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Communication and the Multicultural Society Joshua M. Phelps PSY2500.

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1 Communication and the Multicultural Society Joshua M. Phelps PSY2500

2 Outline 2 Lectures 2 Lectures English Language English Language Lecture 1 Lecture 1 Intro to Communication Intro to Communication Demonstration of Communication Situation Demonstration of Communication Situation Discussion of Communication Situation Discussion of Communication Situation Blakar’s Communication Theory Blakar’s Communication Theory Lecture 2 Lecture 2 Multiculture & Communication Multiculture & Communication Class Exercise: Public Communication Class Exercise: Public Communication

3 What is Communication? Everyday Understandings Everyday Understandings Common and universal activity for all human beings Common and universal activity for all human beings Basic precondition for all social activity Basic precondition for all social activity Individual is embedded in different communication situations and participates in communicative acts Individual is embedded in different communication situations and participates in communicative acts Complex interaction Complex interaction ’Restricted’ to Psychology and Language ’Restricted’ to Psychology and Language

4 Defining Communication All inclusive: Behaviour and Flow All inclusive: Behaviour and Flow Internet Definitions Internet Definitions The act or process of communicating The act or process of communicating the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs (Flow) the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs (Flow) The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior (Behaviour and Flow) The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior (Behaviour and Flow) the expression to another of information or thoughts through speech, writing, or gestures the expression to another of information or thoughts through speech, writing, or gestures Hogg & Vaughan (2005) Social Psychology: transfer of meaningful information from one person to another Hogg & Vaughan (2005) Social Psychology: transfer of meaningful information from one person to another

5 Blakar’s (1984) Definition Communication: An intentional act to make something known to someone else Communication: An intentional act to make something known to someone else Kommunikasjon: En intendert handling med sikte på å gjøre noe felles med - eller kjent for - bestemte andre Kommunikasjon: En intendert handling med sikte på å gjøre noe felles med - eller kjent for - bestemte andre Emphasizes behavioural (action) and directional component of communication Emphasizes behavioural (action) and directional component of communication Grounded mainly in face-to-face interaction Grounded mainly in face-to-face interaction Based on ’pragmatic’ aspects of communication Based on ’pragmatic’ aspects of communication

6 Communication Situation Demonstrate Communication in Face-to- Face Interaction Demonstrate Communication in Face-to- Face Interaction Need 4 Volunteers Need 4 Volunteers Leave the Room for a few minutes while I set up… Leave the Room for a few minutes while I set up…

7 The Communication Conflict Situation (CCS) A ’City’ Map A ’City’ Map Participant A must direct Participant B to a particular destination Participant A must direct Participant B to a particular destination 2 Routes—Simple and Complex 2 Routes—Simple and Complex

8 Audience Tasks How do P’s establish a ”shared reality”— codes, contracts, etc. How do P’s establish a ”shared reality”— codes, contracts, etc. How do they make attributions for successful or unsuccessful communication? How do they make attributions for successful or unsuccessful communication? How P’s try to improve communication? How P’s try to improve communication? Write down examples of language used and interaction. Write down examples of language used and interaction.

9 Debriefing Explanation Explanation Thoughts on participation? Thoughts on participation? Thanks!!! Thanks!!! Applause Applause

10 The Communication Conflict Situation (CCS) The ’City’ Map(s) The ’City’ Map(s) Participant A must direct Participant B to a particular destination Participant A must direct Participant B to a particular destination 2 Routes—Simple and Complex 2 Routes—Simple and Complex Experimental Manipulation of Complex Route Experimental Manipulation of Complex Route

11 Audience Tasks – Round 2 How do P’s establish a ”shared reality”— codes, contracts, etc. How do P’s establish a ”shared reality”— codes, contracts, etc. How do they make attributions for unsuccessful communication? How do they make attributions for unsuccessful communication? How P’s try to improve communication and re-establish intersubjectivity? How P’s try to improve communication and re-establish intersubjectivity? Write down examples of language used and interaction. Write down examples of language used and interaction.

12 The Communication Conflict Situation (CCS) Experiment developed by Blakar in the 1970’s Experiment developed by Blakar in the 1970’s Constructed and controlled situation to examine when an essential aspect of communication is not fulfilled Constructed and controlled situation to examine when an essential aspect of communication is not fulfilled Simple but demanding Simple but demanding To see what happens when a basic precondition for ’successful communication’ is not met To see what happens when a basic precondition for ’successful communication’ is not met Everyday misunderstandings Everyday misunderstandings

13 3 Goals of CCS Examine missing precondition of same ’here and now’ Examine missing precondition of same ’here and now’ Examine attributions P’s made to difficulties Examine attributions P’s made to difficulties Examine P’s attempts to improve communication effectiveness and re- establish intersubjectivity Examine P’s attempts to improve communication effectiveness and re- establish intersubjectivity

14 Analysis of CCS Simple Route Simple Route Participants’ Perspective Participants’ Perspective Experimenter/Audience Perspective Experimenter/Audience Perspective Complex Route Complex Route Participants’ Perspective Participants’ Perspective Experimenter/Audience Perspective Experimenter/Audience Perspective

15 Class Discussion Questions and Thoughts Questions and Thoughts Audience? Audience? Participants? Participants?

16 Blakar Communication Theory Addressing questions about good or normal communication Addressing questions about good or normal communication Defining communication Defining communication Intentionality Intentionality Identifying and understanding preconditions for successful communication Identifying and understanding preconditions for successful communication Applying theory to social contexts: family, therapy, etc. Applying theory to social contexts: family, therapy, etc. Using abnormal to understand normal Using abnormal to understand normal Addressing conceptual, theoretical, and empirical confusion in communication research in social sciences Addressing conceptual, theoretical, and empirical confusion in communication research in social sciences Social-psychological perspective Social-psychological perspective

17 Blakar Communication Theory Fundamental Question: What are the prerequisites for (successful) communication? Under what conditions will somebody succeed (to a reasonable degree) in making something known to someone else? Fundamental Question: What are the prerequisites for (successful) communication? Under what conditions will somebody succeed (to a reasonable degree) in making something known to someone else? 3 Main aspects 3 Main aspects Preconditions for successful communication Preconditions for successful communication Variables affecting Variables affecting Process of Communication Process of Communication Interplay of individual, social, and situational preconditions Interplay of individual, social, and situational preconditions

18 The Preconditions Most Basic  Establishment of a shared social reality Most Basic  Establishment of a shared social reality Individual Preconditions Individual Preconditions Relational Preconditions Relational Preconditions Technical Preconditions Technical Preconditions Situational Preconditions Situational Preconditions Interaction between different preconditions Interaction between different preconditions

19 Individual Preconditions Will  Motivational Component Will  Motivational Component Can  Ability Component Can  Ability Component Capacity to decenter and take perspective of the other Capacity to decenter and take perspective of the other Individual’s self-esteem or self-confidence Individual’s self-esteem or self-confidence

20 Attunement to the Attunement of the Other Decentration and Perspective-Taking Decentration and Perspective-Taking Decentration Decentration Sender Sender Receiver Receiver Egocentrism Egocentrism Important during problems of communication process to re-establish intersubjectivity Important during problems of communication process to re-establish intersubjectivity

21 Relational Preconditions Relations between ‘actors’ in communicative act Relations between ‘actors’ in communicative act Confidence in the other, trust/distrust, seriousness Confidence in the other, trust/distrust, seriousness Understanding that the other has different perspective/position Understanding that the other has different perspective/position Interaction with individual preconditions Interaction with individual preconditions

22 Technical and Situational Preconditions Technical Technical Access to a common code Access to a common code Situational Situational Same contractual dimensions of here & now Same contractual dimensions of here & now

23 Variables affecting Variables that affect and determine process of communication Variables that affect and determine process of communication Background Variables Background Variables Age, Sex, Class, Education, Ethnicity Age, Sex, Class, Education, Ethnicity Personality Variables Personality Variables Level of anxiety, self-esteem Level of anxiety, self-esteem Also affects the ‘Can’ Also affects the ‘Can’

24 Process of Communication Contracts adopted Contracts adopted What kind? What kind? Adequacy Adequacy Adherence, violation, modification Adherence, violation, modification Who proposes contracts? Who proposes contracts? Control & Power Control & Power Free vs. Bound Information Free vs. Bound Information Control distribution and exertion Control distribution and exertion Attribution patterns of difficulties Attribution patterns of difficulties Emotional climate Emotional climate

25 Complexity within the Preconditions and Framework Situational Variation Situational Variation Interplay between preconditions Interplay between preconditions Background Variables Background Variables

26 General Theoretical Statements on Communication Language is most common and important medium for communication Language is most common and important medium for communication Most essential characteristic is that something is being made known to another (Rommetveit, Blakar) Most essential characteristic is that something is being made known to another (Rommetveit, Blakar) Requires empathy and perspective taking in some kind of shared social reality Requires empathy and perspective taking in some kind of shared social reality Only by the communicants taking the perspective of the other(s) into account, so that they (sender and reciever(s) may establish commonality, is communication rendered possible (Blakar, 1984) Only by the communicants taking the perspective of the other(s) into account, so that they (sender and reciever(s) may establish commonality, is communication rendered possible (Blakar, 1984) Complex act that requires fulfillment of several preconditions Complex act that requires fulfillment of several preconditions

27 Some Issues Communication vs. Interaction Communication vs. Interaction Unintentional/unconscious aspects of communication? Unintentional/unconscious aspects of communication? Non-verbal vs. verbal communication Non-verbal vs. verbal communication Too much of a situational, face-to-face definition? Too narrow? Too much of a situational, face-to-face definition? Too narrow? Other aspects of intentionally making something known Other aspects of intentionally making something known E.g. media E.g. media

28 Expansion of Communication Rommetveit/Blakar model connected to face-to-face interaction Rommetveit/Blakar model connected to face-to-face interaction How can we study communication that isn’t face-to-face from a social- psychological point of view? How can we study communication that isn’t face-to-face from a social- psychological point of view? Media communication? Media communication? Next week: Communication in a multicultural context Next week: Communication in a multicultural context

29 Class Discussion Questions and Thoughts Questions and Thoughts What is successful or good communication? What is successful or good communication? Everyday examples Everyday examples What about other theories for communication? What about other theories for communication? Communication vs. Interaction? Communication vs. Interaction?

30 Last Word... Please keep quiet about the Communication Conflict Situation Please keep quiet about the Communication Conflict Situation

31 Communication, Language, and the Multicultural Society Joshua M. Phelps November 13, 2006

32 Outline Class Exercise Class Exercise Reminder about Language, Communication, and Ideology Reminder about Language, Communication, and Ideology The Norwegian Multicultural Context The Norwegian Multicultural Context Communication, Social Relations, and Ideology in a Multicultural Society Communication, Social Relations, and Ideology in a Multicultural Society

33 Exercise 12 minutes 12 minutes Word Association Word Association

34 Language (Blakar, 1979; 2006) An important bridge between the society and the individual An important bridge between the society and the individual Culturally-mediated tool inherited from generation to generation Culturally-mediated tool inherited from generation to generation Instrument that we use to understand and grasp reality Instrument that we use to understand and grasp reality Dyanmic and Flexible Dyanmic and Flexible Open and Generative System Open and Generative System Language is NOT neutral, objective, or ”fixed” Language is NOT neutral, objective, or ”fixed” Sender’s choice of expression affects the receiver’s understanding (Blakar, 1979) Sender’s choice of expression affects the receiver’s understanding (Blakar, 1979)

35 Language (Blakar, 1979; 2006) Language is POWER Language is POWER All use of language implies structuring and influencing of another’s experience All use of language implies structuring and influencing of another’s experience ”Everyday Power” ”Everyday Power” Language as a system reflects socio- political power structure in a given society Language as a system reflects socio- political power structure in a given society Language is most common and important medium for communication Language is most common and important medium for communication

36 Language, Communication, Ideology Investigating communication requires looking at the positions used in establishment of social reality…mainly through language (Rommetveit, 1992) Investigating communication requires looking at the positions used in establishment of social reality…mainly through language (Rommetveit, 1992) Influenced by context: culture, historical moment, positioning of actors in situation, codes for correctness, etc. Influenced by context: culture, historical moment, positioning of actors in situation, codes for correctness, etc. Certain words & expressions are ”reflections” of ideologies Certain words & expressions are ”reflections” of ideologies Linked with Blakar’s understanding of Language as mirroring and expressing existing power relations Linked with Blakar’s understanding of Language as mirroring and expressing existing power relations We use Ideology as a critical concept for understanding how socially- shared, taken-for-granted knowledge in society (by individuals) upholds or legitimizes power relations We use Ideology as a critical concept for understanding how socially- shared, taken-for-granted knowledge in society (by individuals) upholds or legitimizes power relations Changes in language use over time should reflect societal and ideological developments Changes in language use over time should reflect societal and ideological developments Media are important (most important?) platforms in which individuals negotiate meaning (i.e.attitudes, beliefs, etc.) Media are important (most important?) platforms in which individuals negotiate meaning (i.e.attitudes, beliefs, etc.) Becoming increasingly as important as face-to-face interaction Becoming increasingly as important as face-to-face interaction Media language and change in media language can reflect ideology(ies) Media language and change in media language can reflect ideology(ies)

37 What is ”Multiculture”? Descriptive: Word “reflecting reality” of living in a society with cultural diversity Descriptive: Word “reflecting reality” of living in a society with cultural diversity Analytical/Ideological/Prescriptive: specific way of dealing with this cultural diversity or pluralism Analytical/Ideological/Prescriptive: specific way of dealing with this cultural diversity or pluralism Liberal Ideology stressing equality, identity recognition, integration, celebration of cultural traditions/diversity Liberal Ideology stressing equality, identity recognition, integration, celebration of cultural traditions/diversity Majority/Minority Relations & Multiculturalism Majority/Minority Relations & Multiculturalism

38 The Norwegian Multicultural Context Steady increase in immigration from 1951 – present (www.ssb.no) Steady increase in immigration from 1951 – present (www.ssb.no)www.ssb.no Largest Groups: Pakistanis, Swedes, Iraqis, Danes, Vietnamese Largest Groups: Pakistanis, Swedes, Iraqis, Danes, Vietnamese Increased migration of visible minorities since the 1970s Increased migration of visible minorities since the 1970s Pakistanis, Iraqis, Vietnamese, Somalis, Turks Pakistanis, Iraqis, Vietnamese, Somalis, Turks Always been multicultural? Always been multicultural?

39 Communication in the Multicultural Society What words and expressions do we use to describe and understand the multicultural context? What words and expressions do we use to describe and understand the multicultural context? How might these words and expressions affect & reflect majority/minorities: social and power relations, group boundaries, identities, etc. How might these words and expressions affect & reflect majority/minorities: social and power relations, group boundaries, identities, etc. Ideology(ies) Ideology(ies) How might one have ’successful’ communication in a multicultural context? How might one have ’successful’ communication in a multicultural context? Possibilities for perspective-taking? Possibilities for perspective-taking? Fulfilling of preconditions? Fulfilling of preconditions?

40 Examining Multicultural Communication & Ideology Language in public discourse Language in public discourse New words and changes in frequencies of words dealing with multicultural issues New words and changes in frequencies of words dealing with multicultural issues Atekst searches Atekst searches Aftenposten Aftenposten Longitudinal Perspective Longitudinal Perspective Messages and Word Association Messages and Word Association

41

42

43 Word Association Discussion Semantic Network of.. Semantic Network of.. Flerkulturelt Samfunn Flerkulturelt Samfunn Flerkulturelle Flerkulturelle

44 ”Fest i Oslo” Mela Festivalen Discussion in pairs Discussion in pairs General discussion of article General discussion of article Look at use of the words ”multikultur*” or ”flerkultur*” Look at use of the words ”multikultur*” or ”flerkultur*” From this article, how would you describe a multicultural festival or multicultural society? From this article, how would you describe a multicultural festival or multicultural society?

45 ”Fest i Oslo” Mela Festivalen ”I dag åpner Mela, en multikulturell festival…” ”I dag åpner Mela, en multikulturell festival…” Descriptive Descriptive What is a multicultural festival? What is a multicultural festival? ”en av verdens største multikulturelle festivaler” ”en av verdens største multikulturelle festivaler” Descriptive Descriptive Arguing against FrP Arguing against FrP

46 ”Fest i Oslo” Mela Festivalen ”Den som tar turen til Rådhusplassen i helga, vil derimot få se hvilket glede den flerkulturelle virkeligheten kan representere.” ”Den som tar turen til Rådhusplassen i helga, vil derimot få se hvilket glede den flerkulturelle virkeligheten kan representere.” From reading this article, what joys are on show at the multicultural Mela Festival? From reading this article, what joys are on show at the multicultural Mela Festival? Showcase of Art & Culture Showcase of Art & Culture

47 ”Fest i Oslo” Mela Festivalen ”Opprinnelig var Mela et norsk-pakistansk arrangement, men i år tar festivalen mål av seg til å la så godt som alle norske minoriteter få komme til uttrykk” My italics ”Opprinnelig var Mela et norsk-pakistansk arrangement, men i år tar festivalen mål av seg til å la så godt som alle norske minoriteter få komme til uttrykk” My italics

48 ”Fest i Oslo” Mela Festivalen Dervisj-dans Tyrkia Dervisj-dans Tyrkia Flerkulturelt band med kvinner fra: Zimbabwe, Somalia, Tanzania, Algerie, Russland, Nigeria, og Norge Flerkulturelt band med kvinner fra: Zimbabwe, Somalia, Tanzania, Algerie, Russland, Nigeria, og Norge Vietnamesisk folkemusikk Vietnamesisk folkemusikk Flamenco og sufi- musikk fra Sørasia Flamenco og sufi- musikk fra Sørasia Internasjonal mat fra 35 boder Internasjonal mat fra 35 boder Norsk-vietnamesiske klesdesigneren Norsk-vietnamesiske klesdesigneren 300 internasjonale kunstere innen musikk, sang, dans, teater, kunsthåndverk 300 internasjonale kunstere innen musikk, sang, dans, teater, kunsthåndverk

49 ”Fest i Oslo” Mela Festivalen Associations of ”multicultural” after reading this article? Associations of ”multicultural” after reading this article? Cultural markers: music, dance, art, food Cultural markers: music, dance, art, food Where is the majority? Where is the majority?

50 Multicultural Message Structure ”I et stadig mer flerkulturelt samfunn er det viktig å vite hvor man kommer fra, og kjenne sin historie.” ”I et stadig mer flerkulturelt samfunn er det viktig å vite hvor man kommer fra, og kjenne sin historie.” Class Interpretations? Class Interpretations?

51 Multicultural Message Structure ”I et stadig mer flerkulturelt samfunn er det viktig å vite hvor man kommer fra, og kjenne sin historie.” ”I et stadig mer flerkulturelt samfunn er det viktig å vite hvor man kommer fra, og kjenne sin historie.” Opening Mela Festival Opening Mela Festival ”I et stadig mer flerkulturelt samfunn er det viktig å vite hvor man kommer fra, og kjenne sin historie.” Adressavisen ”I et stadig mer flerkulturelt samfunn er det viktig å vite hvor man kommer fra, og kjenne sin historie.” Adressavisen Carl I Hagen’s Campaign Speech Carl I Hagen’s Campaign Speech ”I et stadig mer flerkulturelt samfunn er det viktig å vite hvor man kommer fra, og kjenne sin historie.” ”I et stadig mer flerkulturelt samfunn er det viktig å vite hvor man kommer fra, og kjenne sin historie.” Adressavisen Adressavisen

52 Social Relations in the Multicultural Society (Chryssochoou, 2004) Moving into New Environments Moving into New Environments Non-dominant cultural groups: Minorities Non-dominant cultural groups: Minorities Receiving Immigrants: Perceiving the Other Receiving Immigrants: Perceiving the Other Dominant cultural group: The Majority Dominant cultural group: The Majority Living Together Living Together Towards Cultural Diversity: Representations, Identity, and Social Influence Towards Cultural Diversity: Representations, Identity, and Social Influence

53 Minorities in the Multicultural Context Choice of words to describe ”the other” Choice of words to describe ”the other” What words do we have to use in describing the people moving into the Norwegian society? What words do we have to use in describing the people moving into the Norwegian society? Are there new words reflecting this reality? Are there new words reflecting this reality? How might these words influence common sense & power relations (i.e. ideologies)? How might these words influence common sense & power relations (i.e. ideologies)?

54 Innvandr*

55 Ikke vestlig innvandr*

56 Utenlandsk Opprinnelse

57 1st and 2nd Generation Immigrant

58 Norsk-pakistansk

59 The Norwegian Majority Words to describe Norwegian Words to describe Norwegian Norsk Norsk Nordmann Nordmann Etnisk Norsk Etnisk Norsk

60 Norsk og Nordmann

61 Ethnic Norwegian

62 Ny Tid Discussion Front page… Front page… How does Ny Tid’s choice of words and signs influence our understanding How does Ny Tid’s choice of words and signs influence our understanding What is intetionally being made known..i.e. communicated? What is intetionally being made known..i.e. communicated? What are some other choices/words they could have made to alter the message and our understanding? What are some other choices/words they could have made to alter the message and our understanding?

63 Ny Tid Discussion Etnisk Norsk Etnisk Norsk What is an ’etnisk nordmann’? What is an ’etnisk nordmann’? Denotation? Denotation? Connotations? Connotations? Class Semantic Network Associations Class Semantic Network Associations Why is it so important to be a ”nordmann”? Why is it so important to be a ”nordmann”?

64 Ethnic Norwegian Associations

65 Discussion of Word Association EN a recent emerging representation that is incorporated into ideologies of cultural diversity EN a recent emerging representation that is incorporated into ideologies of cultural diversity Emergence of “Ethnic Norwegian” = Norway in Transition Emergence of “Ethnic Norwegian” = Norway in Transition Multiplicity of meaning… Multiplicity of meaning… However, ’etnisk norsk’ probably denotes white Norwegians However, ’etnisk norsk’ probably denotes white Norwegians Descriptive or Hegemonic? Descriptive or Hegemonic? Probably both depending on context Probably both depending on context Connotation still open, but could be leading toward white hegemony and hierarchy of Norwegianness Connotation still open, but could be leading toward white hegemony and hierarchy of Norwegianness

66 Ny Tid Discussion Great Example of Communication in the Multicultural Society Great Example of Communication in the Multicultural Society Social Issues? Social Issues?

67 Conclusion Complexity in the Multicultural Society Complexity in the Multicultural Society Choice of words and message structure in communication reflect ideologies in the multicultural society Choice of words and message structure in communication reflect ideologies in the multicultural society Importance of context: sender/receiver, perceived social relations, structuring of a message Importance of context: sender/receiver, perceived social relations, structuring of a message Multicultural Communication affects and reflects Multicultural Communication affects and reflects Highlights issues involving minorities and the majority: recognition of identites, inclusion/exclusion, racism, prejudices, threat Highlights issues involving minorities and the majority: recognition of identites, inclusion/exclusion, racism, prejudices, threat Reflects power relations Reflects power relations


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