I, the nation witnessed an unprecedented explosion of African-American fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, social commentary, and political activism.

18 Verbs Verbs report action (write, think), condition (bloom, sit) state of being (be, seem)

19 Verbs Verbs may change form to indicate Person (first, second, or third) Number (singular or plural) Tense (present, past, or future) Voice (active or passive) Mood (indicative, imperative, or subjunctive).

20 Verbs To do this the main verb is sometimes accompanied by helping verbs, thereby becoming a verb phrase. Helping verbs precede the main verb in the verb phrase.

21 Helping Verbs Here are some examples of helping verbs that show time: be, am, is, being, been, do, does, did, are, was, were, have, has, had.

22 Helping Verbs Here are some examples of helping verbs that show manner (modals): can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must.

23 Identify the main verbs and helping verbs in the sentences below An increasing number of Americans, both men and women, undergo cosmetic surgery for aesthetic rather than medical reasons. MHH 482

24 Identify the main verbs and helping verbs in the sentences below An increasing number of Americans, both men and women, undergo cosmetic surgery for aesthetic rather than medical reasons. MHH 482

25 Identify the main verbs and helping verbs in the sentences below Not long ago, the average American believed that only Hollywood celebrities underwent facelifts and tummy tucks. MHH 482

26 Identify the main verbs and helping verbs in the sentences below Not long ago, the average American believed that only Hollywood celebrities underwent facelifts and tummy tucks. MHH 482

27 Identify the main verbs and helping verbs in the sentences below Do you think you need to improve your physical appearance? MHH 482

28 Identify the main verbs and helping verbs in the sentences below Do you think you need to improve your physical appearance? MHH 482

29 Identify the main verbs and helping verbs in the sentences below Men, often in their mid-forties, are choosing a variety of surgical procedures, including hair replacement and chin augmentation. MHH 482

30 Identify the main verbs and helping verbs in the sentences below Men, often in their mid-forties, are choosing a variety of surgical procedures, including hair replacement and chin augmentation. MHH 482

31 Pronouns Pronouns take the place of nouns. Note: Pronouns are very useful, but they must have a noun to which they obviously refer, either in a previous sentence or earlier in the same sentence.

32 Pronouns The noun that the pronoun replaces is called its antecedent.

33 Types of Pronouns Personal Pronouns Singular I, me, my, mine, you, your, yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers it, its Plural we, us, our, our you, your, yours they, them, their, theirs

34 Types of Pronouns Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns (myself, yourself, herself, ourselves, etc.) Relative Pronouns (who, whom, whoever, whomever, what, whose, whatever, whichever, that, which)

35 Types of Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns (this, that, these, those) Interrogative Pronouns (who, what, which, etc.) Indefinite Pronouns (anybody, anyone, anything, each, everybody, neither, nobody, no one, somebody, both, few, many, any, all, most, etc.)

36 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. W. E. B. DuBois was the author of The Souls of Black Folk, and he was also a cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a preeminent civil rights organization. MHH 487

37 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. W. E. B. DuBois was the author of The Souls of Black Folk, and he was also a cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a preeminent civil rights organization.

38 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. W. E. B. DuBois was the author of The Souls of Black Folk, and he was also a cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a preeminent civil rights organization.

39 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. W. E. B. DuBois was the author of The Souls of Black Folk, and he was also a cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a preeminent civil rights organization.

40 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. W. E. B. DuBois was the author of The Souls of Black Folk, and he was also a cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a preeminent civil rights organization.

41 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. W. E. B. DuBois was the author of The Souls of Black Folk, and he was also a cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a preeminent civil rights organization.

42 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. W. E. B. DuBois was the author of The Souls of Black Folk, and he was also a cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a preeminent civil rights organization.

43 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. W. E. B. DuBois was the author of The Souls of Black Folk, and he was also a cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a preeminent civil rights organization.

44 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. W. E. B. DuBois was the author of The Souls of Black Folk, and he was also a cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a preeminent civil rights organization.

45 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. Zora Neale Hurston was herself a cultural anthropologist who studied the folklore of the rural South, which is reflected in her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. MHH 487

46 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. Zora Neale Hurston was herself a cultural anthropologist who studied the folklore of the rural South, which is reflected in her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.

47 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. Zora Neale Hurston was herself a cultural anthropologist who studied the folklore of the rural South, which is reflected in her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.

48 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. Zora Neale Hurston was herself a cultural anthropologist who studied the folklore of the rural South, which is reflected in her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.

49 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. Zora Neale Hurston was herself a cultural anthropologist who studied the folklore of the rural South, which is reflected in her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.

50 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. Zora Neale Hurston was herself a cultural anthropologist who studied the folklore of the rural South, which is reflected in her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.

51 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. Zora Neale Hurston was herself a cultural anthropologist who studied the folklore of the rural South, which is reflected in her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.

52 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. Zora Neale Hurston was herself a cultural anthropologist who studied the folklore of the rural South, which is reflected in her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.

53 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. Zora Neale Hurston was herself a cultural anthropologist who studied the folklore of the rural South, which is reflected in her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.

54 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. Zora Neale Hurston was herself a cultural anthropologist who studied the folklore of the rural South, which is reflected in her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.

55 Underline the nouns and circle the pronouns in the sentences below. Zora Neale Hurston was herself a cultural anthropologist who studied the folklore of the rural South, which is reflected in her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.

56 Adjectives & Adverbs Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns by answering questions like Which one? What kind? How many? What size? What condition? Adverbs modify verbs, other adverbs, adjectives and whole clauses. They usually answer such questions as When? Where? How? How often? How much? To what degree? and Why?

57 Adjectives describe (boring teacher, apathetic students) enumerate (first date, second sight, third floor, fourth estate, fifth of whiskey) identify (American dream, Thai food, Russian roulette) define (democratic process, capitalist greed) limit (one bullet, that corpse)

58 Adverbs Can be used to compare: (They write better now than before.) and intensify (Her eyes were a luminous green.) simply describe (The condemned prisoner walked slowly.)

59 Adverbs Conjunctive Adverbs indicate the relation between one clause and another. He flipped off the guy in the pickup; consequently he eats his meals through a straw.

60 Common Conjunctive Adverbs Addition (also, besides, furthermore, etc.) Comparison/Contrast (however, instead, nevertheless, otherwise, likewise, etc.) Emphasis (certainly, indeed, etc.) Result (accordingly, hence, then, therefore, thus, etc.) Time (finally, meanwhile, next, now, then, suddenly, etc.)

61 Prepositions Prepositions usually appear as part of a prepositional phrase. Their main function is to allow the noun or pronoun in the phrase to modify another word in the sentence.

62 Prepositions Prepositional phrases always begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun or other word group that acts as the object of the preposition.

63 Some common prepositions are about, above, across, after, against, along, among, behind, below, beside, between, by, during, except, from, in, including, inside, into, near, of, on, through, to, under, underneath, up, upon, with, within, without, etc.

64 Prepositions Prepositions can act as adjectives (to modify nouns) or as adverbs (to modify verbs). They should be placed as close to the word they modify as possible.

65 Prepositions The class in room 315 begins at six o’clock. If you want to piss the teacher off, come late to class chewing on a big wad of bubble gum.

66 Prepositions The class in room 315 begins at six o’clock. If you want to piss the teacher off, come late to class chewing on a big wad of bubble gum.

67 Prepositions The class in room 315 begins at six o’clock. If you want to piss the teacher off, come late to class chewing on a big wad of bubble gum.

68 Prepositions The class in room 315 begins at six o’clock. If you want to piss the teacher off, come late to class chewing on a big wad of bubble gum.

69 Prepositions The class in room 315 begins at six o’clock. If you want to piss the teacher off, come late to class chewing on a big wad of bubble gum.

70 Prepositions The class in room 315 begins at six o’clock. If you want to piss the teacher off, come late to class chewing on a big wad of bubble gum.

71 Conjunctions Conjunctions join words, phrases or clauses and indicate their relation to each other

72 There are three types of conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, for, nor, yet, so) join words or ideas of equal weight or function.

73 Coordinating Conjunctions Jebediah and Jolene were tooling along in their ‘57 Chevy and ran over a ‘possum, but they had already eaten dinner, so they saved it for breakfast.

74 Coordinating Conjunctions Jebediah and Jolene were tooling along in their ‘57 Chevy and ran over a ‘possum, but they had already eaten dinner, so they saved it for breakfast.

75 Coordinating Conjunctions Jebediah and Jolene were tooling along in their ‘57 Chevy and ran over a ‘possum, but they had already eaten dinner, so they saved it for breakfast.

76 Coordinating Conjunctions Jebediah and Jolene were tooling along in their ‘57 Chevy and ran over a ‘possum, but they had already eaten dinner, so they saved it for breakfast.

77 Coordinating Conjunctions Jebediah and Jolene were tooling along in their ‘57 Chevy and ran over a ‘possum, but they had already eaten dinner, so they saved it for breakfast.

78 Correlative Conjuntions Link sentence elements of equal value, always in pairs (both/and, neither/nor, either/or, not only/but).

79 Correlative Conjuntions Both Jeb and Jolene caught Hydrophobia. Not only did they foam at the mouth and chase their tails, but they bit the mailman.

80 Correlative Conjuntions Both Jeb and Jolene caught Hydrophobia. Not only did they foam at the mouth and chase their tails, but they bit the mailman.

81 Correlative Conjuntions Both Jeb and Jolene caught Hydrophobia. Not only did they foam at the mouth and chase their tails, but they bit the mailman.

82 Subordinating Conjunctions introduce dependent or subordinate clauses, linking sentence elements that are not of equal importance.

83 Subordinating Conjunctions Some common subordinating conjunctions are after, although, as if, because, if, when. See MHH 493 for a more complete list.

84 Subordinating Conjunctions The mailman did not catch rabies because he had been vaccinated, although he did sue Jeb and Jolene. He was awarded the ‘57 Chevy even though Jeb and Jolene lived in it.

85 Subordinating Conjunctions The mailman did not catch rabies because he had been vaccinated, although he did sue Jeb and Jolene. He was awarded the ‘57 Chevy even though Jeb and Jolene lived in it.

86 Subordinating Conjunctions The mailman did not catch rabies because he had been vaccinated, although he did sue Jeb and Jolene. He was awarded the ‘57 Chevy even though Jeb and Jolene lived in it.

87 Subordinating Conjunctions The mailman did not catch rabies because he had been vaccinated, although he did sue Jeb and Jolene. He was awarded the ‘57 Chevy even though Jeb and Jolene lived in it.

88 Interjections Interjections are forceful expressions, usually written with an exclamation point. (examples: Yo! Dammit! Gadzooks! Eureka! Oh no!

89 Interjections Note: In formal writing (like the writing you do in college), use interjections (and exclamation points, for that matter) very sparingly. In fact, if you can make it through the semester without using either of them, you will have my undying admiration.

90 Questions?


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